Euripides (Ancient Greek: Εὐριπίδης) (ca. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly 480 BC–406 BC) was the last of the three great tragedians of classical Athens (the other two being Aeschylus and Sophocles). Events By place Greece May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace Events By place Greece Callicratidas is appointed as the Navarch of the Spartan fleet replacing Lysander Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Aeschylus (ˈɛskɨləs or /ˈiːskɨləs/ Greek: Ασχύλος, Aischylos, 525 BC/524 BC 456 BC/455 BC was an ancient Greek Playwright Sophocles (ˈsɒfəkliːz Ancient Greek, sopʰoklɛ̂ːs circa Ancient scholars thought that Euripides had written ninety-five plays, although four of those were probably written by Critias. Critias is also a work by Plato see Critias (dialogue. Critias ( Greek, 460-403 BC born in Athens son of Callaeschrus was Eighteen of Euripides' plays have survived complete. It is now widely believed that what was thought to be a nineteenth, Rhesus, was probably not by Euripides. Rhesus (Ρήσος Rēsos) possibly 350 BC, is transmitted among the plays of Euripides, and was indeed believed to be genuinely Euripidean in the  Fragments, some substantial, of most of the other plays also survive. More of his plays have survived than those of Aeschylus and Sophocles together, partly because of the chance preservation of a manuscript that was probably part of a complete collection of his works in alphabetical order. Aeschylus (ˈɛskɨləs or /ˈiːskɨləs/ Greek: Ασχύλος, Aischylos, 525 BC/524 BC 456 BC/455 BC was an ancient Greek Playwright Sophocles (ˈsɒfəkliːz Ancient Greek, sopʰoklɛ̂ːs circa
Euripides is known primarily for having reshaped the formal structure of traditional Attic tragedy by showing strong women characters and intelligent slaves, and by satirizing many heroes of Greek mythology. Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of Debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime and A hero (from Greek grc ἥρως hērōs) in Greek mythology and Folklore, was originally a Demigod, the offspring of a mortal and Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance His plays seem modern by comparison with those of his contemporaries, focusing on the inner lives and motives of his characters in a way previously unknown to Greek audiences.
One of the more famous quotes attributed to him by recent writers, "Whom the gods would destroy, they first make mad", does not occur in his works and probably pre-dates him. 
According to legend, Euripides was born in Salamís on September 23, 480 BC, the day of the Persian War's greatest naval battle. Salamis ( Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamína, Ancient / Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamís) is the largest Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Events By place Greece May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace Other sources estimate that he was born as early as 485 BC. Events By place Persian Empire Darius I, one of the greatest rulers of the Achaemenid dynasty of
His father's name was either Mnesarchus or Mnesarchides and his mother's name Cleito.  Evidence suggests that the family was wealthy and influential. It is recorded that he served as a cup-bearer for Apollo's dancers, but he grew to question the religion he grew up with, exposed as he was to thinkers such as Protagoras, Socrates, and Anaxagoras. Protagoras ( Greek:) (ca 490&ndash 420 BC was a pre-Socratic Greek Philosopher and is numbered as one of the Sophists by SOCRATES is the European Community action programme in the field of Education. Anaxagoras ( Greek: Ἀναξαγόρας c 500 BC &ndash 428 BC was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher famous for introducing the Cosmological
He was married twice, to Choerile and Melito, though sources disagree as to which woman he married first.  He had three sons, and it is rumored that he also had a daughter who was killed after a rabid dog attacked her (some say this was merely a joke made by Aristophanes, who often poked fun at Euripides. Rabies (from rabies “madness rage fury” Also known as “ hydrophobia ” is a viral Zoonotic neuroinvasive disease that Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης ˌærɪˈstɒfəniːz in English ca )
The record of Euripides' public life, other than his involvement in dramatic competitions, is almost non-existent. The only reliable story of note is one by Aristotle about Euripides being involved in a dispute over a liturgy - a story which offers strong proof to Euripides being a wealthy man. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. It has been said that he travelled to Syracuse, Sicily; that he engaged in various public or political activities during his lifetime; that he wrote his tragedies in a sanctuary, The Cave of Euripides on Salamis Island; and that he left Athens at the invitation of king Archelaus I of Macedon and stayed with him in Macedonia after 408 BC. Syracuse (Siracusa Sicilian: Sarausa, Classical Greek: / transliterated Syrakousai) is a historic City in Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. The Cave of Euripides is a ten-chamber Cave in Peristeria on Salamis Island, Greece, and the subject of archaeological investigation Salamis ( Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamína, Ancient / Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamís) is the largest Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Archelaus I ( Greek: Άρχέλαος Α΄ was king of Macedon from 413 to 399 BC following the death of Perdiccas II. Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most According to Pausanias, Euripides was buried in Macedonia. Pausanias ( Greek:) was a Greek traveller and Geographer of the 2nd century CE, who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus
Euripides first competed in the Dionysia, the famous Athenian dramatic festival, in 455 BC, one year after the death of Aeschylus. The Dionysia was a large religious festival in ancient Athens in honor of the god Dionysus, the central event of which was the performance of tragedies He came in third, reportedly because he refused to cater to the fancies of the judges. It was not until 441 BC that he won first prize, and over the course of his lifetime, Euripides claimed a mere four victories. He also won one posthumous victory.
