|Created by:||L. L. Zamenhof||1887|
|Setting and usage:||International auxiliary language|
|Total speakers:||Native: 200 to 2000 (1996, est. Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof (ˈzɑːmɨnhɒf in English born Eliezer Samenhof December 15 1859 &ndash April 14 1917 was an ophthalmologist, Philologist An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a Language meant for communication between people from Native Esperanto speakers (in Esperanto denaskuloj) are born into families in which Esperanto (and usually other languages is spoken );|
Fluent speakers: est. 100,000 to 2 million
|Category (purpose):||constructed language|
International auxiliary language
|Category (sources):||Vocabulary from Romance and Germanic languages; phonology from Slavic languages|
|Regulated by:||Akademio de Esperanto|
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. A constructed or artificial language known colloquially or informally as a conlang is a Language whose Phonology, Grammar An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a Language meant for communication between people from The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) a group of closely related Languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages This is a list of bodies that regulate Standard languages Natural languages Auxiliary languages Interlingua The auxiliary language The Akademio de Esperanto (Academy of Esperanto is an independent body intended to control the evolution of the language Esperanto by keeping it consistent with the ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages ISO 639 -3 (ISO 639-32007 is an international standard for Language codes The standard describes three‐letter codes for identifying languages In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's|
constructed international auxiliary language in the world. A constructed or artificial language known colloquially or informally as a conlang is a Language whose Phonology, Grammar An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a Language meant for communication between people from  Its name derives from Doktoro Esperanto, the pseudonym under which L. L. Zamenhof published the first book detailing Esperanto, the Unua Libro, in 1887. A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof (ˈzɑːmɨnhɒf in English born Eliezer Samenhof December 15 1859 &ndash April 14 1917 was an ophthalmologist, Philologist The Unua Libro ( First Book) was the first publication to describe the international language Esperanto (then called Lingvo Internacia, "international The word esperanto means 'one who hopes' in the language itself. Zamenhof's goal was to create an easy and flexible language that would serve as a universal second language to foster peace and international understanding. A second language (L2 is any Language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1is the most widely spoken
Esperanto has had continuous usage by a community estimated at between 100,000 and 2 million speakers for over a century. By most estimates, there are approximately one thousand native speakers. Native Esperanto speakers (in Esperanto denaskuloj) are born into families in which Esperanto (and usually other languages is spoken  However, no country has adopted the language officially. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Today, Esperanto is employed in world travel, correspondence, cultural exchange, conventions, literature, language instruction, television, and radio broadcasting. 
There is evidence that learning Esperanto may provide a good foundation for learning languages in general. The propaedeutic value of Esperanto is the benefit that using Esperanto as an introduction to foreign language study has on the teaching of subsequent foreign languages Some state education systems offer basic instruction and elective courses in Esperanto. Esperanto is also the language of instruction in one university, the Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj in San Marino. The Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino (AIS or International Academy of Sciences San Marino is a scientific association of universitarian character The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino is a country in the Apennine Mountains.
Esperanto was developed in the late 1870s and early 1880s by ophthalmologist Dr. Ludovic Lazarus Zamenhof, an Ashkenazi Jew from Bialystok, now in Poland and previously in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but at the time part of the Russian Empire. Ophthalmology is the branch of Medicine which deals with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways including the Eye, Brain Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof (ˈzɑːmɨnhɒf in English born Eliezer Samenhof December 15 1859 &ndash April 14 1917 was an ophthalmologist, Philologist Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim ( Hebrew: אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, ˌaʃkəˈnazim sing Białystok Lublin Voivodeship Białystok (also known by alternative names) is the largest City in northeastern Poland. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya
After some ten years of development, which Zamenhof spent translating literature into the language as well as writing original prose and verse, the first book of Esperanto grammar was published in Warsaw in July 1887. For the Wikipedia guideline regarding editing articles see WikipediaManual of Style. The Unua Libro ( First Book) was the first publication to describe the international language Esperanto (then called Lingvo Internacia, "international Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland. The number of speakers grew rapidly over the next few decades, at first primarily in the Russian empire and Eastern Europe, then in Western Europe, the Americas, China, and Japan. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. In the early years, speakers of Esperanto kept in contact primarily through correspondence and periodicals, but in 1905 the first world congress of Esperanto speakers was held in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. Magazines, periodicals or serials are Publications generally published on a regular schedule containing a variety of articles, generally The World Congress of Esperanto (in Esperanto Universala Kongreso de Esperanto) has the longest tradition among international Esperanto conventions with Boulogne-sur-Mer ( Bonen in Dutch is a City in Northern France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Since then world congresses have been held in different countries every year, except during the two World Wars. A world war is a War affecting the majority of the world's most powerful and populous nations Since the Second World War, they have been attended by an average of over 2000 and up to 6000 people.
As a potential vehicle for international understanding, Esperanto attracted the suspicion of many totalitarian states. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private The situation was especially pronounced in Nazi Germany and in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party
In Germany, there was additional motivation to persecute Esperanto because Zamenhof was a Jew. In his work Mein Kampf, Hitler mentioned Esperanto as an example of a language that would be used by an International Jewish Conspiracy once they achieved world domination. Mein Kampf ( English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by Adolf Hitler. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately An antisemitic canard is a deliberately false story inciting Antisemitism. A Conspiracy is defined by law as an agreement by two or more persons to commit a crime fraud or other wrongful act World domination (sometimes world conquest, global domination, or Colloquially taking over the world) in which a single political authority  Esperantists were executed during the Holocaust, with Zamenhof's family in particular singled out for execution. An Esperantist is a person who speaks or uses Esperanto. Etymologically an Esperantist is someone who hopes The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as 
In the early years of the Soviet Union, Esperanto was given a measure of government support, and an officially recognized Soviet Esperanto Association came into being.  However, in 1937, Stalin reversed this policy. He denounced Esperanto as "the language of spies" and had Esperantists executed. The use of Esperanto remained illegal until 1956. 
