|Born||February 21, 1747|
Quito, Spanish Empire
|Died||December 28, 1795 (aged 48)|
Quito, Spanish Empire
|Occupation||Writer, lawyer, physician|
Francisco Javier Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo[a] (Royal Audience of Quito, 1747-1795) was a medical pioneer, writer and lawyer of mestizo origin in colonial Ecuador. Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 1747 ( MDCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Quito, officially San Francisco de Quito, is the Capital of Ecuador in northwestern South America. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Quito, officially San Francisco de Quito, is the Capital of Ecuador in northwestern South America. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries A writer is anyone who creates a written work although the word usually designates those who write creatively or professionally as well as those who have written in many different forms A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health The Royal Audience of Quito ( Spanish: Audiencia Real de Quito, sometimes referred to as la Presidencia de Quito or el Reino de Quito) was A writer is anyone who creates a written work although the word usually designates those who write creatively or professionally as well as those who have written in many different forms A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. Although he was a notable scientist and writer, he stands out as a polemicist who inspired the separatist movement in Quito. Polemics (pəˈlɛmɪks/ /poʊ- is the practice of disputing or controverting religious, philosophical, or political matters Separatism refers to the advocacy of a state of cultural ethnic tribal religious racial or gender separation from the larger group often with demands for greater political autonomy Quito, officially San Francisco de Quito, is the Capital of Ecuador in northwestern South America. He is regarded as one of the most important figures in colonial Ecuador. He was Quito's first journalist and hygienist. As a journalist he spread libertarian ideas in the Royal Audience, and as a hygienist he composed an important treatise about sanitary conditions in colonial Ecuador that included interesting remarks about microorganisms and the spreading of disease. For the modern court see Audiencia Nacional of Spain. The Royal Audiencia and Chancellery ( Spanish: Real audiencia y chancillería A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually
Espejo was noted in his time for being a satirist. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human His satirical works, inspired by the philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment, were critical of the lack of education of the Royal Audience of Quito, the way economy was being handled in the Audience, the corruption of its authorities, and aspects of its culture in general. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Because of these works he was persecuted and finally imprisoned shortly before his death.
The Royal Audience of Quito (or Presidency of Quito) was established as part of the Spanish State by Philip II of Spain on August 29, 1563. Philip II (Felipe II de España Filipe I ( May 21, 1527 &ndash September 13 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598 Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) It was a court of the Spanish Crown with jurisdiction over certain territories of the Viceroyalty of Peru (and later the Viceroyalty of New Granada) that now constitute Ecuador and parts of Peru, Colombia and Brazil. A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its In Law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak" is the practical Authority Created in 1542 the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Virreinato de la Nueva Granada was the name given on May 27, 1717 to a Spanish colonial jurisdiction in northern South America For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Royal Audience was created to strengthen administrative control over those territories and to rule the relations between whites and the natives. Its capital was the city of Quito. Quito, officially San Francisco de Quito, is the Capital of Ecuador in northwestern South America. 
By the 18th century, the Royal Audience of Quito began to have economic problems; a lack of roads led to limited communications. Obrajes—a type of textile factory—had provided jobs, but now found themselves in decline, mainly due to a crackdown on smuggled European cloths and a series of natural disasters.  Obrajes were replaced by haciendas, and the dominant groups continued to exploit the indigenous population. Hacienda is a Spanish word for an estate usually but not always a vast Ranch. 
In the Royal Audience, the education situation worsened after of the expulsion of the Jesuit priests; too few learned people lived in Quito to be able to fill the void. The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a result The majority of the population neither read nor wrote well. On the other hand, the few who could enter the university were given an education which was heavily theoretical and used memorization as the primary learning technique.  Scholasticism, which was in decline in these times, was still taught; and the students spent their time in metaphysical discussions. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries As a result, the intellectual people in Quito—most of whom were clerical—had affected manners when expressing themselves, while having no new ideas. Furthermore, in 1793 only two medical doctors were available in Quito, of which one was Espejo; the majority of people who fell ill were helped by curanderos. A curandero (or curandera for a female is a traditional Folk healer or Shaman in Hispanic America, who is dedicated to curing physical and/or  In Quito at the time, ethnic prejudice was common, and therefore most people considered society to be divided into estates of the realm, which differed by racial origin. The Estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society usually distinguishing Nobility, Clergy, and Commoners recognized in the Middle Ages Because of this, a person's dignity and honor could be damaged by racial prejudices. This brief article is about how the term dignity is used The article presents dignity as it is used by international organizations governments bioethicists academics and 
A slackening of social customs occurred on all social levels; extramarital relationships and illegitimate children were common.  Because poverty was on the rise—especially in the lower classes—many women were forced to find lodgings quickly, for example in convents, or die of hunger. This explained the abundance of the clergy in a small city like Quito; often men were ordained not because of a vocation but because it solved their economic problems and improved their community standing. 
