Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language 341–c. 270 BC), founded around 307 BC. Events By place Babylonia Antigonus makes peace with Seleucus, who is left free to consolidate his kingdom Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. In Natural philosophy, atomism is the theory that all the objects in the universe are composed of very small indestructible building blocks - Atoms Or stated in The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. Democritus ( Greek:) was a pre-Socratic Greek Materialist Philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace ca His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention. The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. Following Aristippus—about whom very little is known—Epicurus believed that the greatest good was to seek modest pleasures in order to attain a state of tranquility and freedom from fear (ataraxia) as well as absence of bodily pain (aponia) through knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of our desires. Aristippus (Ἀρίστιππος of Cyrene, (c 435-c 356 BCE was the founder of the Cyrenaic school of Philosophy Ataraxia (Ἀταραξία is a Greek term used by Pyrrho and Epicurus for a limpid state characterized by freedom from worry or any The combination of these two states is supposed to constitute happiness in its highest form. Although Epicureanism is a form of hedonism, insofar as it declares pleasure as the sole intrinsic good, its conception of absence of pain as the greatest pleasure and its advocacy of a simple life make it quite different from "hedonism" as it is commonly understood. Hedonism is the Philosophy that Pleasure is of ultimate importance, the most important pursuit
For Epicurus, the highest pleasure (tranquility and freedom from fear) was obtained by knowledge, friendship, and living a virtuous and temperate life. He lauded the enjoyment of simple pleasures, by which he meant abstaining from bodily desires, such as sex and appetites, verging on asceticism. Ascetic redirects here You might also be looking for Acetic acid. He argued that when eating, one should not eat too richly, for it could lead to dissatisfaction later, such as the grim realization that one could not afford such delicacies in the future. Likewise, sex could lead to increased lust and dissatisfaction with the sexual partner. Epicurus did not articulate a broad system of social ethics that has survived.
Epicureanism was originally a challenge to Platonism, though later it became the main opponent of Stoicism. Platonism is the Philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy, was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC Epicurus and his followers shunned politics. After the death of Epicurus, his school was headed by Hermarchus; later many Epicurean societies flourished in the Late Hellenistic era and during the Roman era (such as those in Antiochia, Alexandria, Rhodes and Ercolano). Hermarchus ( Ἕρμαρχoς sometimes but incorrectly written Hermachus Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Rhodes (Ρόδος Ródos, ˈɾo̞ðo̞s Rodi ردوس Rodos; Ladino: Rodi or Rodes) is a Greek island Ercolano is a town and commune in the Province of Naples, Campania ( Italy) The poet Lucretius is its most known Roman proponent. Titus Lucretius Carus (ca 99 BC- ca 55 BC was a Roman Poet and Philosopher. By the end of the Roman Empire it had all but died out, and would be resurrected in the 17th century by the atomist Pierre Gassendi, who adapted it to the Christian doctrine. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Pierre Gassendi ( January 22, 1592 &ndash October 24, 1655) was a French Philosopher, priest, Scientist
Some writings by Epicurus have survived. Some scholars consider the epic poem On the Nature of Things by Lucretius to present in one unified work the core arguments and theories of Epicureanism. On the Nature of Things (Latin De rerum natura) is a first century BC Poem by the Roman Poet and Philosopher Titus Lucretius Carus (ca 99 BC- ca 55 BC was a Roman Poet and Philosopher. Many of the papyrus scrolls unearthed at the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum are Epicurean texts. The Villa of the Papyri is a private house in the ancient Roman city of Herculaneum (current commune of Ercolano) Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. At least some are thought to have belonged to the Epicurean Philodemus. Philodemus of Gadara (in Greek) ( Gadara, Coele-Syria, c 110 BCE&ndashprobably Herculaneum c
