F-105 Thunderchief

A two-seat F-105G Wild Weasel, with a 650 US gallon (2,500 l) centerline fuel tank and AGM-45 Shrike anti-radiation missiles. Wild Weasel is a nickname for aircraft of the United States Air Force tasked with the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses ( SEAD) mission History The Shrike was first employed during the Vietnam War by the Navy in 1965 using A-4 aircraft

TypeFighter-bomber
ManufacturerRepublic Aviation Company
Maiden flight2 October 1955
Introduced27 May 1958
Retired25 February 1984
Primary userUnited States Air Force
Number built833
Unit costUS$2. Ground-attack aircraft are military aircraft designed to attack targets on the ground and are often deployed as Close air support for and in proximity to their own ground forces An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing building testing selling and maintaining Aircraft, Aircraft parts The Republic Aviation Corporation was an American aircraft manufacturer based in Farmingdale Long Island New York. The maiden flight of an Aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1955: Events February February 26 - George F Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1958: Events Gulfstream Aerospace founded in Savannah Georgia, USA Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1984: Events February February 21 - 14 hours and 2 minutes after taking 14 million in 1960[1] The Republic F-105 Thunderchief, was a supersonic fighter-bomber used by the United States Air Force. The Republic Aviation Corporation was an American aircraft manufacturer based in Farmingdale Long Island New York. For other uses see Supersonic. The term supersonic is used to define a speed that is over the Speed of sound ( Mach 1 Ground-attack aircraft are military aircraft designed to attack targets on the ground and are often deployed as Close air support for and in proximity to their own ground forces The Mach 2 capable F-105 bore the brunt of strike bombing over North Vietnam during the early years of the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Originally designed and deployed as a single seat aircraft, a two-seat Wild Weasel version was later developed for use in the specialized Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses(SEAD) role against surface-to-air missile sites. Wild Weasel is a nickname for aircraft of the United States Air Force tasked with the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses ( SEAD) mission SEAD (pronounced see-add or seed or Suppression of Enemy Air Defences, also known as " Wild Weasels quot and "Iron Hand" operations in the USA are SEAD (pronounced see-add or seed or Suppression of Enemy Air Defences, also known as " Wild Weasels quot and "Iron Hand" operations in the USA are It was commonly known as the "Thud" by its crews. As a follow-on to the Mach 1 capable F-100, the F-105 was also armed with missiles and a cannon; however, its design was tailored to high-speed low-altitude penetration carrying a single nuclear bomb internally. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. First flown in 1955, the Thunderchief entered service in 1958. As the largest single-engined fighter ever employed by the USAF, the single-seat F-105 would be adapted to deliver a greater iron bomb load than the four-engined ten-man strategic bombers of World War II like the B-17, B-24 and B-29. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The F-105 would be best remembered as the primary strike bomber over North Vietnam in the early stages of the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Over 20,000 Thunderchief sorties were flown, with 382 aircraft lost (nearly half of the 833 produced) including 62 operational casualties. Although it lacked the agility of the smaller MiG fighters, USAF F-105s demonstrated the effectiveness of guns, and were credited with downing 27. 5 enemy aircraft. During the war, the two-seat F-105F and F-105G Wild Weasel variants became the first dedicated Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) platforms, fighting against the Soviet-built S-75 Dvina / (SA-2 Guideline) surface-to-air missiles. Wild Weasel is a nickname for aircraft of the United States Air Force tasked with the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses ( SEAD) mission SEAD (pronounced see-add or seed or Suppression of Enemy Air Defences, also known as " Wild Weasels quot and "Iron Hand" operations in the USA are SEAD (pronounced see-add or seed or Suppression of Enemy Air Defences, also known as " Wild Weasels quot and "Iron Hand" operations in the USA are The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 A surface to air missile ( SAM) or ground-to-air missile ( GTAM) is a Missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy Aircraft Two Wild Weasel pilots earned the Medal of Honor attacking missile sites, with one shooting down two MiG-17s the same day. The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. The dangerous missions often required them to be the "first in, last out" in order to suppress the threat air defenses prior to strike aircraft arriving and keeping them suppressed until the strike aircraft left the area. Although the F-105 weighed 50,000 pounds (22,680 kg), the aircraft could exceed the speed of sound at sea level and Mach 2 at high altitude. Sound is a vibration that travels through an elastic medium as a Wave. Mach number (\mathrm{Ma} or M (generally ˈmɑːk sometimes /ˈmɑːx/ or /ˈmæk/ is the speed of an object moving through air or any Fluid It could carry up to 14,000 pounds (6,700 kg) of bombs and missiles. The Thunderchief was later replaced as a strike aircraft over North Vietnam by both the F-4 Phantom II and the swing-wing F-111. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout [2] However, the "Wild Weasel" variants remained in service until 1984, when they were replaced by a specialized F-4G "Wild Weasel V". The USAF F-4G was subsequently replaced by the F-16CJ aircraft currently employed in the SEAD role. SEAD (pronounced see-add or seed or Suppression of Enemy Air Defences, also known as " Wild Weasels quot and "Iron Hand" operations in the USA are ## Contents ## Development Republic Aviation started the Thunderchief as an internal project to replace the F-84F Thunderflash. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout [1] The design team led by Alexander Kartveli examined some 108 configurations before settling on a large, single-engine AP-63FBX (Advanced Project 63 Fighter Bomber, Experimental). Alexander Kartveli (ალექსანდრე ქართველიშვილი 1896-1974 born Kartvelishvili) was an aircraft engineer and a pioneer of [1] The new aircraft was intended primarily for supersonic, low altitude penetration into the Soviet Union on a hi-lo-hi mission and delivery of a single, internally carried nuclear bomb. For other uses see Supersonic. The term supersonic is used to define a speed that is over the Speed of sound ( Mach 1 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. [1] Thus, with emphasis placed on low-altitude speed and flight characteristics, range and payload, the aircraft would be fitted with a large engine, and a relatively small wing with a high wing loading which would give a stable ride at low altitudes, and less drag at supersonic speeds. In Aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing Traditional fighter attributes such as maneuverability were a secondary consideration. [3] Enthusiastic at first, the United States Air Force awarded Republic with a contract for 199 aircraft in September 1952. However, by March 1953 the USAF had reduced the order to 37 fighter-bombers and 9 tactical reconnaissance aircraft, citing the approaching end of the Korean War. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the [1] By the time the F-105 mock-up had been completed in October 1953, the aircraft had grown so large that the Allison J71 turbojet intended for it was abandoned in favor of an even more powerful Pratt & Whitney J75. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout TurboJET (噴射飛航 is the brand name for the operations of the Hong Kong -based Shun Tak-China Travel Ship Management Limited (信德中旅船務管理有限公司 WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Anticipating protracted development of the engine, it was expected that the first aircraft would use the smaller Pratt & Whitney J57. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout [1] On 28 June 1954, the USAF officially ordered 15 F-105As under the Weapon System designation WS-306. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. [1] Republic YF-105A (AF Ser. No. 54-0098, the first of two prototypes). The YF-105A prototype first flew on 22 October 1955, with the second YF-105A following on 28 January 1956. Events 202 BC - Hannibal Barca, leader of the Carthaginians, is defeated by the Roman legions under Scipio Africanus This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1955: Events February February 26 - George F Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted [3] In spite of being powered by a less potent J57-P-25 engine with 15,000 pound-force (66. 7 kN) of afterburning thrust (the J75 was expected to generate 24,500 pound-force (109. The AfterBurner is a lighting solution for the Game Boy Advance system that was created by Triton-Labs 0 kN) with the afterburner), the first prototype attained the speed of Mach 1.2 on its maiden flight. Mach number (\mathrm{Ma} or M (generally ˈmɑːk sometimes /ˈmɑːx/ or /ˈmæk/ is the speed of an object moving through air or any Fluid [1] Both prototypes featured conventional wing root air intakes and slab-sided fuselages typical of the early jets. However, insufficient power and aerodynamic problems with transonic drag, as well as Convair's experience with their F-102 Delta Dagger, led to a redesign of the fuselage in order to conform to the Area rule, giving it a characteristic "wasp waist". Transonic is an Aeronautics term referring to a range of velocities just below and above the Speed of sound (about mach 0 In Fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called fluid resistance) is the force that resists the movement of a Solid object through a Fluid (a The Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation, commonly known as Convair, was a US aerospace development and manufacturing complex of the 1940s and later WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Whitcomb area rule, also called the transonic area rule, is a design technique used to reduce an Aircraft 's drag at Transonic and Supersonic In combination with the distinctive forward-swept variable-geometry air intakes which regulated airflow to the engine at supersonic speeds and the J75 engine, this enabled the resulting F-105B to attain Mach 2. 15. [1] In March 1956, the USAF replaced its F-105A order with that for 65 F-105B. This model added the MA-8 fire control system with an AN/APG-31 ranging radar, and K-19 gunsight which allowed toss-bombing. [4] The first pre-production YF-105B flew on 26 May 1956, and on June 19 the aircraft was officially named Thunderchief, continuing the Republic Aviation's nomenclature sequence of P-47 Thunderbolt, F-84 Thunderjet, and F-84F Thunderstreak/RF-84 Thunderflash. Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout [1] The first production F-105B flew on 14 May 1957. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the [1] Front view of Republic F-105B with avionics layout. The F-105 was a mid-wing monoplane with a 45 degree swept wing and tail surfaces. A swept-wing is a wing Planform common on high-speed Aircraft, with the wing swept back instead of being set at right angles to the Fuselage. The single engine was fed by two intakes in the wing roots, leaving the nose free for a radome housing the multi-mode radar. A radome (the word is a contraction of Radar and Dome) is a structural weatherproof enclosure that protects a Radar antenna Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships At the time, the F-105 was the largest single-seat combat aircraft ever built. Its capacious fuselage provided room for 1,160 US gallons (4,460 L) of fuel and a bomb bay measuring 15 feet 10 inches by 32 inches by 32 inches (4. 82 m x 0. 81 m x 0. 81 m), originally intended for a single nuclear weapon but typically containing an additional 390 US gallon (1,500 L) fuel tank. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Two underwing and one fuselage wet-stores-capable pylons were provided for 450 and 650 US gallon (1,730 L and 2,500 L) expendable fuel tanks. Two outboard (dry) stations were wired for missiles or bombs. A single T-171E3 20 millimeter Gatling cannon was installed in the left side of the nose with a magazine for 1,028 rounds of ammunition, combined with a radar ranging gunsight in B and D models. The M61 Vulcan is a 20 mm Hydraulically or Pneumatically driven six- barreled air-cooled [1] The aircraft was designed to carry the short-range Sidewinder but it would not be equipped with the medium-range radar-guided missiles. On 11 December 1959, an F-105B piloted by Brig Gen Joseph Moore (commander of the 4th Tactical Fighter Wing) set a world record of 1,216. Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 48 mph (1,958. 53 km/h) over a 100 kilometer (62 mi) circuit. Moore received the Bendix Trophy in 1959 for this feat. [1] Plans to build over 1,500 F-105Ds were cut short when the Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara decided to equip no more than seven combat wings with the type. Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9 1916 in Oakland, California) is an American business executive and former United States Secretary of Defense Production was cut in favor of the Air Force adopting the Navy's F-4 Phantom II. [5] A total of 833 F-105s were produced before production ended in 1964. For the year see 1964 This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1964: Events January January ## Design The F-105 was designed primarily for low-level interdiction and its low-altitude speed was its greatest asset when dealing with Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 and Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 fighters. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Thunderchief's highly loaded wing was excellent for speed and smooth ride but not for sustained turns in a dogfight. In Aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing Nevertheless, the F-105 managed 27. 5 officially credited air-to-air victories against North Vietnamese aircraft at the cost of 17 aircraft lost to enemy fighters (North Vietnamese pilots claimed to have shot down an additional 23 F-105s but none have been confirmed by USAF). The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN or less commonly Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa was a Country on the northern half of Vietnam [6] All victories were against MiG-17s -- 24. 5 were shot down with cannon fire (one victory was shared with an F-4), and three with AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles. The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range Air-to-air missile carried by Fighter aircraft and recently certain gunship helicopters [7] F-4 Phantoms were tasked to protect the Thuds from MiG fighters, but they lacked the internal gun and ranging gunsight of the Thunderchief until late in the war. Republic F-105G of the 333rd Tactical Fighter Squadron, 355th Tactical Fighter Wing, in August 1968 over Vietnam. On the basis of combat experience, the F-105D was updated with a better ejection seat, radar homing and warning (RHAW) antenna on the tail fin, additional armor, and protection to the hydraulic system which proved to be very vulnerable to combat damage. In Aircraft, an ejection seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft (usually military in an emergency The hot and humid climate of Southeast Asia created problems for the capricious electronics, a problem encountered by virtually all advanced US aircraft of the war. High ambient temperatures also exacerbated the F-105's propensity for engine fires due to inadequate cooling of the afterburner. The AfterBurner is a lighting solution for the Game Boy Advance system that was created by Triton-Labs Most of the Vietnam aircraft were eventually fitted with ram-air scoops to ameliorate this problem. [1] Unfortunately, the low-altitude attacks and dive bombing brought the F-105s into the range of North Vietnamese anti-aircraft fire; the loss rates were so high that the USAF began experiencing shortages of combat-ready aircraft. A total of 382 aircraft were lost in Southeast Asia, 320 of those in combat. The vast majority of losses were the result of enemy ground fire. Of the 610 single-seat F-105Ds built, 283 were shot down and 52 lost operationally. Of the 143 F-105F/G two-seaters, 37 were shot down and ten lost operationally (one "Ryan's Raiders" night interdiction aircraft and one Combat Martin jammer without a back-seat WSO were lost in combat, the other 45 losses were Wild Weasel aircraft). [1] ### Special modifications The rear cockpits of several two-seat F-105Fs were modified under project Commando Nail with an R-14A radar and a radar scope that offered high resolution. These aircraft were used for all-weather and night low-level strikes against especially dangerous targets by a unit from the 13th Tactical Fighter Squadron dubbed "Ryan's Raiders" starting in April 1967. Commando Nail aircraft were also used to develop tactics for proposed B-58 Hustler bomber missions in Vietnam, although the Hustler was never deployed to Southeast Asia. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Some of these aircraft were later converted to the Wild Weasel III standard. [1] In an effort to thwart MiG attacks, several F-105Fs were also fitted with Hallicrafters QRC-128 VHF jammers under project Combat Martin. The Hallicrafters Company was a business that manufactured marketed and sold radio equipment Very high frequency (VHF is the Radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. The North Vietnamese interceptor force followed Soviet air-defense doctrine, with pilots under rigid direction of ground controllers over radio links. The QRC-128, nicknamed "Colonel Computer," filled up the rear cockpit of the F-105F and bounced voice communications over the radio channel back out after a delay, resulting in an obnoxious garble. However, the first time the Combat Martin was used, the US National Security Agency (NSA), in charge of US strategic signals intelligence, ordered the Air Force to cease and desist immediately, since the NSA believed that the intelligence obtained by monitoring the channels outweighed the benefits of jamming them. The National Security Agency/ Central Security Service ( NSA/CSS) is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States government [8] Some of these aircraft were eventually brought to the Wild Weasel III standard. Persistent problems with the AN/ARN-85 LORAN system resulted in 30 F-105Ds being upgraded to the AN/ARN-92 in a long dorsal spine. LORAN ( LO ng R ange A id to N avigation is a terrestrial Radio navigation system using Low frequency Radio transmitters Known as Thunderstick II aircraft, these F-105s could achieve a bombing circular error probable of 50 feet (15 m) from an altitude of 15,000 feet (4,570 m). In the Military science of Ballistics, circular error probable (CEP or circular error probability is an intuitive measure of a weapon system's accuracy Although the first of these aircraft flew in 1969, they were never deployed to Vietnam. [1] ### Wild Weasel In 1965, the USAF began operating two-seat F-100F Super Sabres specially equipped for Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses mission in Vietnam. SEAD (pronounced see-add or seed or Suppression of Enemy Air Defences, also known as " Wild Weasels quot and "Iron Hand" operations in the USA are Nicknamed the Wild Weasel, these aircraft achieved 9 confirmed victories against North Vietnamese surface-to-air missile radars. Wild Weasel is a nickname for aircraft of the United States Air Force tasked with the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses ( SEAD) mission A surface to air missile ( SAM) or ground-to-air missile ( GTAM) is a Missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy Aircraft The second crew member was a Navigator trained as an Electronic Warfare Officer (EWO), nicknamed the Bear(as in trained bear), whose job was to decipher the information from the aircraft's sensors and guide the pilot towards the targets. Combat Systems Officer is the new term for US Air Force navigators who attend Combat Systems Officer training at either Randolph AFB, TX or Naval Air Station However, the F-100F was an interim solution and because of its limited payload it usually had to rely on accompanying strike aircraft to actually attack the SAM sites. It also lacked the speed and the endurance to effectively protect the USAF's primary strike fighter — the F-105. With twice the payload capacity of the Super Sabre and considerably better performance, the two-seat F-105F was an ideal candidate for a more definitive SEAD platform. [1] Republic F-105F with armament layout in August 1964. Armament includes 20mm cannon rounds, 2. 