Esperanto has never been an official language of any recognized country. However, there were plans at the beginning of the 20th century to establish Neutral Moresnet as the world's first Esperanto state. In China, there was talk in some circles after the 1911 Xinhai Revolution about officially replacing Chinese with Esperanto as a means to dramatically bring the country into the twentieth century, though this policy proved untenable. The Xinhai Revolution or Shinhai Revolution ( also known as the 1911 Revolution or the Chinese Revolution, began with the Wuchang Uprising In the summer of 1924, the American Radio Relay League adopted Esperanto as its official international auxiliary language, and hoped that the language would be used by radio amateurs in international communications, but its actual use for radio communications was negligible. The American Radio Relay League (ARRL is the largest membership association of Amateur radio enthusiasts in the USA. An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a Language meant for communication between people from Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a Hobby and a service in which participants called "hams" use various types of Radio communications In addition, the self-proclaimed artificial island micronation of Rose Island used Esperanto as its official language in 1968. An artificial island is an Island that has been constructed by humans rather than formed by natural means Micronations &mdash sometimes also referred to as model countries and new country projects &mdash are entities that resemble independent Nations or The Republic of Rose Island ( Esperanto: Respubliko de la Insulo de la Rozoj) was a short-lived Micronation on a man-made platform in the Adriatic Sea Esperanto is the working language of several non-profit international organizations such as the Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda, but most others are specifically Esperanto organizations. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda ( SAT; in English World Anational Non-National Association) is an independent worldwide cultural Esperanto association of a The largest of these, the World Esperanto Association, has an official consultative relationship with the United Nations and UNESCO. The World Esperanto Association (in Esperanto UEA: Universala Esperanto-Asocio) is the largest international organization of Esperanto speakers The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 The U. S. Army has published military phrasebooks in Esperanto, to be used in wargames by mock enemy forces. Military simulations, also known informally as war games, are simulations in which theories of warfare can be tested and refined without the need for actual hostilities Esperanto is also the first language of teaching and administration of the International Academy of Sciences San Marino, which is sometimes called an "Esperanto University". The Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino (AIS or International Academy of Sciences San Marino is a scientific association of universitarian character
As a constructed language, Esperanto is not genealogically related to any ethnic language. A constructed or artificial language known colloquially or informally as a conlang is a Language whose Phonology, Grammar Genealogy (from Greek: el γενεά el-Latn genea, "descent" and el λόγος el-Latn logos, "knowledge" is the study of It has been described as "a language lexically predominantly Romanic, morphologically intensively agglutinative and to a certain degree isolating in character". In Linguistics, the lexicon (from Greek Λεξικόν of a language is its Vocabulary, including its words and expressions The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all Morphology is the field of Linguistics that studies the internal structure of words In Linguistics, agglutination is the morphological process ofadding Affixes to the base of a Word. In morphological typology (in linguistics an isolating language (also analytic language) is any Language in which words are composed of  The phonology, grammar, vocabulary, and semantics are based on the western Indo-European languages. Phonology ( Greek φωνή (phōnē voice sound + λόγος (lógos word speech subject of discussion is the systematic use of sound to encode meaning Grammar is the field of Linguistics that covers the Rules governing the use of any given natural language. The vocabulary of a person is defined either as the set of all Words that are understood by that person or the set of all words likely to be used by that person when constructing Semantics is the study of meaning in communication The word derives from Greek σημαντικός ( semantikos) "significant" from The phonemic inventory is essentially Slavic, as is much of the semantics, while the vocabulary derives primarily from the Romance languages, with a lesser contribution from the Germanic languages. The phoneME project is Sun Microsystems reference implementation of Java virtual machine and associated libraries of Java ME with source licensed under the GNU The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) a group of closely related Languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages The vocabulary of a person is defined either as the set of all Words that are understood by that person or the set of all words likely to be used by that person when constructing The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. Pragmatics and other aspects of the language not specified by Zamenhof's original documents were influenced by the native languages of early speakers, primarily Russian, Polish, German, and French. Pragmatics is the study of the ability of Natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people
Typologically, Esperanto has prepositions and a pragmatic word order that by default is Subject Verb Object and Adjective Noun. Linguistic Typology is an international Peer-reviewed journal in the field of Linguistic typology, founded in 1997 In Grammar, a preposition is a Part of speech that introduces a prepositional phrase. In Discourse -based grammatical theory information flow is any tracking of referential information by speakers In Linguistic typology, subject-verb-object ( SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first the Verb second and the object In Linguistics, word order typology refers to the study of the different ways in which languages arrange the constituents of their sentences relative to each other and the systematic New words are formed through extensive prefixing and suffixing. An affix is a Morpheme that is attached to a stem to form a word In Grammar, a suffix (also postfix, ending) is an Affix which is placed at the end of a word
Esperanto is written with a modified version of the Latin alphabet, including six letters with diacritics: ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ and ŭ (that is, c, g, h, j, s circumflex, and u breve). Esperanto is written in a Latin alphabet of twenty-eight letters with upper and lower case A letter is an element in an Alphabetic system of writing such as the Greek alphabet and its descendants A diacritic ( also called a diacritic or diacritical mark, point, or sign, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation Ĉ or ĉ (C Circumflex) is a Consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing a Voiceless Postalveolar Affricate The grapheme Č (Latin C with Háček) is used in various contexts usually denoting the Voiceless postalveolar affricate Consonant not unlike Ĥ, or ĥ is a Consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing a Voiceless velar fricative or Voiceless uvular fricative. Ĵ or ĵ (J Circumflex) is a Consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing a Voiced Postalveolar Fricative Ŝ or ŝ (S Circumflex) is a Consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing a Voiceless postalveolar fricative (either Palato-alveolar Ŭ or ŭ is a letter in the Belarusian language, when written in the 20th cent Pitch The circumflex accent was first used in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, where it occurred (subject to certain rules on the accented syllable Length The breve sign indicates a short vowel as opposed to the Macron  ¯ which indicates long vowels in academic transcription The alphabet does not include the letters q, w, x, or y except in unassimilated foreign names.
