|This article is part of the series:|
Finance and Taxation
|Income tax · Payroll tax|
CGT · Stamp duty · LVT
Sales tax · VAT · Flat tax
Tax, tariff and trade
|Tax rate · Proportional tax|
Progressive tax · Regressive tax
Central bank · Money supply
Spending · Deficit · Debt
Tariff · Trade agreement
Financial market participants
Corporate · Personal
Public · Regulation
Full-reserve · Free banking
The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), a component of the Federal Reserve System, is charged under U. Public finance is a field of economics concerned with paying for collective or governmental activities and with the administration and design of those activities The field of finance refers to the concepts of Time, Money and Risk and how they are interrelated Payroll tax generally refers to two kinds of taxes: Taxes which Employers are required to withhold from Employees Pay, also known as Withholding A capital gains tax (abbreviated CGT) is a Tax charged on Capital gains the profit realized on the sale of a non-inventory Asset that was purchased Stamp duty is a form of Tax that is levied on documents Historically a physical stamp (a Tax stamp) had to be attached to or impressed upon the document to denote Land value taxation (LVT (or site value taxation) is an Ad valorem tax where only the value of land itself is taxed A sales tax is a Consumption tax charged at the Point of purchase for certain goods and services Value added tax ( VAT) or goods and services tax ( GST) is a consumption Tax levied on value added. A flat tax (short for flat rate tax is a Tax system with a constant tax rate The tax tariff and trade laws of a political region State or Trade bloc determine which forms of consumption and production tend to be encouraged A tax haven is a place where certain Taxes are levied at a low rate or not at all In Economics, tax incidence is the analysis of the effect of a particular Tax on the distribution of economic welfare. In a Tax system and in Economics, the tax rate describes the burden Ratio (usually expressed as a Percentage) at which a business or person is A proportional tax is a Tax imposed so that the Tax rate is fixed as the amount subject to taxation increases A progressive tax is a Tax imposed so that the Tax rate increases as the amount subject to taxation increases A regressive tax is a Tax imposed in such a manner that the Tax rate decreases as the amount subject to taxation increases Tax advantage refers to the economic bonus which applies to certain accounts or Investments that are by Statute, tax-reduced tax-deferred or tax-free Personal income taxes See also Income tax in Australia Only the federal government imposes income taxes on individuals and this is the most significant source of Taxation in the British Virgin Islands is relatively simple by comparative standards photocopies of all of the tax laws of the British Virgin Islands would together amount to about 200 The level of Taxation in Canada is average among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD countries Taxes provide the most important revenue source for the Government of the People's Republic of China. See Government of Colombia for a wider perspective of Colombian government See Government of France for a wider perspective of French government Taxes in Germany —being a Federal Republic —are levied by the federation ( Bund) the States ( Länder) as well as the HK Inland Revenue Ordinance Cap112 is one of Hong Kong's Ordinances Taxes in India are levied by the Central Government and the State Governments This article ls with Taxation in Indonesia or pajak. Definitions "Pajak" in Indonesian for Tax and taxes whereas " Perpajakan The system of Taxation in Ireland is broadly similar to the system of Taxation in the United Kingdom. The Netherlands has a rich history dealing with taxation predating the Romanic period. Taxation in New Zealand is collected at a national level by the Inland Revenue Department (IRD on behalf of the Government of New Zealand. The Income tax in Peru is collected by the Superintendencia Nacional de Administración Tributaria, best known as SUNAT. The Russian Tax Code is the primary tax law for the Russian Federation. Individual income tax in Singapore forms part of two main sources of Income tax, the other being Corporate taxes on companies In Tanzania the Income Tax Act 2004 came into effect in July 2004 Taxation in the United Kingdom may involve payments to a minimum of two different levels of government The central government ( Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs) Taxation in the United States is a complex system which may involve payment to at least four different levels of government and many methods of taxation Value added tax ( VAT) or goods and services tax ( GST) is a consumption Tax levied on value added. Comparison of Tax Rates around the world is a difficult and somewhat subjective enterprise This table lists countries by total 2005 Tax revenues (federal state and local as a percentage of GDP (Gross Domestic Product Economic policy refers to the actions that Governments take in the economic field. Monetary policy is the process by which the Government, Central bank, or monetary authority of a country controls (i the Supply of Money, A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is the entity responsible for the Monetary policy of a country or of a group of member states In Economics, money supply, or money stock, is the total amount of money available in an Economy at a particular point in time The gold standard is a monetary system in