He was baptized Francisco Javier Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo in the El Sagrario parish on February 21, 1747. A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 1747 ( MDCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a According to most historians, his father was Luis de la Cruz Chuzhig, a Quichua Indian from Cajamarca, who arrived in Quito as an assistant to the priest and physician José del Rosario, and his mother was Maria Catalina Aldás, a mulatta native to Quito. Kichwa ( Kichwa shimi, Runashimi, also Spanish Quichua) is a Quechuan language including all Quechua varieties spoken For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Cajamarca is located in the northern highlands of Peru and is the capital of the Cajamarca region. Quito, officially San Francisco de Quito, is the Capital of Ecuador in northwestern South America. A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health Mulatto is a term used to describe a person with one white parent and one black parent or a person whose Ancestry is a mixture of black and white However, some historians, especially Carlos Freile Granizo, argue that contemporary documents imply that Espejo's mother was white; for instance, his parents' marriage was recorded in the book for white marriages (as they were deemed as criollos), and the birth certificates of Espejo and his siblings were entered in the same book. Criollo is a term that dates back to the Spanish colonial Casta system ( Caste system) of Latin America [b]
Espejo had two younger siblings, Juan Pablo and María Manuela. Juan Pablo was born in 1752; he studied with the Dominicans and served as a priest in various parts of the Royal Audience of Quito. The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is María Manuela was born in 1753, and after the death of her parents she came to be cared for by her brother Eugenio.  Despite his family's somewhat unstable economic situation, Espejo had a good education. He instructed himself in medicine by working alongside his father at the Hospital de la Misericordia. According to Espejo, he learned "by experience, which cannot be known without studying with pen in hand. "
Overcoming racial discrimination, he graduated from medical school on July 10, 1767, and shortly afterwards graduated in jurisprudence and canon law (having studied law under Dr. Unlike most discrimination policies discrimination between, which is the discernment of qualities and recognition of the differences focused here discrimination against is Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. Year 1767 ( MDCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Jurisprudence is the Theory and Philosophy of Law. Scholars of jurisprudence or legal philosophers hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches Ramón Yépez from 1780 to 1793). On August 14, 1772, he asked for permission to practice medicine in Quito, and it was granted on November 28, 1772. Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures Year 1772 ( MDCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events Year 1772 ( MDCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a  After that, no information exists about Espejo's whereabouts until 1778, when he wrote a somewhat polemical sermon. 
Between 1772 and 1779, Espejo provoked the colonial authorities, who regarded him as responsible for several satirical and mocking posters. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human A poster is any piece of printed Paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface These posters were attached to the doors of churches and other buildings, and their anonymous author tended to attack the colonial authorities, the clergy or any other subject he deemed convenient. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. Although no surviving posters have been found, evidence from comments Espejo made in his writings suggests that he wrote them. 