The 28-letter alphabet is:
All letters are pronounced approximately as in the IPA, with the exception of c and the accented letters:
(as aŭ, eŭ)
Two ASCII-compatible writing conventions are in use. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA is a system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet, devised by the International Phonetic American Standard Code for Information Interchange ( ASCII) These substitute digraphs for the accented letters. A digraph, bigraph, or digram is a pair of characters used to write one Phoneme (distinct sound or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond The original "h-convention" (ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, u) is based on English 'ch' and 'sh', while a more recent "x-convention" (cx, gx, hx, jx, sx, ux) is useful for alphabetic word sorting on a computer (cx comes correctly after cu, sx after sv, etc. The x-convention or iksokodo or iksa-sistemo is a surrogate writing system for Esperanto that is compatible with ASCII -only systems such as certain A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. ) as well as for simple conversion back into the standard orthography. The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific Writing system to write the language
Esperanto has 22 consonants, 5 vowels, and two semivowels, which combine with the vowels to form 6 diphthongs. The creator of Esperanto, L L Zamenhof, did not specify phonemic-phonetic correspondences for his language In Articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a Speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the upper Vocal tract, the upper vocal In Phonetics, a vowel is a Sound in spoken Language, such as English ah! or oh!, pronounced with an open Vocal tract Semivowels — also known as glides or non-syllabic vowels —are Vowels that form Diphthongs with full syllabic vowels In Phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (from Greek grc δίφθογγος "diphthongos" literally "with two sounds" or "with (The consonant /j/ and semivowel /i̯/ are both written <j>. ) Tone is not used to distinguish meanings of words. Tone is the use of pitch in Language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning—that is to distinguish or inflect words Stress is always on the penultimate vowel, unless a final vowel o is elided, a practice which occurs mostly in poetry. In Linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain Syllables in a word Elision is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a Vowel, a Consonant, or a whole Syllable) in a word or phrase producing a result that is easier For example, familio "family" is stressed IPA: [fa.mi.ˈli.o], but when found without the final o, famili’, the stress does not shift: [fa. mi. ˈli].
The 22 consonants are:
The sound /r/ is usually rolled, but may be tapped [ɾ]. In Phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a Consonant articulated with both Lips The bilabial consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet In Phonetics, labiodentals are Consonants articulated with the lower Lip and the upper Teeth. Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior Alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets Postalveolar consonants are Consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the Alveolar ridge, placing them a bit further back in the Palatal consonants are Consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the Hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth Glottal consonants are Consonants articulated with the Glottis. A nasal consonant (also called nasal stop or nasal continuant) is produced with a lowered velum in the mouth allowing air to escape freely through the A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a Consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the Vocal tract. Affricate Consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or) but release as a fricative (such as or or occasionally into Fricatives are Consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together In Phonetics, a trill is a Consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the Place of articulation. Approximants are speech sounds ( Phonemes) that could be regarded as intermediate between Vowels and typical Consonants In the articulation of approximants The alveolar trill is a type of Consonantal sound used in some spoken Languages The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental The alveolar tap or flap is a type of Consonantal sound used in some spoken Languages The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that The /v/ has a normative pronunciation like an English v, but is sometimes somewhere between a v and a w, [ʋ], depending on the language background of the speaker. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A semivowel /u̯/ normally occurs only in diphthongs after the vowels /a/ and /e/, not as a consonant */w/. In Phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (from Greek grc δίφθογγος "diphthongos" literally "with two sounds" or "with Common, if debated, assimilation includes the pronunciation of /nk/ as [ŋk], as in English sink, and /kz/ as [gz], like the x in English example. Assimilation is a common Phonological process by which the phonetics of a speech segment becomes more like that of another segment in a word (or at a word boundary
A large number of consonant clusters can occur, up to three in initial position and four in medial position, as in instrui "to teach". Final clusters are uncommon except in foreign names, poetic elision of final o, and a very few basic words such as cent "hundred" and post "after".
Esperanto has the five cardinal vowels of Spanish, Swahili, and Modern Greek. Cardinal vowels are a set of reference vowels used by phoneticians in describing the sounds of languages Swahili (called Kiswahili in the language itself is the First language of the Swahili people (Waswahili who inhabit several large stretches Modern Greek (el Νέα Ελληνικά or el Νεοελληνική lit
There are six falling diphthongs: uj, oj, ej, aj, aŭ, eŭ (/ui̯, oi̯, ei̯, ai̯, au̯, eu̯/). A front vowel is a type of Vowel sound used in some spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a front vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far forward A back vowel is a type of Vowel sound used in some spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a back vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far back as A close vowel is a type of Vowel sound used in many spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a close vowel is that the tongue is positioned as close as A mid vowel is a Vowel sound used in some spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a mid vowel is that the tongue is positioned mid-way between an An open vowel is a Vowel sound of a type used in most spoken Languages The defining characteristic of an open vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far as
With only five vowels, a good deal of variation is tolerated. For instance, /e/ commonly ranges from [e] (French é) to [ɛ] (French è). The details often depend on the speaker's native language. A glottal stop may occur between adjacent vowels in some people's speech, especially when the two vowels are the same, as in heroo "hero" ([he. This article is about the sound in spoken language For the letter see Glottal stop (letter. ˈro. o] or [he. ˈro. ʔo]) and praavo "great-grandfather" ([pra. ˈa. vo] or [pra. ˈʔa. vo]).
Esperanto words are derived by stringing together prefixes, roots, and suffixes. Esperanto is a constructed auxiliary language. A highly regular grammar makes Esperanto much easier to learn than most other languages of the world though In Linguistics, derivation is "Used to form new words as with happi-ness and un-happy from happy, or determination from An affix is a Morpheme that is attached to a stem to form a word The root is the primary lexical unit of a Word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents In Grammar, a suffix (also postfix, ending) is an Affix which is placed at the end of a word This process is regular, so that people can create new words as they speak and be understood. Compound words are formed with a modifier-first, head-final order, the same order as English "birdsong" vs. In Linguistics, a compound is a Lexeme (less precisely a Word) that consists of more than one stem. In linguistics the head is the word that determines the syntactic type of the Phrase of which it is a member or analogously the stem that determines the "songbird".
The different parts of speech are marked by their own suffixes: all common nouns end in -o, all adjectives in -a, all derived adverbs in -e, and all verbs in one of six tense and mood suffixes, such as present tense -as. In Grammar, a lexical category (also word class, lexical class, or in traditional grammar part of speech) is a linguistic category of words (or In Grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a Noun or Pronoun, giving more information about the For English usage of verbs see the wiki article English verbs. Grammatical tense is a temporal linguistic quality expressing the time at during or over which a state or action denoted by a verb occurs Grammatical mood is one of a set of distinctive Verb forms that are used to signal modality. Present Tense is the first Sagittarius album released in 1968 by Columbia Records.