which a region's common media of exchange are paper notes that are normally freely convertible into pre-set fixed quantities of Gold Fiscal policy, taking the scope of Budgetary policy, refers to government policy that attempts to influence the direction of the economy through changes in government taxes Government spending or government expenditure is classified by economists into three main types A budget deficit occurs when an Entity (often a Government) spends more Money than it takes in Government debt (also known as public debt or national debt) is Money (or credit) owed by any level of government either Central government Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce. For other uses of this word see Tariff (disambiguation. A tariff is a tax imposed on goods when they are moved across a political boundary A trade pact is a wide ranging Tax tariff and trade pact that often includes Investment guarantees The field of finance refers to the concepts of Time, Money and Risk and how they are interrelated In Economics, a financial market is a mechanism that allows people to easily buy and sell ( Trade) financial Securities (such as stocks and bonds There are two basic financial market participant categories Investor vs Corporate finance is an area of Finance dealing with the financial decisions Corporations make and the tools and analysis used to make these decisions Personal finance is the application of the principles of Finance to the monetary decisions of an individual or family unit Public finance is a field of economics concerned with paying for collective or governmental activities and with the administration and design of those activities Financial regulations are a form of Regulation or supervision which subjects Financial institutions to certain requirements restrictions and guidelines aiming to A banker or bank is a Financial institution whose primary activity is to act as a payment agent for customers and to borrow and lend money Fractional-reserve banking is the banking practice in which Banks keep only a fraction of the value of their Bank notes and demand deposits in reserve Full-reserve banking is the Banking practice in which the full amount of each depositor's funds are available in reserve at the bank when each depositor Free banking is a theory of Banking in which commercial banks and market forces control the provision of banking services Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law ( Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics S. law with overseeing open market operations in the United States, and is the principal tool of US national monetary policy. Open market operations are the means of implementing Monetary policy by which a Central bank controls its national Money supply by buying and selling government Monetary policy concerns the actions of a Central bank or other regulatory authorities that determine the size and rate of growth of the Money supply (Open market operations are the buying and selling of government securities. Treasury securities are Government bonds issued by the United States Department of the Treasury through the Bureau of the Public Debt. ) The Committee sets monetary policy by specifying the short-term objective for those operations, which is currently a target level for the federal funds rate (the rate that commercial banks charge on overnight loans among themselves). In the United States, the federal funds rate is the Interest rate at which private Depository institutions (mostly banks lend balances ( Federal funds The FOMC also directs operations undertaken by the Federal Reserve System in foreign exchange markets, although any intervention in foreign exchange markets is coordinated with the U. S. Treasury, which has responsibility for formulating U. S. policies regarding the exchange value of the dollar.
The Federal Open Market Committee was created by statute currently codified at Federal Reserve Board and five of the twelve Federal Reserve Bank presidents. Title 12 of the United States Code outlines the role of Banks and Banking in the United States Code. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York president always sits on the Committee, and the other presidents serve one-year terms on a rotating basis. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York is the most important of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks of the United States. The rotating seats are filled from the following four groups of Banks, one Bank president from each group: Boston, Philadelphia, and Richmond; Cleveland and Chicago; Atlanta, St. Louis, and Dallas; and Minneapolis, Kansas City, and San Francisco., and consists of twelve voting members: the seven members of the
All of the Reserve Bank presidents, even those who are not currently voting members of the FOMC, attend Committee meetings, participate in discussions, and contribute to the Committee's assessment of the economy and policy options. The Committee meets eight times a year, roughly once every six weeks.
By law, the FOMC must meet at least four times each year in Washington, D. C. Since 1981, eight regularly scheduled meetings have been held each year at intervals of five to eight weeks. If circumstances require consultation or consideration of an action between these regular meetings, members may be called on to participate in a special meeting or a telephone conference, or to vote on a proposed action by telegram or telephone. At each regularly scheduled meeting, the Committee votes on the policy to be carried out during the interval between meetings.