75 in. rockets, Bullpup and Sidewinder missiles, general purpose bomb, cluster bombs, LAU-3A Launchers, flare and chaff dispensers and drop tanks. The resulting EF-105F Wild Weasel III (the EF designation was popularly used but unofficial) supplemented its sensors and electronic jamming equipment with AGM-45 Shrike anti-radiation missiles and conventional bombs, giving it an offensive capability lacking in the F-100F. History The Shrike was first employed during the Vietnam War by the Navy in 1965 using A-4 aircraft The first of these aircraft flew on 15 January 1966 and they began arriving in Southeast Asia in June, with five assigned to the 13th TFS at Korat RTAFB and 6 more to the 354th TFS at Takhli RTAFB. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign In a typical early mission, a single EF-105F would accompany one or two flights of F-105Ds to provide protection from enemy ground fire. While this strategy was effective in reducing F-105D losses, the Weasel aircraft suffered heavy casualties with five of the first 11 lost in July and August 1966. [1] Attacks into high-risk environments saw the Weasels operating in "Iron Hand" Hunter-Killer flights of mixed single-seat and two-seat Thunderchiefs, suppressing sites during attacks by the strike force and attacking others during ingress and egress. The EF-105Fs were upgraded to the definitive Wild Weasel Thunderchief, the F-105G, with the first aircraft arriving in Southeast Asia in late 1967. The genesis of the F-105G was a PACAF policy that all USAF fighter-bombers operating over North Vietnam had to carry ECM pods, which served to degrade the Weasel's own electronics and occupied one ordnance wing hardpoint. Republic F-105G in flight on May 5, 1970. External stores include QRC-380 blisters, AGM-45 Shrike and AGM-78B Standard ARM (Anti-Radiation Missile). The F-105G incorporated a considerable amount of new SEAD-specific avionics, including an upgraded RHAW system which required a redesign of the wingtips. To free outboard hardpoints for additional weapons, the Westinghouse AN/ALQ-105 electronic countermeasures were permanently installed in two long blisters on the underside of the fuselage. Electronic Countermeasures ( ECM') are a subsection of Electronic warfare which includes any sort of electrical or electronic device designed to trick Thirty aircraft were fitted with specially designed pylons to permit carrying of the AGM-78 Standard anti-radiation missile, a considerable improvement over the somewhat lackluster Shrike. The AGM-78 Standard ARM was a missile developed by General Dynamics, United States of America. On a typical mission, the F-105G carried two Shrikes on outboard pylons, a single Standard on an inboard pylon balanced by a 450 US gallon fuel tank on the other side, and a 650 US gallon centerline fuel tank. The Wild Weasel aircraft were usually the first to arrive in the target area and the last to leave, staying after the strike to support rescue of downed aircrews. As such, fuel was a precious commodity and it was not uncommon for a Wild Weasel to require a 30-minute leave for aerial refueling in order to continue its mission. [1] Although the F-105D was withdrawn from Vietnam in 1970, the Wild Weasel aircraft soldiered on until the end of the war. They were gradually replaced by the F-4G Wild Weasel IV variant of the Phantom II. F-105Gs served US Air National Guard units until the mid 1980s. ### Flying the F-105 F-105 Thunderchief refueling. The initial reaction of the fighter pilot community to their new aircraft was lukewarm. Between its massive dimensions and troubled early service life, the F-105 had garnered a number of uncomplimentary nicknames. In addition to the aforementioned "Thud", F-105's nicknames included the "Squat Bomber," "Lead Sled," and the "Hyper Hog" and/or "Ultra Hog. " With time, however, the F-105's responsive controls, excellent performance at high speed and low altitude, and sophisticated electronics won over even some of the F-104 Starfighter pilots. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The "Thud" changed to a term of respect and endearment to the point where the F-84F Thunderflash became known as the "Thud's Mother. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout "[9] Former F-86 Sabre pilot Jerry Noel Hoblit recalled the awe of the F-105's size after seeing it in person for the first time; he could not manage to reach the air intake lip even with a running jump. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout [9] The F-105 had a spacious cockpit with a good layout (particularly after introduction of "tape" instruments) and visibility (except to the rear), and the advanced electronics were easy to learn and operate. With high wing loading, the Thunderchief was by all accounts an excellent aircraft to fly at high speeds. Takeoffs and landings were often performed in the 230 mph (370 km/h) range. The spoilers provided good roll control at all speeds and the distinctive four-petal airbrakes (which also opened slightly when the afterburner was engaged to allow for the larger flow of exhaust gases) were highly effective even at supersonic speeds. In Aeronautics a spoiler (sometimes called a lift dumper) is a device intended to reduce lift in an aircraft The AfterBurner is a lighting solution for the Game Boy Advance system that was created by Triton-Labs Loss of control due to a spin or complications of adverse yaw required deliberate effort from the pilot and spontaneous spin recovery was rapid. In aviation a spin is an aggravated stall resulting in rotation about the center of gravity wherein the aircraft follows a downward corkscrew path Adverse yaw is a secondary effect of the application of the Ailerons in Aircraft. [9] ### Costs The costs are in approximately 1960 United States dollars and have not been adjusted for inflation. The United States dollar ( sign:$; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been [1]