The school of Epicurus, called "The Garden," was based in Epicurus' home and garden. It had a small but devoted following in his lifetime. Its members included Hermarchus, Idomeneus, Colotes, Polyaenus, and Metrodorus. Hermarchus ( Ἕρμαρχoς sometimes but incorrectly written Hermachus Idomeneus (Ἰδομενεύς of Lampsacus, was a friend and disciple of Epicurus, flourished about 310 - 270 BC. Colotes (Κολώτης of Lampsacus, lived 3rd century BC, was a hearer of Epicurus, and one of the most famous of his disciples Polyaenus of Lampsacus (in Greek Πoλύαινoς Λαμψακηνός; ca Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the younger (331-277 BC was a Greek Philosopher of the Epicurean school Epicurus emphasized friendship as an important ingredient of happiness, and the school seems to have been a moderately ascetic community which rejected the political limelight of Athenian philosophy. They were fairly cosmopolitan by Athenian standards, including women and slaves, and were probably vegetarians (Stevenson 2005). Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes Meat (including game and slaughter by-products Fish (including Shellfish and other sea
The school's popularity grew and it became, along with Stoicism and Skepticism, one of the three dominant schools of Hellenistic Philosophy, lasting strongly through the later Roman Empire. Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy, was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC In ordinary usage skepticism or scepticism ( Greek 'σκέπτομαι' skeptomai, to look about to consider see also spelling differences The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial In Rome, Lucretius was the school's greatest proponent, composing On the Nature of Things, an epic poem, in six books, designed to recruit new members. Titus Lucretius Carus (ca 99 BC- ca 55 BC was a Roman Poet and Philosopher. On the Nature of Things (Latin De rerum natura) is a first century BC Poem by the Roman Poet and Philosopher An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation The poem mainly deals with Epicurean philosophy of nature. Another major source of information is the Roman politician and amateur philosopher Cicero, although he was highly critical, denouncing the Epicureans as unbridled hedonists, devoid of a sense of virtue and duty, and guilty of withdrawing from public life. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Hedonism is the Philosophy that Pleasure is of ultimate importance, the most important pursuit Another ancient source is Diogenes of Oenoanda, who composed a large inscription at Oenoanda in Lycia. Diogenes of Oenoanda (or Oinoanda) was an Epicurean Greek from the 2nd century AD who carved a summary of the philosophy of Epicurus Oenoanda or Oinoanda, in the upper valley of the River Xanthus, was the most southerly of the Tetrapolis led by Cibyra in the Hellenistic Period "Sidyma" redirects here For the Moth Genus named thus see Sidyma (moth.
A library, dubbed the Villa of the Papyri, in Herculaneum, owned by Julius Caesar's father-in-law, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, was preserved by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE, and was found to contain a large number of works by Philodemus, a late Hellenistic Epicurean, and Epicurus himself, attesting to the school's enduring popularity. The Villa of the Papyri is a private house in the ancient Roman city of Herculaneum (current commune of Ercolano) Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus was a Statesman of Ancient Rome and the father-in-law of Julius Caesar through his daughter Calpurnia Pisonis Mount Vesuvius (in Italian Monte Vesuvio and in Latin Mons Vesuvius) is an active Stratovolcano east of Naples Year 79 was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Philodemus of Gadara (in Greek) ( Gadara, Coele-Syria, c 110 BCE&ndashprobably Herculaneum c The task of unrolling and deciphering the charred papyrus scrolls continues today. Papyrus (/pəˈpaɪrəs/ (Rhymes -aɪrəs)is a thick paper-like material produced from the Pith of the papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus
After the official approval of Christianity by Constantine, Epicureanism was repressed. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine Epicurus' materialist theories that the gods were physical beings composed of atoms who were unconcerned with human affairs and had not created the universe, and his general teaching that one's own pleasure, rather than service to God, was the greatest good were essentially irreconcilable with Christian teachings. The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. The school endured a long period of obscurity and decline.