Attendance at meetings is restricted because of the confidential nature of the information discussed and is limited to Committee members, nonmember Reserve Bank presidents, staff officers, the Manager of the System Open Market Account, and a small number of Board and Reserve Bank staff. 
Before each regularly scheduled meeting of the FOMC, System staff prepare written reports on past and prospective economic and financial developments that are sent to Committee members and to nonmember Reserve Bank presidents. Reports prepared by the Manager of the System Open Market Account on operations in the domestic open market and in foreign currencies since the last regular meeting are also distributed. At the meeting itself, staff officers present oral reports on the current and prospective business situation, on conditions in financial markets, and on international financial developments. In its discussions, the Committee considers factors such as trends in prices and wages, employment and production, consumer income and spending, residential and commercial construction, business investment and inventories, foreign exchange markets, interest rates, money and credit aggregates, and fiscal policy. The Manager of the System Open Market Account also reports on account transactions since the previous meeting.
After these reports, the Committee members and other Reserve Bank presidents turn to policy. Typically, each participant expresses his or her own views on the state of the economy and prospects for the future and on the appropriate direction for monetary policy. Then each makes a more explicit recommendation on policy for the coming intermeeting period (and for the longer run, if under consideration). 
Finally, the Committee must reach a consensus regarding the appropriate course for policy, which is incorporated in a directive to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York—the Bank that executes transactions for the System Open Market Account. The directive is cast in terms designed to provide guidance to the Manager in the conduct of day-to-day open market operations. The directive sets forth the Committee's objectives for long-run growth of certain key monetary and credit aggregates. It also sets forth operating guidelines for the degree of ease or restraint to be sought in reserve conditions and expectations with regard to short-term rates of growth in the monetary aggregates. Policy is implemented with emphasis on supplying reserves in a manner consistent with these objectives and with the nation's broader economic objectives. 
These policy makers tend to be divided in two camps: inflation doves and hawks.
Inflation doves tend to be equally concerned with economic growth and with keeping inflation moderate. Their critics believe they are more concerned with GDP growth than containing inflation. Therefore, doves are inclined to cut interest rates and favor ending interest rate hike cycles earlier than hawks. Notable doves are Alan Blinder and Janet Yellen. Alan Stuart Blinder (born October 14, 1945) is an American Economist, a chair professor in the Economics Department of Princeton University Janet Louise Yellen (Born August 13 1946 in Brooklyn NY is an economist and president of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
Inflation hawks tend to be more concerned with taming inflation. Their critics believe they are not as concerned with the second half of the dual Congressional mandate, which is to promote economic growth. Federal Reserve Chairs seem to prefer to be considered hawks because the bond market treats hawks with more credibility, and accords them more flexibility. The bond market (also known as the debt, credit, or fixed income market) is a Financial market where participants buy and sell Debt Former Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan had a sterling reputation which allowed him to leave interest rates low (Dovish policy) without igniting inflationary fears. Alan Greenspan (born March 6 1926 in New York City) is an American Economist and was from 1987 to 2006 the Chairman of the Federal Reserve of Current Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke attempted to establish a reputation as a vigilant hawk, but the easing in 2007-2008 in response to the credit and US housing crises leaves him much more dovish than his European contemporary, Jean-Claude Trichet. Ben Shalom Bernanke (born December 13, 1953) is the incumbent Chairman of the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve. Jean-Claude Trichet (born 20 December 1942 is a French Civil servant who is the current president of the European Central Bank since 2003 In any case, such a reputation can only be earned over an extended term. Notable hawks have been Paul Volcker and William Poole. Paul Adolph Volcker (born September 5, 1927 in Cape May New Jersey) is an American Economist Dr William Poole (born June 19, 1937) was the the eleventh chief executive of the Federal Reserve Bank of St
2008 Members of the FOMC
Federal Reserve Bank Rotation on the FOMC
Committee membership changes at the first regularly scheduled meeting of the year.
2009 Members - New York, Chicago, Richmond, Atlanta, San Francisco
2009 Alternate Members - New York, Cleveland, Boston, St. Louis, Kansas City