F-105BF-105DF-105F/G
Unit R&D cost2,716 prorated per aircraft
Airframe4,914,0161,472,1451,524,000
Engine328,797244,412290,000
Electronics141,79619,346251,000
Armament232,913167,621154,000
Ordnance32,02119,34621,000
Flyaway cost5,649,5432. The phrase research and development (also R and D or more often R&D) according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers 14 million2. 2 million
Modification costs by 1973261,793282,687701,645 plus 1,803 for F-105G conversion
Cost per flying hour1,0201,020
Maintenance cost per flying hour718809808

## Operational history

Republic F-105D-30-RE in flight with full bomb load.

The F-105B entered USAF service with the Tactical Air Command's 335th Tactical Fighter Squadron on 27 May 1958. Tactical Air Command (TAC it an inactive United States Air Force organization The 335th Fighter Squadron (nicknamed the "Chiefs" is a Squadron of the United States Air Force, currently part of the 4th Operations Group Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1958: Events Gulfstream Aerospace founded in Savannah Georgia, USA [1] Typical of advanced aircraft, early F-105 service life was plagued by problems with avionics and the MA-8 fire-control system, with the aircraft requiring some 150 hours of maintenance for each hour of flying time. Avionics means "aviation electronics" It comprises electronic systems for use on aircraft artificial satellites and spacecraft comprising Communications Note the term " fire control " may also refer to means of stopping a fire such as sprinkler systems A fire-control system Most of the problems were addressed under Project Optimize. [6] The lack of spares resulted in the entire F-105B fleet being briefly grounded in 1960. [1] Nevertheless, the Thunderchief became the first aircraft in USAF history to complete its first operational year without a single major accident. [6]

Republic F-105D-6-RE refueling probe detail. The -D model had two types of in-flight refueling equipment: a probe (for the drogue) and a receptacle (for the boom).

By 1964, the F-105B was relegated to Air National Guard squadrons. For the National Guard of a State and other countries' National Guard see National Guard. [1] It was replaced in frontline service by the definitive F-105D whose advanced NASARR R-14A radar and AN/ASG-19 Thunderstick fire-control system gave it all-weather performance. [1] The R-14A radar also added a terrain guidance capability. Terrain-following radar (TFR is an Aerospace technology that allows a very-low-flying Aircraft to automatically maintain a relatively constant altitude [1] The F-105D entered service with 335th TFS in 1960. [1] Designed for a European conflict with the Soviet Union, the F-105D saw considerable deployment in West Germany to provide NATO with tactical nuclear strike capability, and in Japan. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The North Atlantic Treaty [1] Like the F-105B, the F-105D's early career was plagued with maintenance problems and in-flight failures. The origins of the nickname Thud were far from complimentary — it stood for the sound of an F-105 crashing into the ground. [1] The entire F-105D fleet was grounded in December 1961 and then again in June 1962. Many of the issues were worked out during the production run and by 1964, early F-105Ds were upgraded with these fixes under project Look Alike, although engine failures and fuel system problems persisted until 1967. [1]

Meanwhile, the USAF was gradually changing the anticipated F-105 mission from nuclear interdiction to conventional bombing. [1] The Look Alike upgrades increased the aircraft's capacity from four to sixteen conventional 750 pound (340 kg) bombs on underwing and fuselage centerline hardpoints and added the equipment to launch AGM-12 Bullpup air-to-ground missiles. The AGM-12 Bullpup is an air-to-ground missile which was used on the A-4 Skyhawk, A-6 Intruder and F-4 Phantom among others [6] In June 1961, an F-105D delivered 7 tons (15,430 lb) of conventional bombs during a USAF test — at the time a record for a single-engine airplane and a payload three times heavier than World War II's four-engined heavy bombers such as the B-17 Flying Fortress and the B-24 Liberator, though aerial refueling would be required for long missions. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout [1] In fact, one of the F-105Ds was named Memphis Belle II after the famed World War II B-17. Memphis Belle was the nickname of a B-17F Flying Fortress during the Second World War that inspired the making of two motion pictures a 1944 Documentary [1]