Plural nouns end in -oj (pronounced "oy"), whereas direct objects end in -on. In linguistics grammatical number is a Grammatical category of nouns pronouns and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one" An object in Grammar is a Sentence element and part of the sentence predicate. Plural direct objects end with the combination -ojn (pronounced to rhyme with "coin"): That is, -o for a noun, plus -j for plural, plus -n for direct object. Adjectives agree with their nouns; their endings are plural -aj (pronounced "eye"), direct-object -an, and plural direct-object -ajn (pronounced to rhyme with "fine"). In linguistics grammatical number is a Grammatical category of nouns pronouns and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one"
The suffix -n is used to indicate the goal of movement and a few other things, in addition to the direct object. In Grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a Noun or Pronoun, giving more information about the See Esperanto grammar for details. Esperanto is a constructed auxiliary language. A highly regular grammar makes Esperanto much easier to learn than most other languages of the world though
The six verb inflections consist of three tenses and three moods. In Grammar, inflection or inflexion is the way language handles grammatical relations and relational categories such as tense, mood, voice They are present tense -as, future tense -os, past tense -is, infinitive mood -i, conditional mood -us, and jussive mood -u (used for wishes and commands). Present Tense is the first Sagittarius album released in 1968 by Columbia Records. In Grammar, the future tense is a verb form that marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet but expected to happen in the future (in an Absolute tense The past tense is a Verb tense expressing action activity state or being in the past of the current moment (in an Absolute tense system or prior In Grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages The conditional mood is the form of the verb used in Conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set Grammatical mood is one of a set of distinctive Verb forms that are used to signal modality. Verbs are not marked for person or number. For instance: kanti "to sing"; mi kantas "I sing"; mi kantis "I sang"; mi kantos "I will sing"; li kantas "he sings"; vi kantas "you sing".
Word order is comparatively free: Adjectives may precede or follow nouns, and subjects, verbs and objects (marked by the suffix -n) may occur in any order. Present Tense is the first Sagittarius album released in 1968 by Columbia Records. The past tense is a Verb tense expressing action activity state or being in the past of the current moment (in an Absolute tense system or prior In Grammar, the future tense is a verb form that marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet but expected to happen in the future (in an Absolute tense In Grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages Grammatical mood is one of a set of distinctive Verb forms that are used to signal modality. The conditional mood is the form of the verb used in Conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set However, the article la "the" and demonstratives such as tiu "this, that" almost always come before the noun, and a preposition such as ĉe "at" must come before it. Demonstratives are deictic words (they depend on an external frame of reference that indicate which entities a speaker refers to and distinguishes those entities from others In Grammar, a preposition is a Part of speech that introduces a prepositional phrase. Similarly, the negative ne "not" and conjunctions such as kaj "both, and" and ke "that" must precede the phrase or clause they introduce. In Grammar, a phrase is a group of Words that functions as a single unit in the Syntax of a sentence. In Grammar, a clause is a word or group of words that consists of a subject and a predicate, although in some Languages and some types of In copular (A = B) clauses, word order is just as important as it is in English clauses like "people are dogs" vs. "dogs are people".
A correlative is a word used to ask or answer a question of who, where, what, when, or how. The word base of Esperanto was originally defined by Lingvo internacia published by Zamenhof in 1887 A pro-form is a type of Function word or expression that stands in for (expresses the same content as another word phrase clause or sentence whose meaning is recoverable Correlatives in Esperanto are set out in a systematic manner that correlates a basic idea (quantity, manner, time, etc. An idea is a form (such as a Thought) formed by Consciousness (including Mind) through the Process of ideation. ) to a function (questioning, indicating, negating, etc. )
(who, which one; which [horse])
(that one; that [horse])
(someone; some [horse])
(everyone; each [horse], all [horses])
(no one; no [horse])
(some sort of)
(every kind of)
(no kind of)
(in every way)
(no-how, in no way)
(for some reason)
(for all reasons)
(for no reason)
(some, a bit)
(all of it)
Correlatives are declined if the case demands it:
The core vocabulary of Esperanto was defined by Lingvo internacia, published by Zamenhof in 1887. The word base of Esperanto was originally defined by Lingvo internacia published by Zamenhof in 1887 It comprised 900 roots, which could be expanded into tens of thousands of words with prefixes, suffixes, and compounding. In 1894, Zamenhof published the first Esperanto dictionary, Universala Vortaro, with a larger set of roots. A dictionary is a book of alphabetically listed Words in a specific language with definitions etymologies pronunciations and other information or a book of alphabetically However, the rules of the language allowed speakers to borrow new roots as needed, recommending only that they look for the most international forms, and then derive related meanings from these.
Since then, many words have been borrowed, primarily but not solely from the Western European languages. Not all proposed borrowings catch on, but many do, especially technical and scientific terms. Technical terminology is the specialized Vocabulary of a field Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Terms for everyday use, on the other hand, are more likely to be derived from existing roots—for example komputilo (a computer) from komputi (to compute) plus the suffix -ilo (tool)—or to be covered by extending the meanings of existing words (for example muso (a mouse), as in English, now also means a computer input device). There are frequent debates among Esperanto speakers about whether a particular borrowing is justified or whether the need can be met by deriving from or extending the meaning of existing words.
In addition to the root words and the rules for combining them, a learner of Esperanto must memorize some idiomatic compounds that are not entirely straightforward. For example, eldoni, literally "to give out", is used for "to publish" (a calque of words in several European languages with the same derivation), and vortaro, literally "a collection of words", means "a glossary" or "a dictionary". In Linguistics, a calque (kælk or loan translation is a Word or Phrase borrowed from another Language by Literal, word-for-word Such forms are modeled after usage in some European languages, and speakers of other languages may find them illogical. Fossilized derivations inherited from Esperanto's source languages may be similarly obscure, such as the opaque connection the root word centralo "power station" has with centro "center". Compounds with -um- are overtly arbitrary, and must be learned individually, as -um- has no defined meaning. It turns dekstren "to the right" into dekstrumen "clockwise", and komuna "common/shared" into komunumo "community", for example.
Nevertheless, there are not nearly as many idiomatic or slang words in Esperanto as in ethnic languages, as these tend to make international communication difficult, working against Esperanto's main goal. Slang is the use of highly informal Words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speaker's Dialect or Language.
Here are some useful Esperanto phrases, with IPA transcriptions:
The following short extract gives an idea of the character of Esperanto.  (Pronunciation is covered above. The main point for English speakers to remember is that the letter 'J' has the sound of the letter 'Y' in English)
The majority of Esperanto speakers learn the language through self-directed study, online tutorials, and correspondence courses taught by volunteers. In more recent years, teaching websites like lernu! have become popular. lernu! is a Multilingual, Web -based free-of-charge project for promoting and teaching Esperanto.
Esperanto instruction is occasionally available at schools, such as a pilot project involving four primary schools under the supervision of the University of Manchester, and by one count at 69 universities . is by far the most widely spoken constructed International auxiliary language in the world However, outside of China and Hungary, these mostly involve informal arrangements rather than dedicated departments or state sponsorship. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest had a department of Interlinguistics and Esperanto from 1966 to 2004, after which time instruction moved to vocational colleges; there are state examinations for Esperanto instructors.  
