Epping Forest near Epping
|Location||Greater London and Essex|
|Operated by||City of London Corporation|
|Status||open all year|
Epping Forest is an area of ancient woodland in south-east England, straddling the border between north-east Greater London and Essex. Ecologically a woodland is an area covered in trees differentiated from a Forest. Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. The City of London Corporation (formerly known as the Corporation of London)is the municipal governing body of the City of London. Ecologically a woodland is an area covered in trees differentiated from a Forest. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. Essex is a county in the East of England. The County town is Chelmsford, and the highest point of the county is Chrishall Common It is managed by the City of London Corporation. The City of London Corporation (formerly known as the Corporation of London)is the municipal governing body of the City of London.
Formed in approximately 8000 BC after the last ice age, it covers nearly 6,000 acres (24 km²) and contains areas of grassland, heath, rivers, bogs and ponds. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets Grasslands (also called greenswards) are areas where the Vegetation is dominated by Grasses ( Poaceae) and other Herbaceous (non-woody Heaths are Shrubland habitats characterised by open low growing woody Vegetation, found on mainly infertile Acidic soils "Riverine" redirects here For the use of that term in Maritime geography, see there A bog or mire is a Wetland type that accumulates Acidic Peat, a deposit of dead plant material &ndash usually Mosses but also A pond is a body of water smaller than a Lake, both being examples of Terrain features Although the term pond is universally used to describe waterbodies that Stretching between Forest Gate in the south and Epping in the north, Epping Forest is approximately 18 km long in the north-south direction, but no more than 4 km from east to west at its widest point, and in most places considerably narrower. Forest Gate is a Residential area in the London Borough of Newham. Epping is a small market town and civil parish in the Epping Forest district of the County of Essex, England. The forest lies on a ridge between the valleys of the rivers Lea and Roding; its elevation and thin gravelly soil - the result of glaciation - historically made it unsuitable for agriculture. A ridge is a geological feature that features a continuous elevational crest for some distance In Geology, a valley (also called a vale, dale, glen or strath and near or in Appalachia, a draw) is The River Lee or River Lea in England originates in Leagrave Park, Leagrave, Luton in the Chiltern Hills and flows generally southeast The River Roding is a River in England that rises near Dunmow, flows through Essex and forms Barking Creek as it reaches the River Thames Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Embankments of two Iron Age camps - Loughton Camp and Ambresbury Banks - can be found hidden in the woodland. This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. Loughton Camp is an Iron Age (~500BC Hill fort in Epping Forest, one mile North West of the town of Loughton. Ambresbury Banks is the name given to the remains of an Iron Age Hill fort in Epping Forest, Essex, England. It gives its name to the Epping Forest local government district. Settlement The north east of the district is rural and sparsely populated for an area so close to London; it includes the town of Chipping Ongar and surrounding
The name "Epping Forest" was first recorded in the 17th century; prior to this it was known as Waltham Forest (which gives its name to the present-day London borough). Chingford is a town in the London Borough of Waltham Forest. It is a suburban development situated northeast of Charing Cross. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar The London Borough of Waltham Forest is a London borough in East London England and forms part of Outer London. The forest is thought to have been given legal status as a royal forest by Henry III in the 12th century. A royal forest is an area of land where certain rights are reserved for a Monarch or the Aristocracy, usually set aside for Hunting (see Medieval hunting Henry III (1 October 1207 &ndash 16 November 1272 was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 This status allowed commoners to use the forest to gather wood and foodstuffs, and to graze livestock, but only the king was allowed to hunt there. Grazing rights is a legal term referring to the right of a user to allow their Livestock to feed (graze in a given area
In Tudor times Henry VIII and Queen Elizabeth I hunted in the forest. The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was an English royal Dynasty that lasted 118 years from 1485 to 1603 a period known as the Tudor period Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of In 1543 Henry commissioned a building, known as Great Standing, from which to view the chase at Chingford. Chingford is a town in the London Borough of Waltham Forest. It is a suburban development situated northeast of Charing Cross. The building was renovated in 1589 for Queen Elizabeth I and can still be seen today in Chingford. The building is now known as Queen Elizabeth's Hunting Lodge, and is open to the public as a museum.
There were disputes between landowners (who enclosed land) and commoners (who had grazing and cutting rights), including that led by Thomas Willingale (1799-1870) who on behalf of the villagers of Loughton continued to lop the trees after the Lord of the Manor (Maitland) had enclosed 1,300 acres (5 km²) of forest in Loughton. Enclosure or inclosure (the latter is used in Legal documents and Place names is the term used in England and Wales Thomas Willingale (1795–1870 lived in the village of Loughton in Essex, UK. Loughton (ˈlaʊtən or lau-ton) is a town and Civil parish in the Epping Forest district of Essex. This led to an injunction against further enclosures.