In 1779, a reproachful and satirical manuscript was circulated, the El nuevo Luciano de Quito (The New Lucian of Quito),[c] signed by "don Javier de Cía, Apéstegui y Perochena," a pseudonym for Espejo. A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) This work imitated the satire of Lucian, and was especially unsympathetic to the Jesuits. Lucian of Samosata (Λουκιανός ὁ Σαμοσατεύς Lucianus c The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order It also showed the extensive culture of its author, who lived in the isolated and intellectually backward city of Quito. El Nuevo Luciano de Quito was written in dialogues, in order to present his ideas to the common people in an easy way, instead of using tedious explanations meant for scholars.  It satirized the many defects of the society of Quito, especially the corruption of the colonial authorities and the people's lack of education. The use of a pseudonym, a common practice in Europe and the Americas during the Age of Enlightenment, was important to Espejo. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Not only did it provide anonymity, it attempted to remove any hint of his crossbreeding in a culture which granted any white person importance and prestige. Anonymity is derived from the Greek word ανωνυμία, meaning "without a Name " or "namelessness" His pseudonym implied that he had white or European relatives in his mother’s lineage. [d]
Beginning in 1779, Espejo continued writing satires against the government of the Royal Audience, stirred by the condition of society. In June 1780, Espejo wrote Marco Porcio Catón (Marcus Porcius Cato),[e] Once again, Espejo used a pseudonym, “Moisés Blancardo. Marcus Porcius Cato ( Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO (234 BC Tusculum &ndash149 BC was a Roman statesman surnamed the Censor ” In this work, a parodied censor's response to the Nuevo Luciano, he scorned the notions and ideas of its critics. In 1781 he wrote La ciencia blancardina, which he referred to as the second part of Nuevo Luciano, as an answer to the criticism of a Mercedarian priest from Quito. The Royal Celestial and Military Order of Our Lady of Mercy and the Redemption of the Captives is a Roman Catholic religious order established in 1218 by St  Because of his works, by 1783 he was labeled as "restive and subversive. " To get rid of him, the authorities named him head physician for the scientific expedition of Francisco de Requena to the Pará and Marañon rivers to set the limits of the Royal Audience. Pará (pa'ɾa is one of the states of Brazil, located in the northern part of the country The Marañón River (Río Marañón rises about 160 km to the northeast of Lima, Peru, flows through a deeply-eroded Andean valley in a northwesterly direction Espejo tried to decline the appointment, and after that failed, he tried unsuccessfully to flee. His arrest order details one of the few remaining physical descriptions of him. [f] Captured, he was sent back as a "criminal of serious offense," but he was not prosecuted and suffered no significant consequences.
In 1785, he was asked by the cabildo (town council) to write about smallpox, the worst medical problem the Audience faced. For a discussion of the contemporary Spanish and Latin American cabildo see Ayuntamiento. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. For the modern court see Audiencia Nacional of Spain. The Royal Audiencia and Chancellery ( Spanish: Real audiencia y chancillería Espejo used the opportunity to write his most complete and best-written work,  Reflexiones acerca de un método para preservar a los pueblos de las viruelas (Reflections about a method to preserve the people from smallpox), denouncing the way the Audience handled sanitation. This work is a valuable historical source as a description of the hygienic and sanitary conditions of colonial America.
Reflexiones was sent to Madrid, where it was added as an appendix to the second edition of the medical treatise Disertación médica (1786) by Francisco Gil, a member of the Real Academia Médica de España. Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. A treatise is a formal lengthy systematic Discourse on some subject  Instead of recognition, Espejo acquired enemies because his work criticized the physicians and priests in charge of public health in the Royal Audience for their negligence, and he was forced to leave Quito.
On his way to Lima, he stopped in Riobamba, where a group of priests asked him to write a reply to a report written by Ignacio Barreto, chief tax collector. Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking Riobamba (full name San Pedro de Riobamba) is the capital of the Chimborazo Province in central Ecuador, which is located at the Chambo River In writing a report is a document characterized by information or other content reflective of inquiry or investigation which is tailored to the context of a given situation and audience The report accused the priests of Riobamba of various abuses against the Indians in order to take their money. Espejo gladly accepted the task because he wanted to settle accounts with Barreto and other citizens of Riobamba, among them José Miguel Vallejo, who had turned him in to the authorities when he tried to flee Requena’s expedition to the Marañón river.  He wrote Defensa de los curas de Riobamba (Defense of the clergy of Riobamba), a detailed study of the way of life of the Indians from Riobamba and a powerful attack on Barreto’s report.
On March 1787, he continued his attack against his enemies from Riobamba with a series of eight satirical letters which he called Cartas riobambenses. In response, his enemies denounced Espejo before the President of the Royal Audience, Juan José De Villalengua. On August 24, 1787, Villalengua requested that Espejo either to go to Lima or return to Quito to occupy a post in the government, and subsequently arrested him. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Year 1787 ( MDCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Espejo was accused of writing El Retrato de Golilla, a satire against King Charles III and the Marquis de la Sonora, colonial minister of the Indies. Charles III ( January 20, 1716 – December 14, 1788) was King of Spain 1700–88 (as Carlos III King of Naples and A marquess (ˈmɑrkwɪs or marquis (/mɑrˈkiː/ is a Nobleman of hereditary rank in various European monarchies and some of their colonies The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting He was taken to Quito, and from prison he sent three petitions to the Court in Madrid, which decreed, on Charles III's behalf, that the case was to be taken to the Viceroy of Bogotá. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the Monarch. Bogotá —officially named Bogotá DC (DC for " Distrito Capital " which means "Capital District" formerly called Santa Fe de Bogotá President Villalengua feigned ignorance of the matter and sent Espejo to Bogotá to defend his own cause. 