Various educators have estimated that Esperanto can be learned in anywhere from one quarter to one twentieth the amount of time required for other languages.  Some argue, however, that this is only true for native speakers of Western European languages.  Claude Piron, a psychologist formerly at the University of Geneva and Chinese-English-Russian-Spanish translator for the United Nations, argued that Esperanto is far more "brain friendly" than many ethnic languages. Claude Piron ( 26 February 1931 &ndash 22 January 2008) a linguist and psychologist, was a translator for the United The University of Geneva (Université de Genève is a university in Geneva, Switzerland. "Esperanto relies entirely on innate reflexes [and] differs from all other languages in that you can always trust your natural tendency to generalize patterns. [. . . ] The same neuropsychological law [— called by] Jean Piaget generalizing assimilation — applies to word formation as well as to grammar. Neuropsychology is the applied scientific discipline that studies the structure and function of the Brain related to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors Jean Piaget pjaʒɛ ( August 9, 1896 &ndash September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist "
Four primary schools in Britain, with some 230 pupils, are currently following a course in "propedeutic Esperanto", under the supervision of the University of Manchester. The propaedeutic value of Esperanto is the benefit that using Esperanto as an introduction to foreign language study has on the teaching of subsequent foreign languages That is, instruction in Esperanto to raise language awareness and accelerate subsequent learning of foreign languages.  Several studies demonstrate that studying Esperanto before another foreign language speeds and improves learning the second language to a greater extent than other languages which have been investigated. This appears to be because learning subsequent foreign languages is easier than learning one's first, while the use of a grammatically simple and culturally flexible auxiliary language like Esperanto lessens the first-language learning hurdle. In one study, a group of European secondary school students studied Esperanto for one year, then French for three years, and ended up with a significantly better command of French than a control group, who studied French for all four years. Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational Institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling known as Secondary education, takes Similar results were found when the course of study was reduced to two years, of which six months was spent learning Esperanto. Results are not yet available from a study in Australia to see if similar benefits would occur for learning East Asian languages, but the pupils taking Esperanto did better and enjoyed the subject more than those taking other languages. 
Esperanto speakers are more numerous in Europe and East Asia than in the Americas, Africa, and Oceania, and more numerous in urban than in rural areas. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time  Esperanto is particularly prevalent in the northern and eastern countries of Europe; in China, Korea, Japan, and Iran within Asia; in Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico in the Americas;  and in Togo in Africa. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. TOGO was a Japanese roller coaster design company famous for inventing the Stand-up roller coaster. 
An estimate of the number of Esperanto speakers was made by the late Sidney S. Culbert, a retired psychology professor at the University of Washington and a longtime Esperantist, who tracked down and tested Esperanto speakers in sample areas in dozens of countries over a period of twenty years. Sidney Spence Culbert ( 1913 - October 28, 2003) was a linguist psychologist and Esperantist. Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies See Washington (disambiguation for other uses The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research University Culbert concluded that between one and two million people speak Esperanto at Foreign Service Level 3, "professionally proficient" (able to communicate moderately complex ideas without hesitation, and to follow speeches, radio broadcasts, etc. The Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR scale is a set of descriptions of abilities to communicate in a language ).  Culbert's estimate was not made for Esperanto alone, but formed part of his listing of estimates for all languages of over 1 million speakers, published annually in the World Almanac and Book of Facts. The World Almanac and Book of Facts is an American-published Reference work and is the bestselling almanac conveying information about such subjects as world changes Culbert's most detailed account of his methodology is found in a 1989 letter to David Wolff . Since Culbert never published detailed intermediate results for particular countries and regions, it is difficult to independently gauge the accuracy of his results.
In the Almanac, his estimates for numbers of language speakers were rounded to the nearest million, thus the number for Esperanto speakers is shown as 2 million. This latter figure appears in Ethnologue. Ethnologue Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics a Christian Assuming that this figure is accurate, that means that about 0. 03% of the world's population speaks the language. This falls short of Zamenhof's goal of a universal language, but it represents a level of popularity unmatched by any other constructed language. An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a Language meant for communication between people from
Marcus Sikosek has challenged this figure of 1. 6 million as exaggerated. Sikosek estimated that even if Esperanto speakers were evenly distributed, assuming one million Esperanto speakers worldwide would lead one to expect about 180 in the city of Cologne. Sikosek finds only 30 fluent speakers in that city, and similarly smaller than expected figures in several other places thought to have a larger-than-average concentration of Esperanto speakers. Fluency (also called volubility and loquaciousness) is the property of a Person or of a System that delivers Information quickly and He also notes that there are a total of about 20,000 members of the various Esperanto organizations (other estimates are higher). Though there are undoubtedly many Esperanto speakers who are not members of any Esperanto organization, he thinks it unlikely that there are fifty times more speakers than organization members. 
Finnish linguist Jouko Lindstedt, an expert on native-born Esperanto speakers, presented the following scheme to show the overall proportions of language capabilities within the Esperanto community:
In the absence of Dr. Culbert's detailed sampling data, or any other census data, it is impossible to state the number of speakers with certainty. Few observers, probably, would challenge the following statement from the website of the World Esperanto Association:
Ethnologue reports estimates that there are 200 to 2000 native Esperanto speakers (denaskuloj), who have learned the language from birth from their Esperanto-speaking parents. Native Esperanto speakers (in Esperanto denaskuloj) are born into families in which Esperanto (and usually other languages is spoken  This usually happens when Esperanto is the chief or only common language in an international family, but sometimes in a family of devoted Esperantists.
The most famous native speaker of Esperanto is businessman George Soros. George Soros (ˈsɔroʊs or /ˈsɔrəs/ Hungarian ˈʃoroʃ (born August 12, 1930, in Budapest, Hungary, as György Schwartz) is  Also notable is young Holocaust victim Petr Ginz, whose drawing of the planet Earth as viewed from the moon was carried aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia in 2003 (STS-107). Petr Ginz ( February 1 1928 –1944 was a young Czechoslovak boy of Jewish descent who was deported to the Terezín Concentration Space Shuttle Columbia ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy Space shuttle in NASA 's STS-107 was a Space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Columbia, launched January 16, 2003.