The Epping Forest Act 1878 was passed saving the forest from enclosure, and halting the shrinkage of the forest that this had caused. Epping Forest ceased to be a royal forest and was placed in the care of the City of London Corporation who act as 'Conservators'. The City of London Corporation (formerly known as the Corporation of London)is the municipal governing body of the City of London. In addition, the Crown's right to deer and venison was terminated, and pollarding was no longer allowed, although grazing rights continued. A deer is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. Venison is the Culinary name for Meat from the family Cervidae. Pollarding is a Woodland management method of encouraging lateral branches by cutting off a tree stem or minor branches two or three metres above ground level This act laid down a stipulation that the Conservators "shall at all times keep Epping Forest unenclosed and unbuilt on as an open space for the recreation and enjoyment of the people".
When Queen Victoria visited Chingford on 6 May 1882 she declared "It gives me the greatest satisfaction to dedicate this beautiful forest to the use and enjoyment of my people for all time" and it thus became "The People's Forest". Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Events 1527 - Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance. Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The City of London Corporation still manage Epping Forest in strict conformity with the Epping Forest Act without any money for its upkeep coming from local rates or taxes. The Conservators administer the forest from the Grade II* listed Warren House in Loughton; the grounds of Warren House, which was built around a medieval hunting lodge, were laid out by Humphry Repton. A listed building in the United Kingdom is a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural historical or cultural significance Humphry Repton ( 21 April 1752 &ndash 24 March 1818) was the last great English landscape designer of the eighteenth century
Until the outbreak of BSE in 1996 commoners still exercised their right to graze cattle and every summer herds of cattle would roam freely in the southern part of the forest (and occasionally in the streets of Leytonstone). Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy ( BSE) commonly known as Mad-Cow Disease ( MCD) is a fatal Neurodegenerative disease in Cattle Leytonstone is an area of East London and part of the London Borough of Waltham Forest. Cattle were reintroduced in 2001 but their movements are now more restricted to reduce conflict with traffic. 
The right to collect wood still exists but is rarely practised and is limited to "one faggot of dead or driftwood" per day per adult resident.
The age of the forest and the range of habitats it contains make it a valuable area for wildlife, and it is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest. A Site of Special Scientific Interest or SSSI is a Conservation designation denoting a Protected area in the United Kingdom. Its former status as a working or pasture forest have had a great effect on its ecology. This is particularly evident with the pollarded trees, which, as they have not been cut since the passing of the Epping Forest Act, have now grown massive crowns of thick, trunk-like branches with correspondingly large boles. This gives the trees an unusual appearance, not known in other forests. Often the weight of the branches cannot be supported by the parent tree, and the large amount of dead wood in the forest supports numerous rare species of fungi and invertebrates. A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ An invertebrate is an Animal lacking a Vertebral column. The group includes 98% of all animal Species — all animals except those in the Chordate
Predominant tree species are Pedunculate Oak, European Beech, European Hornbeam, Silver Birch and European Holly. Quercus robur (sometimes considered Q pedunculata) is commonly known as the pedunculate oak or English oak. The European Beech or Common Beech ( Fagus sylvatica) is a Deciduous Tree belonging to the Beech family Fagaceae. Carpinus betulus ( European or common hornbeam) is a Hornbeam native to western central and southern Europe, extending eastward Ilex aquifolium ( Holly, or European Holly to distinguish it from related species is a species of Holly native to western and southern A wide range of animals are found, including Fallow Deer, Muntjac and European adders. The Fallow Deer ( Dama dama) is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. Common names common European adder common European viper ( more)
Although the Epping Forest Act almost certainly saved the forest from total destruction, it has to some extent had a deleterious effect on the area's biodiversity. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. The pollarded trees allowed light through to the woodland floor, increasing the numbers of low-growing plants. Since the Act, the vast crowns of the pollards cut out most of the light to the underbrush. In addition, the area surrounding the forest is now to a great extent urbanised; the corresponding reduction in grazing has led to former areas of grassland and heathland being overcome by secondary woodland — this has been exacerbated by the majority of the forest's deer being enclosed to stop them being injured by vehicles on the major roads that run through the forest. Ecological succession, a fundamental concept in Ecology, refers to more-or-less predictable and orderly changes in the composition or structure of an ecological community A deer is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. In recent years, the Conservators have experimented with pollarding in selected areas of the forest, and a herd of English Longhorn cattle has been reintroduced to graze the forest floor.
Epping Forest has frequently been the setting for novels, and has attracted poets, artists and musicians for centuries.