There he met Antonio Nariño and Francisco Antonio Zea and began to develop his ideas on liberty. Antonio Nariño was an ideological precursor and one of the early political and military leaders of the independence movement in Colombia, then known as In 1789, one of his followers, Juan Pio Montufar, arrived in Bogotá, and both men got the approval of important members of the government for the creation of the Escuela de la Concordia, called later the Sociedad Patriótica de Amigos del País de Quito (Patriotic Society of Friends of the Country of Quito).  The Sociedad Económica de los Amigos del País (Economic Society of Friends of the Country) was a private association established in various cities throughout Enlightenment Spain and, to a lesser degree, in some of her colonies. The Sociedades Económicas de Amigos del País (Economic Societies of Friends of the Country were private associations established in various cities throughout Enlightenment Espejo successfully defended himself on the charges against him, and on October 2, 1789, he was set free. Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common On December 2 he was notified he could return to Quito. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire 
In 1790, Espejo returned to Quito to promote the "Sociedad Patriótica" (Patriotic Society), and on November 30, 1791, a branch was established in the Colegio de los Jesuitas; he was elected director and formed four commissions. The Sociedades Económicas de Amigos del País (Economic Societies of Friends of the Country were private associations established in various cities throughout Enlightenment Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 1791 ( MDCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common In the same year, he became director of the first public library, the National Library, originally established with the forty thousand volumes left by the Jesuits after their expulsion from Ecuador. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order 
The main duty of the Society was improving the city of Quito. Its 24 members came together weekly to discuss agricultural, educational, political and social problems and to promote the physical and natural sciences. The Society founded Quito's first newspaper, Primicias de la Cultura de Quito, published by Espejo starting on January 5, 1792. A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. Events 1477 - Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France. Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Through this newspaper liberal ideas, already somewhat known in other parts of Hispanic America, were spread among the people of Quito. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal 
On November 11, 1793, Charles IV dissolved the society. A signature (from Latin signare, " Sign " is a handwritten (and sometimes stylized depiction of someone's name nickname or even a simple Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1793 ( MDCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Charles IV ( November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication  Soon the newspaper disappeared as well. Espejo had no choice but to work as a librarian in the National Library. Because of his liberal ideas, he was imprisoned[g] on January 30, 1795, being allowed to leave his cell only to treat his patients as a doctor and, on December 23, to die at his home from the dysentery he acquired during his imprisonment. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 962 - Byzantine-Arab Wars: Under the future Emperor Nicephorus Phocas, Byzantine troops stormed the city Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an infection of the digestive system that results in severe Diarrhea containing mucus and blood  Eugenio Espejo died on December 28. Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of His death certificate was registered in the book for Indians, mestizos, blacks and mulattoes. A death certificate, sometimes medical certificate of the cause of death (MCCD is a document issued by a government official such as a registrar of Vital statistics
Eugenio Espejo was an autodidact, and he claimed with pride that he never left any book in his hands unread, and if he did, he would make up for it by observing nature. Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-education or self-directed learning Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. However, his desire to read everything indiscriminately sometimes led him to hasty judgments, which appear in his manuscripts. [h] Through his own written work, it can be inferred that Espejo considered education as the main means for popular development. He understood that reading was basic in the formation of the self, and his conscience drove him to critiques of the establishment, based on observation and in the application of the law of his time. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society 
He considered that knowledge was necessary for social, political and economic struggle in defense of the criollos, who were aspiring to achieve political power against the monarchy. Criollo is a term that dates back to the Spanish colonial Casta system ( Caste system) of Latin America A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or (In the long term, that struggle gave birth to sovereign republics. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its ) By his writing, Espejo wanted to educate the people and to awaken a rebellious spirit in them. He embraced equality between Indians and criollos, an ideal that was ignored during the future processes of independence. Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have [i] He also favored women's rights but did not really develop these ideas. [j] He had an advanced understanding of science, considering the circumstances in which he lived. He never traveled abroad but nonetheless understood the relation between microorganisms and the spreading of disease. A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly [k]