Esperanto speakers can access an international culture, including a large body of original as well as translated literature. The language Esperanto is often used to access an international Culture, including a large body of original as well as translated literature. Esperanto literature began before the official publication of the Constructed language Esperanto; the language's creator L Feature films There are four Feature films known to have been shot exclusively in the Constructed language Esperanto. Esperanto music is Music written recorded and performed in Esperanto, a Constructed language used for international Communication. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic Esperanto literature began before the official publication of the Constructed language Esperanto; the language's creator L There are over 25,000 Esperanto books, both originals and translations, as well as several regularly distributed Esperanto magazines. The first Esperanto magazine was ''La Esperantisto'', which began publication on September 1, 1889. Esperanto speakers use the language for free accommodations with Esperantists in 92 countries using the Pasporta Servo or to develop pen pal friendships abroad through the Esperanto Pen Pal Service. An Esperantist is a person who speaks or uses Esperanto. Etymologically an Esperantist is someone who hopes The Pasporta Servo ( Passport Service) is a Hospitality service for speakers of the language Esperanto. Pen pals (or penpals or pen friends) are People who regularly write to each other particularly via Postal mail. 
Every year, 1,500-3,000 Esperanto speakers meet for the World Congress of Esperanto (Universala Kongreso de Esperanto). The World Congress of Esperanto (in Esperanto Universala Kongreso de Esperanto) has the longest tradition among international Esperanto conventions with  The European Esperanto Union (Eǔropa Esperanto-Unio) regroups the national Esperanto associations of the EU member states and holds congresses every two years. The most recent was in Maribor, Slovenia, in July-August 2007. Maribor (historical German name de ''Marburg an der Drau'' is the second largest City in Slovenia. It attracted 256 delegates from 28 countries, including 2 members of the European Parliament, Ms. The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU Małgorzata Handzlik of Poland and Ms. Małgorzata Handzlik (born January 1, 1965 in Bielsko-Biała) is a member of the European Parliament. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Ljudmila Novak of Slovenia. Ljudmila Novak (born 1 August 1959 in Maribor) is a Slovenian politician and Member of the European Parliament. Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west
Historically, much Esperanto music has been in various folk traditions, such as Kaj Tiel Plu, for example. Esperanto music is Music written recorded and performed in Esperanto, a Constructed language used for international Communication.  In recent decades, more rock and other modern genres have appeared, an example being the Swedish band Persone. 
There are also shared traditions, such as Zamenhof Day, and shared behaviour patterns. The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of Zamenhof Day ( Zamenhofa Tago in Esperanto) is celebrated on December 15, the Birthday of Esperanto creator L Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or Reactions of an object or Organism, usually Esperantists speak primarily in Esperanto at international Esperanto meetings. An Esperantist is a person who speaks or uses Esperanto. Etymologically an Esperantist is someone who hopes The World Congress of Esperanto (in Esperanto Universala Kongreso de Esperanto) has the longest tradition among international Esperanto conventions with
Detractors of Esperanto occasionally criticize it as "having no culture". Proponents, such as Prof. Humphrey Tonkin of the University of Hartford, observe that Esperanto is "culturally neutral by design, as it was intended to be a facilitator between cultures, not to be the carrier of any one national culture. Humphrey R Tonkin ( December 2, 1939 – is professor of English president emeritus of the University of Hartford in Connecticut and a dedicated The University of Hartford, often called UHA or UHart, was founded in 1877 and is a private independent and nonsectarian " The late Scottish Esperanto author William Auld has written extensively on the subject, arguing that Esperanto is "the expression of a common human culture, unencumbered by national frontiers. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. William Auld ( 6 November, 1924 - 11 September, 2006) was a Scottish author and the deputy director of a Grammar school. Thus it is considered a culture on its own. " Others point to Esperanto's potential for strengthening a common European identity, as it combines features of several European languages. Esperanto Vocabulary and grammatical forms derive primarily from the Romance languages, with lesser contributions from Germanic.
Esperanto has been used in a number of films and novels. References to Esperanto, a Constructed language, have been made in a number of films and novels Typically, this is done either to add the exotic flavour of a foreign language without representing any particular ethnicity, or to avoid going to the trouble of inventing a new language. The Charlie Chaplin film The Great Dictator (1940) showed Jewish ghetto shops designated in Esperanto, each with the general Esperanto suffix -ejo (meaning "place for. The Great Dictator is a Comedy film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish Ghettos located in the territory of General Government during World War II, established by . . "), in order to convey the atmosphere of some 'foreign' East European country without referencing any particular East European language. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent.
Two full-length feature films have been produced with dialogue entirely in Esperanto: Angoroj, in 1964, and Incubus, a 1965 B-movie horror film. In the Film industry, a feature film is a Film made for initial distribution in theaters and being the "main attraction" of the screening A dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog) is a reciprocal Conversation between two or more entities. Angoroj ( 1964; Esperanto for "Agonies" was the first Feature film to be produced entirely in Esperanto. Incubus ( Esperanto: Inkubo) is a black and white Horror film originally released in 1965 and later restored in A B movie is a motion picture made on a low or modest budget Originally the term was used for films intended for distribution as the less-publicized second half of a Double Canadian actor William Shatner learned Esperanto to a limited level so that he could star in Incubus. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page William Alan Shatner (born March 22, 1931) is a Canadian double Emmy - Golden Globe - and Saturn Award -winning
Other amateur productions have been made, such as a dramatisation of the novel Gerda Malaperis (Gerda Has Disappeared). A number of "mainstream" films in national languages have used Esperanto in some way, such as Gattaca (1997), in which Esperanto can be overheard on the public address system. Gattaca is a 1997 science fiction Drama film written and directed by Andrew Niccol, starring Ethan Hawke, Uma In the 1994 film Street Fighter, Esperanto is the native language of the fictional country of Shadaloo, and in a barracks scene the soldiers of villain M. Bison sing a rousing Russian Army-style chorus, the "Bison Troopers Marching Song", in the language. or commonly abbreviated as SF, is a popular series of Fighting games in which the players pit combatants from around the world each with his or her own M Bison, known as in Japan, is a video game character created by Capcom. M Bison, known as in Japan, is a video game character created by Capcom. Esperanto is also spoken and appears on signs in the film Blade: Trinity. Blade Trinity, is a 2004 vampire Action film, written and directed by David S
In the British comedy Red Dwarf, Arnold Rimmer is seen attempting to learn Esperanto in a number of early episodes, including Kryten. According to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a red dwarf star is a small and relatively cool Star, of the Main sequence, either late K Arnold Judas Rimmer BSC SSC is a Fictional character in the Science fiction Situation comedy Red Dwarf, played by Chris " Kryten " is the seventh episode from Science fiction Sit-com Red Dwarf, the first from series two and was first broadcast on In the first season, signs on the titular spacecraft are in both English and Esperanto. Esperanto is used as the universal language in the far future of Harry Harrison's Stainless Steel Rat and Deathworld stories. For the radio personality see Harry Harrison (radio. Harry Harrison (born Henry Maxwell Dempsey, March 12 1925 The Stainless Steel Rat is the hero of a series of Science fiction Novels written by Harry Harrison. Deathworld is the name of a series of Science fiction novels by Harry Harrison including the books Deathworld (first published 1960 anthologized in
In a 1969 guest appearance on The Tonight Show, Jay Silverheels of The Lone Ranger fame appeared in character as Tonto for a comedy sketch with Johnny Carson, and claimed Esperanto skills as he sought new employment. The Tonight Show with Jay Leno as appropriate --> The Tonight Show is a long-running Jay Silverheels ( May 26, 1912 &ndash March 5, 1980) was a Canadian Mohawk Actor. The Lone Ranger is an American, long-running Old-time radio and early Television show created by George W Tonto is a Fictional character, the Native American assistant of The Lone Ranger, a popular American Western character created by George John William “Johnny” Carson ( October 23, 1925 &ndash January 23, 2005) was an American Television host and The sketch ended with a statement of his ideal situation: "Tonto, to Toronto, for Esperanto, and pronto!"