The sculptor, Jacob Epstein, lived on the very edge of the Forest for a quarter of a century at Baldwins Hill Loughton. Sir Jacob Epstein ( 10 November 1880 – 19 August 1959) was an American-born sculptor who worked chiefly in the UK where Loughton (ˈlaʊtən or lau-ton) is a town and Civil parish in the Epping Forest district of Essex. Sir William Addison says that he wanted his sculpture 'Visitation', now in the Tate Collection, to be sited overlooking the Forest. In 1933, he exhibited 100 paintings of the Forest, and continued to paint during the war. His gouache, an essay in green tints and textures, Pool - Epping Forest, of Baldwins Hill Pond, was exhibited in 1945. Gouache, Pronounced "Gouash" (from the Italian guazzo, "water paint splash" or bodycolor (the term preferred by art historians Many of his Forest painting are in the Garman-Ryan Collection at the New Art Gallery, Walsall
The song "The White Buck of Epping" by Sydney Carter (1957) refers to a sighting of (and subsequnt hunt for) a white buck in the forest. Walsall ( is a large industrial town in the West Midlands of England.
The progressive rock band Genesis has a track titled The Battle of Epping Forest on their album Selling England by the Pound. Progressive rock (often shortened to " progressive " " prog " or " prog rock " is a form of Rock music that evolved Genesis are an English rock band formed in 1967 With approximately 150 million albums sold worldwide Genesis are among the top 30 highest-selling recording artists The Battle of Epping Forest is a song by English rock band Genesis, appearing on their 1973 album Selling England by the Pound. Selling England by the Pound is the fifth studio album by the Progressive rock band Genesis and was recorded and released in 1973
Wings sang "There was a lead guitarist. Wings were a rock supergroup formed in August 1971 after the breakup of the Beatles, by ex-Beatle Paul McCartney. Who lived in Epping Forest" in Famous Groupies,  a track on their 1977 London Town album. London Town is the seventh album by Wings and was released in 1978
The composer, Niso Ticciati, published a short Epping Forest Suite in 1968. Industrial music is a loose term for a number of different styles of Experimental music, especially but not necessarily Electronic music. Throbbing Gristle are a British Avant-garde music and Visual arts group that evolved from the Performance art group COUM Transmissions
The British rock band Feeder shot one of the scenes their first ever video for the single Stereo World (1996) in Epping Forest. Feeder are a British rock band formed in Newport, South Wales in 1992 by singer /songwriter/ Guitarist Grant Nicholas "Stereo World" is a song by Feeder, released as the group's first single in 1996
The forest was featured on the 2005 television programme Seven Natural Wonders as one of the wonders of the London area, in an episode presented by Bill Oddie. Seven Natural Wonders was a Television series that aired on BBC Two from 3 May to 20 June 2005. William Edgar Oddie, OBE (born 7 July 1941 is an English Actor, Writer, Comedian, Natural history Presenter
The forest has criminal associations. The highwayman Dick Turpin had a hideout there. The word highwayman is first attested from the year 1617 The term "highwayman" is mainly applied to robbers who travelled on horseback as opposed to those who robbed on foot For other meanings see Dick Turpin (disambiguation. Richard (Dick Turpin ( September 21, 1705 in Hempstead The tree cover and the forest's location close to London have made it notorious as a burial area for murder victims.
Triple policeman murderer Harry Roberts hid out in the forest for a short time before his arrest in 1966. A police officer (also known as a policeman or policewoman) is a warranted employee of a Police force. Harry Maurice Roberts (born 1936 in Kennington, London, England) is one of the UK's most notorious murderers and longest-serving Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. 
Elizabethan poets such as George Gascoigne and Thomas Lodge lived in and around the forest. Romance and reality The Victorian era and the early twentieth century idealised the Elizabethan era A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" George Gascoigne (c 1535 &ndash October 7, 1577) was an English Poet. Thomas Lodge (c 1558 &ndash 1625 was an English Dramatist and writer of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods The writer, Lady Mary Wroth, lived at Loughton Hall. Lady Mary Wroth ( 1587 &ndash1651/3 was an English Poet of the Renaissance Ben Jonson best known for his satirical play The Alchemist was a frequent visitor to the forest, with George Chapman. Benjamin Jonson ( c 11 June 1572 &ndash 6 August 1637) was an English Renaissance Dramatist Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human The Alchemist is a Comedy by English playwright Ben Jonson. First performed in 1610 by the King's Men, it is generally George Chapman (c 1559 &ndash May 12 1634) was an English Dramatist, Translator, and Poet. 