When he was arrested, it was rumored that his detention resulted from his support of the "impieties" of the French Revolution. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an  However, Espejo was one of the few people at the time who distinguished between the actual deeds of the French Revolution and the irreligious spirit connected to it, while his contemporaries in Spain and the colonies erroneously identified the emancipation of the Americas with loss of the Catholic faith. Irreligion is a lack of religion indifference to religion or hostility to religion Political freedom is the absence of interference with the sovereignty of an individual by the use of coercion or aggression The accusation of impiety was calculated to incite popular hatred against him. It must be noted that Espejo never lost his faith in Catholicism throughout his lifetime. He condemned the decadence of the clergy, but he never criticized the Church itself.  Eugenio Espejo had a restless desire for knowledge and was anxious to reform by his works a state that seemed to him, influenced as he was by the Enlightenment, to be barbarian in every way. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century "Barbarian" is a pejorative term for an uncivilized person either in a general reference to a member of a nation or Ethnos perceived 
The goal of Espejo’s first three works was the intellectual improvement of Quito. Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro ( Casdemiro, Galicia, 8 October 1676 Oviedo, Asturias, 26 September El Nuevo Luciano de Quito ridiculed the outdated educational system maintained by the clergy. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. Espejo argued that the people of Quito were accustomed to adulation and that they admired any preacher who could quote the Bible in a pompous and insubstantial way. Marco Porcio Catón exposed the ignorance of the pseudointellectuals of Quito. La ciencia blancardina, in which Espejo claimed to be the author of the previous two works, condemned the results of the clergy's educational system: ignorance and affectation.  All three works caused polemic.
Through these three books, Espejo advanced the ideas of European and American scholars such as Feijoo and the Jesuits Verney and Guevara, among others. As a result, many religious orders modified their educational programs. Espejo resented the pseudointellectuals who misled the thought of the city of Quito, disregarding people who were actually knowledgeable. 
Espejo particularly criticized the Jesuits for, among other things, teaching ethics not as a science but as a guide to good manners and for their adoption of Probabilism as a moral guide. Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life In Sociology, manners are the unenforced standards of conduct which show the actor to be Cultured Polite, and refined Probabilism, in Catholic Moral theology, provides a way of answering the question about what to do when Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings  He complained about the lax system for educating priests in Quito and said it instilled slothful habits in students. As a result, the priests had no real idea of their duties towards society and God and had little inclination to study. In El Nuevo Luciano de Quito, he lamented the large number of quacks who pretended to be doctors. In La ciencia blancardina he continued his attack on these quacks while also attacking clerics who worked as physicians without adequate medical education. 
In 1780, in his first discussion of purely religious matters, Espejo wrote a theological letter, Carta al Padre la Graña sobre indulgencias (Letter to Father la Graña about indulgences). Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective [l] In this work, he looked at indulgences in the Catholic Church. An indulgence, in Roman Catholic Theology, is the full or partial Remission of temporal punishment due for Sins which have already been forgiven The letter showed a profound knowledge of theology and dogma. Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek, plural) is the established Belief or It analyzed the historical beginnings of indulgences and their development and cited decrees and bulls written about abuses of indulgences. A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope.  In this work, Espejo staunchly supported the authority of the Pope. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and
On July 19, 1792, Espejo wrote another letter, Segunda carta teológica sobre la Inmaculada Concepción de María (Second theological letter about Mary's Immaculate Conception), in response to a request by the inspector of the Holy Office. Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF ( Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, [m] This letter dealt with the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. For dogmatic context see Roman Catholic Mariology. For artistic depictions see Roman Catholic Marian art. This ecumenical article is about general Christian views on and veneration of the Virgin Mary Once more, this work showed its author's deep knowledge of this religious subject and his appreciation of its standing in the 18th century. (The Immaculate Conception was not formally decreed as dogma until 1950. )
Espejo also wrote a series of sermons, which were notable in their simplicity. Ecuadorian historian and cleric Federico González Suárez considered these sermons worthy of study, even though he mentioned that they lacked an "evangelic spirit. " Espejo can be considered a deeply religious man. 