Also, in the Danny Phantom Episode, "Public Enemies", Danny, Tucker, and Sam come across a ghost wolf who speaks Esperanto, but only Tucker can understand at first. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Danny Phantom was an American animated television show created by Butch Hartman for Nickelodeon, produced by Billionfold Studios
In 1921 the French Academy of Sciences recommended using Esperanto for international scientific communication. The French Academy of Sciences ( French: Académie des sciences) is a Learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the A few scientists and mathematicians, such as Maurice Fréchet (mathematics), John C. Wells (linguistics), Helmar Frank (pedagogy and cybernetics), and Nobel laureate Reinhard Selten (economics) have published part of their work in Esperanto. Maurice Fréchet ( September 2, 1878 – June 4, 1973) was a French Mathematician. John Christopher Wells, MA ( Cantab) PhD ( London) (born March 11, 1939 in Bootle, Lancashire) Helmar Gunter Frank, born February 19, 1933, is a German mathematician and pedagogist. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially named The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk Reinhard Selten ( October 5, 1930) is a German economist. Selten was born in Breslau (Wrocław in Lower Silesia Frank and Selten were among the founders of the International Academy of Sciences in San Marino, sometimes called the "Esperanto University", where Esperanto is the primary language of teaching and administration. The Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino (AIS or International Academy of Sciences San Marino is a scientific association of universitarian character The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino is a country in the Apennine Mountains.
Zamenhof's intention was to create an easy-to-learn language to foster international understanding. It was to serve as an international auxiliary language, that is, as a universal second language, not to replace ethnic languages. This goal was widely shared among Esperanto speakers in the early decades of the movement. Later, Esperanto speakers began to see the language and the culture that had grown up around it as ends in themselves, even if Esperanto is never adopted by the United Nations or other international organizations.
Those Esperanto speakers who want to see Esperanto adopted officially or on a large scale worldwide are commonly called finvenkistoj, from fina venko, meaning "final victory", or pracelistoj, from pracelo, meaning "original goal". Finvenkismo is an ideological current within the Esperanto movement dating back to Zamenhof, the initiator of Esperanto  Those who focus on the intrinsic value of the language are commonly called raŭmistoj, from Rauma, Finland, where a declaration on the near-term unlikelihood of the "fina venko" and the value of Esperanto culture was made at the International Youth Congress in 1980. Raumism (in Esperanto, Raŭmismo) is an ideology beginning in 1980 with the Manifesto of Rauma, which criticized the goals of the Rauma ('rɑumɑ or Raumo in Swedish) is a town of ca 36500 inhabitants on the west coast of Finland, 92 kilometres north of Turku, and 50 Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe.  These categories are, however, not mutually exclusive.
The Prague Manifesto (1996) presents the views of the mainstream of the Esperanto movement and of its main organisation, the World Esperanto Association (UEA). The Prague Manifesto (or Manifesto de Prago) is a set of seven widely-shared principles of the Esperanto movement The World Esperanto Association (in Esperanto UEA: Universala Esperanto-Asocio) is the largest international organization of Esperanto speakers 
In 1893, C. Since the earliest days of Esperanto, the colour Green has been used as a symbol of mutual recognition and it appears prominently in all Esperanto symbols Rjabinis and P. Deullin designed and manufactured a lapel pin for Esperantists to identify each other. The design was a circular pin with a white background and a five pointed green star. The theme of the design was the hope of the five continents being united by a common language. A continent is one of several large Landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by Convention rather than any strict criteria with seven regions 
The earliest flag, and the one most commonly used today, features a green five-pointed star against a white canton, upon a field of green. It was proposed to Zamenhof by Irishman Richard Geoghegan, author of the first Esperanto textbook for English speakers, in 1887. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world In 1905, delegates to the first conference of Esperantists at Boulogne-sur-Mer unanimously approved a version that differed from the modern flag only by the superimposition of an "E" over the green star.  Other variants  include that for Christian Esperantists, with a white Christian cross superimposed upon the green star, and that for Leftists, with the color of the field changed from green to red. The Christian cross is the best-known Religious symbol of Christianity. Red flags can signify a warning Martial law, defiance or Left-wing politics
In 1987, a second flag design was chosen in a contest organized by the UEA celebrating the first centennial of the language. It featured a white background with two stylised curved "E"s facing each other. Dubbed the "jubilea simbolo" (jubilee symbol) , it attracted criticism from some Esperantists, who dubbed it the "melono" (melon) because of the design's elliptical shape. The Esperanto Jubilee Symbol ( jubilea simbolo) is a cultural symbol that was created in 1987 to mark the 100th anniversary of the It is still in use, though to a lesser degree than the traditional symbol, known as the "verda stelo" (green star). 
Esperanto has served an important role in several religions, such as Oomoto from Japan and Baha'i from Iran, and has been encouraged by others.