The early Christian writer Lactantius criticizes Epicurus at several points throughout his Divine Institutes. Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius? Firmianus Lactantius was an Early Christian author (ca In Dante's Divine Comedy, the Epicureans are depicted as heretics suffering in the sixth circle of hell. The Divine Comedy Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering The word for a heretic in the Talmudic literature is "Apiqoros" (אפיקורוס), and Epicurus is titled in Modern Greek idiom as the "Dark Philosopher". Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history
By the 16th century, the works of Lucretius and Diogenes Laertius were being printed in Europe. In the 17th century the French Franciscan priest, scientist and philosopher Pierre Gassendi wrote two books forcefully reviving Epicureanism. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Pierre Gassendi ( January 22, 1592 &ndash October 24, 1655) was a French Philosopher, priest, Scientist Shortly thereafter, and clearly influenced by Gassendi, Walter Charleton published several works on Epicureanism in English. Walter Charleton (February 1619-c April 1707 was an English writer educated at Magdalen Hall Oxford, who according to Jon Parkin was "the main conduit for the Attacks by Christians continued, most forcefully by the Cambridge Platonists. The Cambridge Platonists were a group of Philosophers at Cambridge University in the middle of the 17th century (between 1633 and 1688
In the following times, there was a resurgence of Epicurean philosophy: in the Modern Age, scientists adopted atomist theories, while materialist philosophers embraced Epicurus' hedonist ethics and restated his objections to natural teleology. The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western '''Europe''' and its first colonies which spans the three centuries between In Natural philosophy, atomism is the theory that all the objects in the universe are composed of very small indestructible building blocks - Atoms Or stated in The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. Teleology ( Greek: telos: end purpose is the philosophical study of design and Purpose.
Epicureanism emphasizes the neutrality of the gods, that they do not interfere with human lives. It states that gods, matter and souls are all comprised of atoms. History See also Atomic theory, Atomism The concept that matter is composed of discrete units and cannot be divided into arbitrarily tiny Souls are made from atoms, and gods possess souls, but their souls adhere to their bodies without escaping. Humans have the same kind of souls, but the forces binding human atoms together do not hold the soul forever. The Epicureans also used the atomist theories of Democritus and Leucippus to assert that man has free will. In Natural philosophy, atomism is the theory that all the objects in the universe are composed of very small indestructible building blocks - Atoms Or stated in Democritus ( Greek:) was a pre-Socratic Greek Materialist Philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace ca Leucippus or Leukippos ( Greek, first half of 5th century BC was among the earliest philosophers of Atomism, the idea that everything is composed entirely They held that all thoughts are merely atoms swerving randomly. This explanation served to satisfy people who wondered anxiously about their role in the universe.
The Riddle of Epicurus or Epicurean paradox is the earliest known description of the Problem of evil, and is a famous argument against the existence of an all-powerful and providential God or gods. In the Philosophy of religion and Theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of Evil or Suffering in the world In the Philosophy of religion and Theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of Evil or Suffering in the world As translated by David Hume in the Dialogues concerning Natural Religion:
If God is willing to prevent evil, but is not able to
Then He is not omnipotent. David Hume (26 April 1711 25 August 1776 Scottish Philosopher, Economist, and Historian is an important figure in Western philosophy Dialogues concerning Natural Religion is a philosophical work written by the Scottish philosopher David Hume.
If He is able, but not willing
Then He is malevolent.
If He is both able and willing
Then whence cometh evil?
If He is neither able nor willing
Then why call Him God?
Epicurus did not, however, deny the existence of gods. Fully aware of the fate of Socrates when brought up on a charge of impiety, Epicurus avoided expressing an overt atheism. SOCRATES is the European Community action programme in the field of Education. Atheism Rather, he conceived the gods as blissful and immortal yet material beings made of atoms inhabiting the metakosmia: empty spaces between worlds in the vastness of infinite space. The metakosmia ( Greek: μετακόσμια Latin: intermundia according to Epicurean philosophy were the relatively empty spaces in the infinite void In spite of his nominal recognition of the gods, the practical effect of this materialistic explanation of the gods' existence and their complete non-intervention in human affairs renders his philosophy atheistic on a practical level, but avoids the charge of atheism on the theoretical level.
In Dante's Divine Comedy, the flaming tombs of the Epicureans are located within the sixth circle of hell (Inferno, Canto X). The Divine Comedy Similarly, according to Jewish Mishnah, Epicureans (apiqorsim, people who share the beliefs of the movement) are among the people who do not have a share of the "World-to-Come" (afterlife or the world of the Messianic Era). The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism
Parallels may be drawn to Buddhism, which similarly emphasizes a lack of divine interference and aspects of its atomism. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices In Natural philosophy, atomism is the theory that all the objects in the universe are composed of very small indestructible building blocks - Atoms Or stated in Buddhism also resembles Epicureanism in its temperateness, including the belief that great excesses lead to great dissatisfaction.
