This article is about the concept of expectiation as a thought or belief. For expectation in the context of probability theory and statistics, see expected value
In the case of uncertainty, expectation is what is considered the most likely to happen. Uncertainty is a term used in subtly different ways in a number of fields including Philosophy, Statistics, Economics, Finance, Insurance An expectation, which is a belief that is centred on the future, may or may not be realistic. Belief is the psychological state in which an individual holds a Proposition or Premise to be true The future is commonly understood to contain all events that have yet to occur A less advantageous result gives rise to the emotion of disappointment. An emotion is a mental and physiological state associated with a wide variety of feelings thoughts and behaviours Disappointment is the feeling of dissatisfaction that follows the failure of expectations to manifest If something happens that is not at all expected it is a surprise. An expectation about the behavior or performance of another person, expressed to that person, may have the nature of a strong request, or an order.
Particularly in social sciences including game theory, expectation plays one of the central roles. The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies Game theory is a branch of Applied mathematics that is used in the Social sciences (most notably Economics) Biology, Engineering, In game theory, a Nash equilibrium constitutes a correct and stable set of expectations held by the players. In Game theory, the Nash equilibrium (named after John Forbes Nash, who proposed it is a Solution concept of a game involving two or more players in which Various other solution concepts of games such as rationalizability have been proposed according to how much knowledge players have on the expectation of other players' actions. In Game theory, rationalizability or rationalizable equilibria is a Solution concept which generalizes Nash equilibrium.
Emotion and Adaptation
In Emotion and Adaptation (Oxford University Press, 1991), Richard Lazarus asserts that people become accustomed to positive or negative life experiences which lead to favorable or unfavorable expectations with regard to present and near-future circumstances. Lazarus notes the widely accepted, philosophical principle that "happiness depends on the background psychological status of the person -- that is, the overall pattern of expectations and existential mood -- and cannot be well predicted without reference to" one's expectations [italics mine].
Also with regard to happiness or unhappiness, Lazarus notes that "people whose objective conditions of life are those of hardship and deprivation often make a positive assessment of their well-being," while "people who are objectively well off. . . often make a negative assessment of their well-being. " Lazarus argues that "the most sensible explanation of this apparent paradox is that people. . . develop favorable or unfavorable expectations" that guide such assessments.
See also A collective belief is referred to when people speak of what 'we' believe when this is not simply elliptical for what 'we all' believe In Medicine and Medical anthropology, a culture-specific syndrome or culture-bound syndrome is a combination of psychiatric and somatic Symptoms A delusion is commonly defined as a fixed False Belief and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false fanciful or derived from Deception Folk psychology (also known as common sense psychology naϊve psychology or vernacular psychology is a set of assumptions constructs and convictions about everyday behaviors of ourselves and others The Gettier problem is considered a problem in modern Epistemology issuing from counter-examples to the definition of knowledge as justified true belief (JTB In its original application " nocebo " had a very specific meaning in the medical domains of Pharmacology, and Nosology, and Etiology. The observer-expectancy effect (also called the experimenter-expectancy effect, observer effect, or experimenter effect) is a form of reactivity Placebo is a substance or procedure a patient accepts as medicine or therapy but which has no specific therapeutic activity A propositional attitude is a relational mental state connecting a person to a Proposition. Descriptive knowledge, also declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, is the species of Knowledge that is by its very nature expressed in Self-deception is a process of denying or rationalizing away the relevance significance or importance of opposing Evidence and Logical argument A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true The Subject-expectancy effect, is a form of reactivity that occurs in Scientific experiment or Medical treatment when a Research subject People are deemed to be suggestible if they accept and act on suggestions by others Suggestion is the name given to the psychological process by which one person may guide the thoughts feelings or behaviour of another In Music, syncopation includes a variety of Rhythms which are in some way unexpected in that they deviate from the strict succession of regularly spaced The meaning of the word truth extends from Honesty, Good faith, and Sincerity in general to agreement with Fact or Reality The Thomas theorem is a theory of sociology which was formulated by W Unintended consequences are outcomes that are not (or not limited to what the actor intended in a particular situation
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- The act or state of expecting or looking forward to an event as about to happen.
- That which is expected or looked for.
- The prospect of the future; grounds upon which something excellent is expected to occur; prospect of anything good to come, esp. of property or rank.
- The value of any chance (as the prospect of prize or property) which depends upon some contingent event.
- (statistics) The first moment
- (colloquial statistics) the arithmetic mean
- (medicine) (rare) The leaving of a disease principally to the efforts of nature to effect a cure.
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