The Oomoto religion encourages the use of Esperanto among their followers and includes Zamenhof as one of its deified spirits. Oomoto (大本 Ōmoto, literally "foundation" also known as Oomoto-kyo (大本教 Ōmoto-kyō) is a Japanese religion, often categorized 
The Bahá'í Faith encourages the use of an auxiliary international language. The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind Auxiliary language in the Bahá'í Faith focuses on a particular teaching that the world should adopt an International auxiliary language, and everyone should have While endorsing no specific language, some Bahá'ís see Esperanto as having great potential in this role. 
Lidja Zamenhof, the daughter of Esperanto founder L. L. Zamenhof, became a Bahá'í. Lidia Zamenhof (1904&ndash1942 (sometimes Lidja in Esperanto was the youngest daughter of Dr Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof (ˈzɑːmɨnhɒf in English born Eliezer Samenhof December 15 1859 &ndash April 14 1917 was an ophthalmologist, Philologist
Various volumes of the Bahá'í literatures and other Baha'i books have been translated into Esperanto. Bahá'í literature, like much Religious text, covers a variety of topics and forms including scripture and inspiration interpretation history and biography
Esperanto is also actively promoted, at least in Brazil, by followers of Spiritism. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Spiritism is a Christian philosophical Doctrine, established in France in the mid-nineteenth century The Brazilian Spiritist Federation publishes Esperanto coursebooks, translations of Spiritism's basic books, and encourages Spiritists to become Esperantists. Spiritist Codification is the customary name given by spiritists to the set of books codified by Allan Kardec — allegedly dictated by Spirits — between the years 
The first translation of the Bible into Esperanto was a translation of the Tanach or Old Testament done by L. L. Zamenhof. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin See also Old testament, Septuagint, Targum, Peshitta The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ (taˈnax or; also Tenakh or Tenak is Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof (ˈzɑːmɨnhɒf in English born Eliezer Samenhof December 15 1859 &ndash April 14 1917 was an ophthalmologist, Philologist The translation was reviewed and compared with other languages' translations by a group of British clergy and scholars before publishing it at the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1910. The British and Foreign Bible Society, often known in England and Wales as simply as the Bible Society, is a non-denominational Christian charity that exists to make In 1926 this was published along with a New Testament translation, in an edition commonly called the "Londona Biblio". In the 1960s, the Internacia Asocio de Bibliistoj kaj Orientalistoj tried to organize a new, ecumenical Esperanto Bible version.  Since then, the Dutch Lutheran pastor Gerrit Berveling has translated the Deuterocanonical or apocryphal books in addition to new translations of the Gospels, some of the New Testament epistles, and some books of the Tanakh or Old Testament. " Deuterocanonical books " is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages These have been published in various separate booklets, or serialized in Dia Regno, but the Deuterocanonical books have appeared in recent editions of the Londona Biblio. " Deuterocanonical books " is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages
Two Roman Catholic popes, John Paul II and Benedict XVI, have regularly used Esperanto in their multilingual urbi et orbi blessings at Easter and Christmas each year since Easter 1994. Pope Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger Urbi et Orbi, literally "to the City Rome and to the World," was a standard opening of Christian Esperanto organizations include two that were formed early in the history of Esperanto, the International Union of Catholic Esperantists and the International Christian Esperantists League. "Ikue" redirects here For the Seiyuu, see Ikue Otani. This is a list of Esperanto organizations World Esperanto Association World Esperanto Association ( Universala Esperanto-Asocio or UEA - Site An issue of "The Friend" describes the activities of the Quaker Esperanto Society.  There are instances of Christian apologists and teachers who use Esperanto as a medium. Nigerian Pastor Bayo Afolaranmi's "Spirita nutraĵo" (spiritual food) Yahoo mailing list, for example, has hosted weekly messages since 2003. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal A pastor is an official person within a Protestant group of people and related to the positions of Priest or Bishop within the Anglican, Roman Catholic  Chick Publications, publisher of Protestant fundamentalist themed evangelistic tracts, has published a number of comic book style tracts by Jack T. Chick translated into Esperanto, including "This Was Your Life!" ("Jen Via Tuto Vivo!")
Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran called on Muslims to learn Esperanto and praised its use as a medium for better understanding among peoples of different religious backgrounds. Chick Publications is an American publishing company founded and run by Jack Chick which produces and markets Protestant fundamentalist pamphlets Fundamentalist Christianity, also known as Christian Fundamentalism or Fundamentalist Evangelicalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and Jack Thomas Chick (born April 13, 1924) is an American Publisher, writer and comic book artist, and has been called the most published Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( Persian:, pronounced muːsæviː-je xomejniː}}( September 24, 1902 – June 3 1989 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. After he suggested that Esperanto replace English as an international lingua franca, it began to be used in the seminaries of Qom. A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely An Esperanto translation of the Qur'an was published by the state shortly thereafter. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran  In 1981, Khomeini and the Iranian government began to oppose Esperanto after realising that followers of the Bahá'í Faith were interested in it. The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind 
Esperanto was conceived as a language of international communication, more precisely as a universal second language. A second language (L2 is any Language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1 Since publication, there has been debate over whether it is possible for Esperanto to attain this position, and whether it would be an improvement for international communication if it did. There have been a number of attempts to reform the language, the most well-known of which is the language Ido which resulted in a schism in the community at the time, beginning in 1907. Ido (ˈiːdoʊ is a Constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier
Since Esperanto is a planned language, there have been many, often passionate, criticisms of minor points which are too numerous to cover here, such as Zamenhof's choice of the word edzo over something like spozo for "husband, spouse", or his choice of the Classic Greek and Old Latin singular and plural endings -o, -oj, -a, -aj over their Medieval contractions -o, -i, -a, -e. (Both these changes were adopted by the Ido reform, though Ido dispensed with adjectival agreement altogether. ) See the links below for examples of more general criticism. is by far the most widely spoken constructed International auxiliary language in the world The more common points include:
Though Esperanto itself has changed little since the publication of the Fundamento de Esperanto (Foundation of Esperanto), a number of reform projects have been proposed over the years, starting with Zamenhof's proposals in 1894 and Ido in 1907. Esperantido is the term used within the Esperanto and Constructed language communities to describe a language project based on or inspired by Esperanto The Fundamento de Esperanto ("Foundation of Esperanto" is a book by L Reformed Esperanto was a reformed version of Esperanto created in 1894 Ido (ˈiːdoʊ is a Constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier Several later constructed languages, such as Fasile, were based on Esperanto.
In modern times, attempts have been made to eliminate perceived sexism in the language. One example of this is Riism. However, as Esperanto has become a living language, changes are as difficult to implement as in ethnic languages.
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