### Vietnam War

F-105D on the ramp at Takhli RTAFB, Thailand
Location of the Thud Ridge and the MiG airfield on its southern tip. Thud Ridge is a book by Jack Broughton about flying the F-105 "Thud" for the U

In spite of a troubled early service life, the F-105 became the dominant attack aircraft during the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The F-105 could carry twice the bomb load further and faster than the F-100, which was used mostly in South Vietnam. [10] In a foreshadowing of its Wild Weasel role, the first F-105D combat mission of the war involved an attack on August 12 1964 against an anti-aircraft artillery site on Plaine des Jarres. Wild Weasel is a nickname for aircraft of the United States Air Force tasked with the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses ( SEAD) mission The Plain of Jars is a large group of historic cultural sites in Laos containing thousands of stone jars which lie scattered throughout the Xieng Khouang plain in [1] This mission was carried out by aircraft of the 6441st Tactical Fighter Wing deployed from Yokota Air Base Japan to Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base. is a United States Air Force base located in the city of Fussa and surrounding communities in Tokyo, Japan. Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base (Korat RTAFB is a base of the Royal Thai Air Force. [11] The first Thunderchief of the war was also lost in this mission (the pilot managed to eject safely). The first strike mission took place on 13 January 1965 with the destruction of the Ben Ken bridge in Laos. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma [1] Following the start of Operation Rolling Thunder on 1 March 1965, a large number of F-105Ds were deployed in Royal Thai Air Force Bases at Khorat and Takhli. Operation Rolling Thunder was the title of a gradual and sustained U Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Within the period of 1954-1975 (the Vietnam War or Second Indochina War the Thai Government allowed the Joint United States Military Assistance Group (JUSMAG to Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base (Korat RTAFB is a base of the Royal Thai Air Force. Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base is a Royal Thai Air Force facility On 2 August 1967, F-105Ds from 335th and 338th Tactical Fighter Squadrons made the first of many successful raids on the Paul Doumer bridge. Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the [1] While the planes were first deployed with their original natural metal finish, they soon adopted the distinctive 2-green and tan Vietnam camouflage scheme which blended into the jungle landscape.

On a typical combat mission into North Vietnam, the F-105D carried two 450 US gallon wing-mounted fuel tanks, a 390 US gallon fuel tank in the bomb bay, and five 1,000 pound (454 kg) or six 750 pound (340 kg) bombs, and required inflight refueling both going to and sometimes returning from Hanoi 700 miles (1,125 km) distant. Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling ( IFR) air-to-air refueling ( AAR) or tanking, is Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam Thunderchiefs made a loop north of Hanoi over a mountain nicknamed the Thud Ridge 21°16′47″N, 105°49′37″E at high speed and low altitude in order to avoid the heavily defended airspace around the city. Although the ridge provided proper shielding from the North Vietnamese radars and SAMs, the installment of anti-aircraft artillery and a MiG fighter airfield at the southern end of the valley prevented the F-105s from fully exploiting the benefit of cover. JSC "RSK "MiG" or Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG in full (formerly Mikoyan or Mikoyan-i-Gurevich Design Bureau, Микоян The name "Thud Ridge" (also the name of a book by Jack Broughton about the F-105) came from the prominent role of the mountain in F-105 missions. Thud Ridge is a book by Jack Broughton about flying the F-105 "Thud" for the U [1]

### Medal of Honor recipients

Two Wild Weasel pilots received the Medal of Honor:

• USAF Captain Merlyn H. Dethlefsen was awarded the Medal of Honor and Capt Kevin "Mike" Gilroy the Air Force Cross for an F-105F Wild Weasel mission on 10 March 1967, flying F-105F 63-8352. The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. Merlyn Hans Dethlefsen (29 June 1934 &ndash 14 December 1987 was a United States Air Force officer and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration—the The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. The Air Force Cross is the second highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Air Force. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing [12] After their aircraft was damaged by ground fire, Dethlefsen and Gilroy elected to stay in the skies above the steel works at Thai Nguyen until the SAM site was found and destroyed. [13]
• USAF Captain Leo K. Thorsness was awarded the Medal of Honor and Capt Harold Johnson the Air Force Cross for an F-105F Wild Weasel mission on 19 April 1967, flying F-105F 63-8301. Leo K Thorsness (born 14 February 1932 is a decorated United States Military Veteran and retired colonel in the United States Air Force. The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. The Air Force Cross is the second highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Air Force. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer [14][15] Thorsness and Johnson protected an attempted rescue of another Wild Weasel crew that had been shot down, in the process destroying two MiG-17s. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout After running out of ammunition, Thorsness and Johnson continued to act as decoys to draw the MiGs away from the rescue aircraft.

### Retirement

The 24-ship flyover formation, Diamonds on Diamonds, was used at the F-105 retirement at Hill Air Force Base in 1985

The Thunderchief was rapidly withdrawn from USAF service after the end of the Vietnam War. Only 833 F-105 Thunderchiefs had been built. Having lost nearly 50% of that production figure in Vietnam, the F-105 was by military standards almost no longer combat-effective. Some aircraft remained in service in the 1970s and 1980s with Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard units, but their extended wartime service meant that many F-105s had already reached or exceeded their service lives by the mid-1970s. The Air Force Reserve Command ( AFRC) is a major command (MAJCOM of the U The Air National Guard ( ANG), often referred to as the Air Guard, is the air force militia organized by each of the several states and The F-105 Thunderchief was officially retired on 25 February 1984. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1984: Events February February 21 - 14 hours and 2 minutes after taking [1] and replaced by the F-4 Phantom II. The F-105 however had a very good service life since most of its fellow US made 2nd generation aircraft where retired from service in the mid 70s. 10 years before the Thud retired.