In the 18th century, Mary Wollstonecraft, writer, philosopher and feminist spent the first five years of her life growing up in the forest. Mary Wollstonecraft (ˈwʊlstənkrɑːft 27 April 1759 – 10 September Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate 
In the Victorian era, Charles Dickens wrote the novel Barnaby Rudge. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities Barnaby Rudge A Tale of the Riots of 'Eighty is an Historical novel by the author Charles Dickens. The first sentence begins with a description of the forest in 1775.  Alfred, Lord Tennyson lived at Beech Hill House, High Beach from 1837-1840, where he wrote parts of In Memoriam. Alfred Tennyson 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892 was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and remains one of the most popular English poets In Memoriam AHH is a long Poem by the English Poet Alfred Lord Tennyson, completed in 1849 Suffering from depression he stayed as a guest at Dr Martin Allen's asylum where he would have encountered John Clare, the poet, who in 1837 after his behaviour became more erratic was removed to the asylum. John Clare ( 13 July 1793 – 20 May 1864) was an English Poet, in his time commonly known as "the Northamptonshire  William Morris artist, writer and socialist was born in Walthamstow in 1834, and spent his early years in what was then rural Essex close to the outlying sections of the forest. William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896 was an English Architect, Furniture and Textile designer artist writer and socialist associated Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution This article is about a town For the album by East 17 see Walthamstow (album. 
During the 20th century several writers have used the forest as a setting for their novels including R Austin Freemans Jacob Street Mystery (1940) partly set at Loughton Camp. R(ichard Austin Freeman ( April 11, 1862 London - September 28, 1943 Gravesend) was a British writer of The horror writer James Herbert used Epping Forest as the setting for his novel Lair (1979). Horror fiction is broadly Fiction in any medium intended to scare unsettle or horrify the audience This article is about the English horror writer for the American music video director see James Herbert (director. In the book, a horde of Giant Black Rats establish a colony in the forest and embark on a murderous campaign against humans. Giant black rats are a Fictional species of ferocious Radiation spawned Rodents featured in James Herbert 's horror novels The Rats Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Herbert mentions a now obscure legend attached to the forest, the legend of the white stag. A legend ( Latin, legenda, "things to be read" is a Narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to A deer is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. Supposedly, the sighting of this animal is an omen of trouble and death. An omen (also called portent or presage) is a phenomenon that is believed to foretell the Future, often signifying the advent of change Natural historian and author Fred J Speakman lived at the Epping Forest Field Studies Centre, High Beach. Natural history is the Scientific research of Plants or Animals leaning more towards the Observational than Experimental methods Fred J Speakman (born in Essex) was an English Naturalist and Author.  He wrote several books about the area including A Poacher's Tale with Alfred T Curtis a Waltham Abbey born poacher and A Keeper's Tale describing the life of forest keeper Sidney Butt. 
Horse riding is popular in Epping Forest. For the Roman class see Equestrian (Roman Equestrianism refers to the skill of riding or driving Horses This broad description Riders need to be registered with the Epping Forest conservators before they are allowed to ride in the forest.
Running as a form of recreation in Epping Forest goes back almost to the birth of the sport in the 1870s, including hosting the inaugural English Championships in 1876. Running is a means for an animal to move on Foot. It is defined in Sporting terms as a Gait in which at some point all feet are off the ground
High Beach within Epping Forest was the first British venue for motorcycle speedway, on 19 February 1928. Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a Motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum The track was behind The King's Oak public house, and drew large crowds in its early days. The track was closed when a swimming pool was added to the pub's grounds after the Second World War, though enthusiasts and veterans still gather at the site every year on the nearest Sunday to 19 February. The remains of the track are still visible, in the grounds of the Epping Forest Field Centre behind the King's Oak.
Epping Forest attracts large numbers of mountain bikers. Mountain biking entails the Sport of riding Bicycles off-road often over rough terrain whether riding specially equipped Mountain bikes or hybrid road bikes Mountain biking is generally permitted except around the Iron Age camps, Loughton Brook and other ecologically or geomorphologically sensitive areas. Despite clear signposting, a minority of mountain bikers continue to cause damage in these areas, and the Conservators of Epping Forest have expressed their concern.  A number of clubs organise rides, particularly on Sunday mornings.
Epping Forest was considered as a venue for the mountain-biking event of the 2012 Summer Olympics, though the final choice was Weald Country Park near Brentwood, Essex. Weald Country Park is a 700 year-old 500 acre (2 km² Country park in South Weald in the borough of Brentwood in the English county of Essex
Orienteering and rambling are also popular. Orienteering is a family of Sports that require Navigational skills using a Map and Compass, usually in combination with Point to point racing Walking (also called ambulation) is the main form of Animal Locomotion on land, distinguished from Running and crawling There are numerous guidebooks offering shorter walks for the casual visitor. The most important event in the ramblers calendar in the area is the traditional Epping Forest Centenary Walk, an all-day event commemorating the saving of Epping Forest as a public space, which takes place annually on the fourth Sunday in September.