The philosophy originated by Epicurus flourished for seven centuries. It propounded an ethic of individual pleasure as the sole or chief good in life. Hence, Epicurus advocated living in such a way as to derive the greatest amount of pleasure possible during one’s lifetime, yet doing so moderately in order to avoid the suffering incurred by overindulgence in such pleasure. The emphasis was placed on pleasures of the mind rather than on physical pleasures. Therefore, according to Epicurus, with whom a person eats is of greater importance than what is eaten. Unnecessary and, especially, artificially produced desires were to be suppressed. Since learning, culture, and civilization as well as social and political involvements could give rise to desires that are difficult to satisfy and thus result in disturbing one’s peace of mind, they were discouraged. Knowledge was sought only to rid oneself of religious fears and superstitions, the two primary fears to be eliminated being fear of the gods and of death. Viewing marriage and what attends it as a threat to one’s peace of mind, Epicurus lived a celibate life but did not impose this restriction on his followers.
The philosophy was characterized by an absence of divine principle. Lawbreaking was counseled against because of both the shame associated with detection and the punishment it might bring. Living in fear of being found out or punished would take away from pleasure, and this made even secret wrongdoing inadvisable. To the Epicureans, virtue in itself had no value and was beneficial only when it served as a means to gain happiness. Reciprocity was recommended, not because it was divinely ordered or innately noble, but because it was personally beneficial. Friendships rested on the same mutual basis, that is, the pleasure resulting to the possessors. Epicurus laid great emphasis on developing friendships as the basis of a satisfying life.
of all the things which wisdom has contrived which contribute to a blessed life, none is more important, more fruitful, than friendship
While the pursuit of pleasure formed the focal point of the philosophy, this was largely directed to the "static pleasures" of minimizing pain, anxiety and suffering. In fact Epicurus referred to life as a “bitter gift”.
When we say. . . that pleasure is the end and aim, we do not mean the pleasures of the prodigal or the pleasures of sensuality, as we are understood to do by some through ignorance, prejudice or wilful misrepresentation. By pleasure we mean the absence of pain in the body and of trouble in the soul. It is not by an unbroken succession of drinking bouts and of revelry, not by sexual lust, nor the enjoyment of fish and other delicacies of a luxurious table, which produce a pleasant life; it is sober reasoning, searching out the grounds of every choice and avoidance, and banishing those beliefs through which the greatest tumults take possession of the soul.
The Epicureans believed in the existence of the gods, but believed that the gods were made of atoms just like everything else. It was thought that the gods were too far away from the earth to have any interest in what man was doing; so it did not do any good to pray or to sacrifice to them. The gods, they believed, did not create the universe, nor did they inflict punishment or bestow blessings on anyone, but they were supremely happy; this was the goal to strive for during one’s own human life.
Epicureanism rejects immortality and mysticism; it believes in the soul, but suggests that the soul is as mortal as the body. Epicurus rejected any possibility of an afterlife, while still contending that one need not fear death: "Death is nothing to us; for that which is dissolved, is without sensation, and that which lacks sensation is nothing to us. " Bertrand Russell critiques Epicureanism's conception of death:
[T]he fear of death is so deeply rooted in instinct that the gospel of Epicurus could not, at any time, make a wide popular appeal; it remained always the creed of a cultivated minority. Bertrand Arthur William Russell 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970 was a British Philosopher, Historian Even among philosophers, after the time of Augustus, it was, as a rule, rejected in favour of Stoicism. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy, was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC It survived, it is true, though with diminishing vigour, for six hundred years after the death of Epicurus; but as men became increasingly oppressed by the miseries of our terrestrial existence, they demanded continually stronger medicine from philosophy or religion. The philosophers took refuge, with few exceptions, in Neoplatonism; the uneducated turned to various Eastern superstitions, and then, in continually increasing numbers, to Christianity, which, in its early form, placed all good in life beyond the grave, thus offering men a gospel which was the exact opposite of that of Epicurus. Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
Epicurus was an early thinker to develop the notion of justice as a social contract. He defined justice as an agreement "neither to harm nor be harmed. " The point of living in a society with laws and punishments is to be protected from harm so that one is free to pursue happiness. Because of this, laws that do not contribute to promoting human happiness are not just. He gave his own unique version of the Ethic of Reciprocity, which differs from other formulations by emphasizing minimizing harm and maximizing happiness for oneself and others:
It is impossible to live a pleasant life without living wisely and well and justly (agreeing 'neither to harm nor be harmed'). The ethic of reciprocity is a fundamental moral Value which " refers to the balance in an interactive system such that each party has both rights and
And it is impossible to live wisely and well and justly without living a pleasant life.