In 1964, specially modified F-105Bs with ballast replacing the Vulcan cannon, a number of fuselage and wing reinforcements for aerobatics, and the addition of a smoke generator, briefly flew with the USAF Thunderbirds demonstration team. The Thunderbirds are the Air Demonstration Squadron of the US After only six shows, a fatal accident from overstressing the airframe forced a switch back to the F-100 Super Sabre. [16]

## Variants

YF-105A
Two pre-production prototypes.
YF-105B
Four pre-production aircraft.
F-105B
Initial production model; 75 built.
JF-105B
Test aircraft re-built from RF-105B airframes; 3 converted
RF-105B
Proposed reconnaissance version of the F-105B; none built.
F-105C
Proposed dual-control trainer; cancelled in 1957, none built
F-105D
The definitive production model, all-weather capability thanks to advanced avionics, first flight 9 June 1959; 610 built. This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1957: Events January January 18 - Three Boeing B-52 Stratofortresses Events 53 - Roman Emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia 62 - Claudia Octavia commits
RF-105D
Proposed reconnaissance version of the F-105D; none built.
F-105E
Proposed trainer version of F-105D; cancelled in 1959, none completed
F-105F
Two-seat trainer version of F-105D, fully combat-capable, first flight 11 June 1963; 143 built. This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1959: Events Unknown The Canadian Golden Hawks aerobatic team Events 1184 BC - Trojan War: Troy is sacked and burned according to the calculations of Eratosthenes.
EF-105F
Initial SEAD/Wild Weasel version; 86 built. SEAD (pronounced see-add or seed or Suppression of Enemy Air Defences, also known as " Wild Weasels quot and "Iron Hand" operations in the USA are Wild Weasel is a nickname for aircraft of the United States Air Force tasked with the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses ( SEAD) mission
F-105G
Two-seat Wild Weasel SEAD version, 61 converted from EF-105F and F-105F. Wild Weasel is a nickname for aircraft of the United States Air Force tasked with the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses ( SEAD) mission SEAD (pronounced see-add or seed or Suppression of Enemy Air Defences, also known as " Wild Weasels quot and "Iron Hand" operations in the USA are

## Operators

See also: List of F-105 Units of the United States Air Force

United States

## Survivors

Main article: F-105 Survivors

## Specifications (F-105D)

Republic F-105D Thunderchief at the National Museum of the United States Air Force. This is a List of F-105 Units of the United States Air Force by wing squadron location tailcode variant and service dates The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Air National Guard ( ANG), often referred to as the Air Guard, is the air force militia organized by each of the several states and Main article F-105 Thunderchief F-105 Survivors lists all known surviving F-105 Thunderchief complete airframes in the world (as at May 2008 along The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official National Museum of the United States Air

Data from The Great Book of Fighters[3] and Quest for Performance[17]

General characteristics

• Crew: 1
• Payload: 14,000 lb (6,700 kg) of weapons
• Length: 64 ft 4. In military aircraft or space exploration the payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or space ship including as Cargo, Munitions scientific instruments 75 in (19. 63 m)
• Wingspan: 34 ft 11. The wingspan (or just span) of an airplane or a Bird, is the distance from the left wingtip to the right wingtip 25 in (10. 65 m)
• Height: 19 ft 8 in (5. 99 m)
• Wing area: 385 ft² (35. 76 m²)
• Airfoil: NACA 65A005.5 root, NACA 65A003. An airfoil (in American English) or aerofoil (in British English) is the shape of a Wing or blade (of a Propeller, rotor The NACA airfoils are Airfoil shapes for aircraft wings developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA 7 tip
• Empty weight: 27,500 lb (12,470 kg)
• Loaded weight: 35,637 lb (16,165 kg)
• Max takeoff weight: 52,546 lb (23,834 kg)
• Powerplant:Pratt & Whitney J75-P-19W afterburning turbojet
• Dry thrust: - (-)
• Thrust with afterburner: 26,500 lbf (118 kN)

• Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0. The Maximum Takeoff Weight or Maximum Takeoff Mass of an Aircraft is the maximum weight at which the pilot of the aircraft is allowed to attempt to take off WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout TurboJET (噴射飛航 is the brand name for the operations of the Hong Kong -based Shun Tak-China Travel Ship Management Limited (信德中旅船務管理有限公司 The AfterBurner is a lighting solution for the Game Boy Advance system that was created by Triton-Labs In Aerodynamics, the zero-lift drag coefficient C_{D0} is a dimensionless parameter which relates an aircraft's zero-lift drag Force to its 0173
• Drag area: 6. In Aerodynamics, the zero-lift drag coefficient C_{D0} is a dimensionless parameter which relates an aircraft's zero-lift drag Force to its 65 ft² (0. 62 m²)
• Aspect ratio: 3. In Aerodynamics, the aspect ratio of a wing is defined as the square of the wing span divided by the wing area 16