Starting in 1785, Espejo took an interest in the welfare of his community and the prosperity of Quito. His works between that year and 1792 clearly show the influence of Enlightenment philosophers, whose ideas Espejo adapted to local conditions. As many thinkers realized the power of economics as a social force, Espejo, influenced by Feijoo and Adam Smith among others, showed his desire for commercial and agricultural reforms, especially conservation and proper use of land. An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. A LAND attack is a DoS (Denial of Service attack that consists of sending a special poison spoofed packet to a computer causing it to lock up To advance these ideas, he founded the Escuela de la Concordia (School of Concord). 
His Voto de un ministro togado de la Audiencia de Quito and Memorias sobre el corte de quinas rejected a proposed monopoly of quinine production by the Crown intended to prevent the destruction of the cinchona tree and to expand the Royal Treasury’s income. In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient Quinine (ˈkwaɪnaɪn kwɪˈniːn ˈkwiːniːn is a natural white Crystalline Alkaloid having Antipyretic (fever-reducing antimalarial, Cinchona is a Genus of about 25 Species in the family Rubiaceae, native to tropical South America. Memorias was dedicated to Fernando Cuadrado, who opposed the monopoly. 
Espejo divided his cinchona study into four parts. In the first, he argued that the monopoly would leave workers without jobs and that it would mean the loss of capital invested in cinchona trees. In the second part, he made a number of suggestions, such as developing certain “natural” products of a region with the aim of exporting them. For instance, in Chile the production of wines should be prioritized, in Argentina the production of leather, and so forth. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. In the third part he showed that many workers benefited from the quinine industry, that without it there would be unemployment and unrest, and that the Crown should designate officials to regulate the proper cultivation of the cinchona tree, including reforestation. In the fourth part he made recommendations, such as the need to repress indigenous hostility in the cinchona tree region. 
His Defensa de los curas de Riobamba was written in response to a report from Ignacio Barreto that accused the clergy in Riobamba of various unethical practices. Among other things, the report said that the large number of religious celebrations in Riobamba (frequented by Indians) were prejudicial to Catholic faith, agriculture, industry and the interests of the Crown; also, that priests demanded money from the Indians for entrance into churches and for certain ceremonies, that priests in Riobamba were immoral and finally that most sermons were incomprehensible to the Indians. 
Espejo attacked Barreto’s report in three ways. First, he claimed that Barreto, supposed author of the report, was not capable of writing it. Then he argued that the allegations were exaggerated semi-truths or outright lies. And finally he claimed that the economic problems of Quito could not be solved by exploiting its human resources (the Indians) but by planning and taking advantage of the natural resources of the region. 
Espejo realized that the charges against the clergy were so serious that he had to focus on destroying Barreto’s credibility. Credibility refers to the objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message Therefore, he implied that Barreto’s own conduct was outrageous because of his excesses in collecting taxes and his habit of paying public funds to licentious women. Additionally, he stated that the real author of the report was José Miguel Vallejo, whom he also called an immoral man who despised the clergy. Thus, Espejo claimed the report should not be believed. 
It appears that Espejo was motivated more by the opportunity to attack his personal enemies in this work than to analyze the case and defend the clergy of Riobamba. Still, his talent as a lawyer can be seen in his Representaciones (Representations), which caused him to be freed after his arrest in 1787 for his supposed authorship of El Retrato de Golilla.  In these documents, he defended his loyalty to the Crown, commented on the unfairness of his captivity by mentioning the indignation that many distinguished men felt about his arrest, and clarified his writing goals. This served him as a prelude to his main subject: denying being the author of El Retrato de Golilla.
The Spanish Crown was deeply concerned with public health. Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts and informed choices of society organisations Diseases had always troubled the colonies, and town councils spent money to bring physicians or sanitary equipment from other parts of the Americas. Reports by doctors about the sanitary and hygienic conditions of various neighborhoods of the cities were frequent.  As a man of science, Eugenio Espejo demonstrated his knowledge of the latest scientific advances in Europe and the Americas. Most of the arguments and recommendations he made in his medical works can be found in contemporary sources, such as the Mémoires of the French Academy of Sciences. The French Academy of Sciences ( French: Académie des sciences) is a Learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the 
The Presidency of Quito was especially concerned with prevention of smallpox. Villalengua, President of the Royal Audience, gathered all of Quito’s physicians to discuss the application of methods suggested by the Spanish scientist Francisco Gil, and Espejo was asked to write his Reflexiones acerca de un método para preservar a los pueblos de las viruelas. "[n] Reflexiones, completed on November 11, 1785, was divided in two parts: the first dealt with prevention of smallpox in Quito, while the second dealt with obstacles on the path to its eradication. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1785 ( MDCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Espejo's knowledge of inoculations and the quarantine of smallpox victims was remarkably advanced for his day. 