He was a frequent target of Aristophanes' humour. Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης ˌærɪˈstɒfəniːz in English ca He appears as a character in The Acharnians, Thesmophoriazusae, and most memorably in The Frogs, where Dionysus travels to Hades to bring Euripides back from the dead. The Acharnians ( Ancient Greek: / Akharneĩs) is an Old Comedy by the Athenian playwright Aristophanes. Thesmophoriazusae (Θεσμοφοριάζουσες / Thesmophoriazouses; meaning "Women Celebrating the Thesmophoria Festival" also called Frogs ( Ancient Greek: grc Βάτραχοι grc-Latn Bátrachoi) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes. In Classical mythology, Dionysus or Dionysos (in Greek, Διόνυσος or Διώνυσος; associated with Roman Hades (from Greek, Hadēs, originally, Haidēs or, Aidēs, probably from Indo-European *n̥-wid- 'unseen' refers both to the ancient After a competition of poetry, the god opts to bring Aeschylus instead.
Euripides' final competition in Athens was in 408 BC; there is a story that he left Athens embittered over his defeats. He accepted an invitation by the king of Macedon in 408 or 407 BC, and once there he wrote Archelaus in honour of his host. Events By place Greece Thrasybulus recaptures Abdera and Thasos. He is believed to have died there in winter 407/6 BC; ancient biographers have told many stories about his death, but the simple truth was that it was probably his first exposure to the harsh Macedonia winter which killed him. (Rutherford 1996). The Bacchae was performed after his death in 405 BC and won first prize. The Bacchae (Βάκχαι / Bakchai; also known as The Bacchantes) is a Athenian Tragedy by the ancient Greek
When compared with Aeschylus, who won thirteen times, and Sophocles, with eighteen victories, Euripides was the least honoured of the three—at least in his lifetime. Later in the 4th century BC, the dramas of Euripides became the most popular, largely because of the simplicity of the language of his plays. Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. His works influenced New Comedy and Roman drama, and were later idolized by the French classicists; his influence on drama reaches modern times. Comedy was one of two principal dramatic forms in ancient Greece the other being Tragedy. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC For the works or study of works from classical antiquity see Classics Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to
Euripides' greatest works include Alcestis, Medea, Electra, and The Bacchae. Alcestis (Άλκηστις / Alkēstis) is an Athenian Tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Euripides. Medea (Μήδεια / Mēdeia) is a tragedy play written by Euripides, based upon the myth of Jason and Medea and first produced Euripides ' Electra was probably written in the mid 410s BC likely after 413 BC. The Bacchae (Βάκχαι / Bakchai; also known as The Bacchantes) is a Athenian Tragedy by the ancient Greek Also considered notable is Cyclops, the only complete satyr play currently in existence. Satyr plays were an ancient Greek form of tragicomedy similar to the modern-day Burlesque style
The manuscript, apparently part of a multiple volume, alphabetically-arranged collection of Euripides' works, whose preservation accounts for the comparatively large number of extant plays of Euripides, was rediscovered after lying in a monastic collection for approximately eight hundred years.
In June 2005, classicists at Oxford University worked on a joint project with Brigham Young University, using multi-spectral imaging technology to recover previously illegible writing (see References). Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Some of this work employed infrared technology—previously used for satellite imaging—to detect previously unknown material by Euripides in fragments of the Oxyrhynchus papyri,  a collection of ancient manuscripts held by the university. Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. Oxyrhynchus (Ὀξύρρυγχος "sharp-nosed" ancient Egyptian Pr-Medjed; Coptic Pemdje; modern Egyptian Arabic
Euripides has been compared to Rousseau in being too modern for his time. Euripides focused on the realism of his characters; for example, Euripides’ Medea is a realistic woman with recognizable emotions, and has a developed personality with many different facets to her character - she is not simply a villain. In Hippolytus, Euripides writes in a particularly modern style, using the theater to demonstrate how neither language nor sight (the main elements of theater) aids in understanding in a civilization on its last leg. Hippolytus (Ιππόλυτος / Hippolytos) is an Ancient Greek Tragedy by Euripides, based on the myth of Hippolytus Euripides makes his point about vision both through the plot (Phaedra makes repeated references to her inability to see clearly and her wish to have her eyes covered), and through the sparseness of his staging, which lacked the dazzling elements that other plays often had. The same was true of his commentary on the use of language. The misuse of words played an important role in the storyline (Phaedra's letter, the nurse's betrayal of Phaedra's secret, Hippolytus' refusal to break his oath to save his own life, and his refusal to pay lip-service to Aphrodite), but in addition, the actual language of the play was often purposefully verbose and ungainly, again to show the ineffectual nature of language in comprehension in Euripides' age.  According to Aristotle, Euripides's contemporary Sophocles said that he portrayed men as they ought to be, and Euripides portrayed them as they were. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Sophocles (ˈsɒfəkliːz Ancient Greek, sopʰoklɛ̂ːs circa 
Euripides' realistic characterisations were sometimes at the expense of a realistic plot; he sometimes relied upon the deus ex machina to resolve his plays, as in Ion and Electra. A deus ex machina ( lat. ˈdeːus eks ˈmaːkʰina literally "god from a/the machine" is an improbable In the opinion of Aristotle, writing his Poetics a century later, this is the worst way to end a play. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Many classicists cite this as a reason why Euripides was less popular in his own time.
He had a modern attitude and profound insight into psychology. Many sources say that that is what made him such a great Greek tragic playwright.
The following plays have come down to us today only in fragmentary form; some consist of only a handful of lines, but with some the fragments are extensive enough to allow tentative reconstruction: see Euripides: Selected Fragmentary Plays (Aris and Phillips 1995) ed. Orestes (Ορέστης / Orestēs) ( 408 BCE) is an Ancient Greek play by Euripides that follows the events of Orestes The Bacchae (Βάκχαι / Bakchai; also known as The Bacchantes) is a Athenian Tragedy by the ancient Greek Iphigenia at Aulis (Ιφιγένεια εν Αυλίδι / Iphigeneia en Aulidi) is the last extant work of the playwright Euripides. C. Collard, M. J. Cropp and K. H. Lee.