Performance

• Maximum speed: Mach 2. In Aviation, V-speeds or Velocity-speeds are standard terms used to define Airspeeds important or useful to the operation of Aircraft, such 08 (1,372 mph, 2,208 km/h) at 36,000 ft (11,000 m)
• Combat radius: 780 mi (680 nm, 1,250 km)
• Ferry range: 2,210 mi (1,920 nm, 3,550 km)
• Service ceiling 48,500 ft (14,800 m)
• Rate of climb: 38,500 ft/min (195 m/s)
• Thrust/weight: 0. For Aircraft, ferry range means the maximum range the aircraft can fly In Aeronautics, a ceiling is the maximum Density altitude an aircraft can reach under a set of conditions In Aerodynamics, the rate of climb RoC is the speed at which an Aircraft increases its Altitude. In Aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing Thrust-to-weight ratio is as its name suggests the ratio of instantaneous Thrust to Weight (where weight means weight at the Earth ’s surface 74
• Lift-to-drag ratio: 10. In Aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio ("ell-over-dee" in the US "ell-dee" in the UK is the amount of lift generated 4
• Time to altitude: 1. 7 min to 35,000 ft (11,000 m)

Armament

• Guns: 1× 20 mm (0. 787 in) M61 Vulcan cannon, 1,028 rounds
• Hardpoints: 5 plus bomb bay with a capacity of Up to 14,000 lb (6350 kg) of ordnance, including conventional and nuclear bombs, and AIM-9 Sidewinder and AGM-12 Bullpup missiles. The M61 Vulcan is a 20 mm Hydraulically or Pneumatically driven six- barreled air-cooled The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range Air-to-air missile carried by Fighter aircraft and recently certain gunship helicopters The AGM-12 Bullpup is an air-to-ground missile which was used on the A-4 Skyhawk, A-6 Intruder and F-4 Phantom among others ,

Avionics

## References

### Notes

1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Knaack, Marcelle Size. Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships Note the term " fire control " may also refer to means of stopping a fire such as sprinkler systems A fire-control system LORAN ( LO ng R ange A id to N avigation is a terrestrial Radio navigation system using Low frequency Radio transmitters Encyclopedia of US Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems: Volume 1, Post-World War II Fighters, 1945-1973. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1978. ISBN 0-912799-59-5.
2. ^ GlobalSecurity F-111 "define a replacement for the F-105 fighter-bomber aircraft"
3. ^ a b c Green, William and Swanborough, Gordon. The Great Book of Fighters. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1194-3.
4. ^ The Republic F-105 Thunderchief 01 apr 07 greg goebel
5. ^ Joe Baugher's F-105 Thunderchief History
6. ^ a b c d Baugher, Joe. Republic F-105 Thunderchief. [1] Access date: 3 March 2006.
7. ^ Futrell R. Frank, Greenhalgh, William H. , Grubb, C. , Hasselwander, G. E. , Jakob, R. F. , and Ravenstein, C. A. Aces and Aerial Victories: The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia, 1965-1973. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History and the Albert F. Simpson Historical Research Center, 1976. ISBN 0-8987-5884-X.
8. ^ Price, Alfred. The History Of US Electronic Warfare, Volume III: Rolling Thunder Through Allied Force –1964 to 2000. New York: The Association Of Old Crows, 1989. ISBN 0-97037-940-4.
9. ^ a b c Higham, Robin and Williams, Carol. Flying Combat Aircraft of USAAF-USAF (Vol. 1). Rockville, Maryland: Air Force Historical Foundation, 1975. ISBN 0-8138-0325-X.
10. ^ Republic F-105. National Air and Space Museum [2] Access date: 2 March 2007.
11. ^ [3] Thunderchiefs at Yokota AB Japan 1963-1967; See the section entitled "THUNDER OVER VIETNAM!"
12. ^ Correll, JT. Calculated Courage at Thai Nguyen. Retrieved on 2006-03-23. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow.
13. ^ [Colonel Merlyn H. Dethlefsen. Retrieved on 2007-03-01. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant
14. ^ Frisbee, JL. Wild, Wild Weasel. Retrieved on 2006-03-23. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow.
15. ^ Audio excerpts and transcript of Maj Thorsness and Capt Johnson's mission on Wikisource
16. ^ Goebel, Greg. The Republic F-105 Thunderchief. Vectorsite. Retrieved on 2006-12-27. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 537 - The Hagia Sophia is completed 1512 - The Spanish Crown issues the Laws of Burgos, governing the
17. ^ Loftin, L. K. , Jr. . Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft: NASA SP-468. NASA. Retrieved on 2006-04-22. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1500 - Portuguese Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil.

### Bibliograpy

• Hobson, Chris. Vietnam Air Losses, USAF, USN, USMC, Fixed-Wing Aircraft Losses in Southeast Asia 1961–1973. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2001. ISBN 1-85780-1156.
• Kinzey, Bert. F-105 Thunderchief. Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers Inc. , 1982. ISBN 0-8168-5020-8.
• Neubeck, Ken. "F-105 Thunderchief Walk Around", Squadron/Signal Publications, 2000,ISBN 0-89747-418-X.
• Neubeck, Ken. "F-105 Thunderchief In Action", Squadron/Siganl Publications, 2002, ISBN 0-89747-447-3.
• Richardson, Doug. Republic F-105 Thunderchief (Classic Warplanes). New York: Smithmark Publishers Inc. , 1992. ISBN 0-8317-1410-7.