Reflexiones recommended using proven methods supported by Spanish and foreign doctors. It refuted the common belief that the separation and destruction of contaminated clothes was impractical, and it promoted personal hygiene among the people of Quito. Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness Espejo tried to convince people of the dangers of smallpox. He understood the current European medical theories about contagious diseases and warned against the incorrect belief that smallpox was transmitted by polluted air. Citing the English doctor Thomas Sydenham, he suggested the construction of an isolated country house as a hospital. Thomas Sydenham (or Syndenham ( September 10, 1624 &ndash December 29, 1689) was an English Physician. 
Dealing with sanitation, Espejo observed that the hospital (Hospital de la Misericordia) of the city, the monasteries and the places of worship were filthy and that this would certainly contribute to future epidemics. He disapproved of the custom of burying the dead inside churches; instead, he suggested burying the dead outside the city limits in a graveyard chosen by the Church and owned by the town council.  Finally, he condemned the management of the hospital by the Bethlehemites. Bethlehemites is a name borne at different times by three orders dedicated to Our Lady of Bethlehem in the Roman Catholic Church. He said their methods were outdated and that they provided poor service. The staff of the hospital reacted badly to this, and Espejo lost the friendship of his mentor, José del Rosario. 
Espejo is considered the precursor of the independence movement in Quito. In secret, he advanced emancipation not only for the Presidency of Quito but for all of Hispanic America. He believed that once free of Spanish rule, the colonies would become independent nations under republican and democratic government. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system In order to achieve that, he proposed that the viceroyalties and presidencies unite closely and rise simultaneously against the Crown. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the Monarch. 
He also believed that only people born in the Americas (criollos) should participate in the new government. He did not support the expulsion of foreigners but encouraged their return to Spain if they wanted. However, he took the view that they should not be involved in government if they stayed. Regarding religion, he believed that religious reform was essential but was convinced that it had to be carried out by the highest ecclesiastical authorities on request of the civil government. He also said that clerics should serve only in their place of origin; in other words, the local ecclesiastical system should have no foreign priests.  Espejo died in 1795, but these ideas had a powerful influence on three of his close friends: Juan Pío Montúfar, Juan de Dios Morales and Juan de Salinas. They, along with Manuel Rodriguez Quiroga, founded the revolutionary movement of August 10, 1809, in Quito, when the city declared independence from Spain. Events 612 BC - Killing of Sinsharishkun, King of Assyrian Empire Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. 
Espejo published Quito's first newspaper, and therefore he is regarded as the founder of Ecuadorian journalism. The sucre was the Currency of Ecuador between 1884 and 2000 Its ISO code was ECS and it was subdivided into 10 decimos or 100 He is also considered Ecuador's first literary critic; according to Spanish scholar Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo, Espejo's Nuevo Luciano is the oldest critical work written in South America. The word critic comes from the Greek el κριτικός ( el-Latn kritikós) "able to discern" which in turn derives from the word Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo ( November 3, 1856 &ndash May 2, 1912) was a Spanish scholar historian and literary Critic South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a 
His influence can also be seen in Ecuadorian thought in general, as his work has been one of its principal influences; Ecuadorian education, as he promoted new pedagogical ideas, such as the creation of good citizens instead of merely imparting knowledge, and finally Ecuadorian science, as he was, along with Pedro Vicente Maldonado, one of the two most important scientists of colonial Ecuador. Pedro Vicente Maldonado, ( Riobamba, Royal Audience of Quito, Viceroyalty of Peru, Spain, November 24, 1704 – London  Espejo analyzed the reality of colonial Quito, the poverty of its people and their lack of good education, and he denounced the corruption of the colonial authorities. Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and 
a. ^ There are discrepancies about the origin of the surnames "Santa Cruz y Espejo;" José del Rosario declared that his father, Luis Espejo, was first named Benítez, changed his surname to Chusig and finally to Espejo. Ecuadorian researcher Alberto Muñoz Vernaza claimed that his real surname was Espejo and that the name Chusig (owl) was a nickname Espejo had in Cajamarca. According to José del Rosario, the surname "Santa Cruz" was added "because of devotion" (Astuto, Philip L. , Eugenio Espejo (1747 - 1795). Reformador ecuatoriano de la Ilustración, p. 73).
b. ^ Freile maintains that the notion of Espejo's indigenous origins sustained by most modern historians comes from their interpretation of the claims made against him by his contemporary enemies, who called him "indio" (Indian) in order to slander him in a racist society.
c. ^ Its full name is El nuevo Luciano de Quito o Despertador de los ingenios quiteños en nueve conversaciones eruditas para el estímulo de la literatura.
d. ^ Aware of the prejudices of the society of his time, Espejo requested a dossier that proved his Spanish lineage. The dossier mentioned that Espejo's mother was born from a noble Navarran family. When he asked for the post of librarian in 1781, he showed that certificate (Astuto, 78-79).
e. ^ Its full name is Marco Porcio Catón o Memorias para la impugnación del nuevo Luciano de Quito.
f. ^ "He has average height, long face, long nose, tanned skin, and a visible hole on the left side of his face" (Herrera, Pablo, Ensayo sobre la historia de la literatura ecuatoriana, pp. 125, 145).
g. ^ The authorities finally found evidence against Espejo when his brother, Juan Pablo, told his lover, Francisca Navarrete, about the plans of Eugenio. He was charged with treachery to the Crown (Astuto, 94).
h. ^ One of his characters thought it paradoxical to live in what he called "the era of idiocy and . . . the century of ignorance" and yet refer to it as the Age of Enlightenment. (Weber, David J. , Spaniards and Their Savages in the Age of Enlightenment, p. 5).
i. ^ "Los miserables indios, en tanto que no tengan, por patrimonio y bienes de fortuna, más que sólo sus brazos, no han de tener nada que perder. Mientras no los traten mejor; no les paguen con más puntualidad, su cortísimo salario; no les aumenten el que deben llevar por su trabajo; no les introduzcan el gusto de vestir, de comer, y de la policía en general; no les hagan sentir que son hermanos, nuestros estimables y nobilísimos siervos, nada han de tener que ganar, y por consiguiente la pérdida ha de ser ninguna" (Biblioteca de Autores Ecuatorianos de Clásicos Ariel, 24).
j. ^ According to Philip Astuto, "He thought that the solution to such plain ignorance was the construction of schools and the education of youth without excluding women" (Astuto, 93).
k. ^ "Si se pudieran apurar más las observaciones microscópicas, aún más allá a lo que las adelantaron Malpigio, Reaumur, Buffon y Needham, quizá encontraríamos en la incubación, desarrollamiento, situación, figura, movimiento y duración de estos corpúsculos móvibles, la regla que podría servir a explicar toda la naturaleza, grados, propiedades y síntomas de todas las fiebres epidémicas, y en particular de la Viruela" (Biblioteca de Autores Ecuatorianos de Clásicos Ariel, 22).
l. ^ Its full name is Carta del padre La Graña del orden de San Francisco, sobre indulgencias escrita por el mismo doctor Espejo, tomando el nombre de este padre que fue sabio y de gran erudición.
m. ^ In 1792, the Dominicans of the Convento Máximo de Quito published a series of theological theses. One of them stated that original sin was transmitted to every single descendant of Adam, without exception. As it never mentioned the subject of the Virgin Mary, it was rumoured that the Dominicans took the view that Mary was born with original sin. The Inspector denounced the thesis, and in face of the protest of the Dominicans, entrusted Espejo with replying to the Dominican thesis and rebutting their ideas (Astuto, 138).
n. ^ Its full name is Reflexiones sobre la virtud, importancia y conveniencias que propone don Francisco Gil, cirujano del Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo y su sitio, e individuo de la Real Academia Médica de Madrid, en su Disertación físico-médica, acerca de un método seguro para preservar a los pueblos de las viruelas.
Note: There is no available bibliography in English about Eugenio Espejo.
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Writer, lawyer, physician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 21, 1747|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Quito|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 28, 1795|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Quito|