Epicureanism incorporated a relatively full account of the social contract theory, following after a vague description of such a society in Plato's Republic. Social contract describes a broad class of republican theories whose subjects are implied agreements by which people form Nations and maintain a Social order Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece The social contract theory established by Epicureanism is based on mutual agreement, not divine decree.
Epicurus' philosophy of the physical world is found in Letter to Herodotus: Diogenes Laertius 10. 34-83.
If a limited form lives within an unlimited void, the form could only wander aimlessly about, because what is unlimited is ungraspable; meaning, the limited form would travel forever, for it does not have any obstacles. The void would have to be limited in quality and the form of an unlimited quality, for an unlimited form can oscillate and seemingly grasp—practically, but not literally—an unlimited number of spots within the limited void. So therefore all living things on Earth are unlimited, and the Earth on which they live and the universe around it, is limited. (Compare the concept of the finite universe in modern cosmology. The history of the Big Bang theory began with the Big Bang 's development from observations and theoretical considerations Cosmology (from Greek grc κοσμολογία - grc κόσμος kosmos, "universe" and grc -λογία -logia) is study )
Forms can change, but not their inherent qualities, for change can only affect their shape. Some things can be changed and some things cannot be changed because forms that are unchangeable cannot be destroyed if certain attributes can be removed; for attributes not only have the intention of altering an unchangeable form, but also the inevitable possibility of becoming—in relation to the form’s disposition to its present environment—both an armor and a vulnerability to the its stability.
Further proof that there are unchangeable forms and their inability to be destroyed, is the concept of the “non-evident. ” A form cannot come into being from the void—which is nothing; it would be as if all forms come into being spontaneously, needless of reproduction. The implied meaning of “destroying” something is to undo its existence, to make it not there anymore, and this cannot be so: if the void is that which does not exist, and if this void is the implied destination of the destroyed, then the thing in reality cannot be destroyed, for the thing (and all things) could not have existed in the first place (as Lucretius said, ex nihilo nihil fit: nothing comes from nothing). Nothing comes from nothing is a philosophical expression of a thesis first argued by Parmenides, often stated in its Latin form Ex nihilo nihil This totality of forms is eternal and unchangeable. [Compare the modern Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy. In Physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total amount of Energy in an isolated system remains constant and cannot be created although it may ]
Atoms move, in the appropriate way, constantly and for all time. History See also Atomic theory, Atomism The concept that matter is composed of discrete units and cannot be divided into arbitrarily tiny [Compare the modern theory of particle physics. Particle physics is a branch of Physics that studies the elementary constituents of Matter and Radiation, and the interactions between them ] Forms first come to us in images or “projections”--outlines of their true selves. For an image to be perceived by the human eye, the “atoms” of the image must cross a great distance at enormous speed and must not encounter any conflicting atoms along the way. [Compare the modern theory of light as being composed of subatomic particles called photons. A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite Particle smaller than an Atom. In Physics, the photon is the Elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena ] The presence of atomic resistance equal atomic slowness; whereas, if the path is deficient of atomic resistance, the traversal rate is much faster (and clearer). [Compare the modern concept of the speed of light and refraction. Refraction is the change in direction of a Wave due to a change in its Speed. ] Because of resistance, forms must be unlimited (unchangeable and able to grasp any point within the void) because, if they weren't, a form's image would not come from a single place, but fragmented and from several places. This confirms that a single form cannot be at multiple places at the same time. [Compare Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. In Quantum physics, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that locating a particle in a small region of space makes the Momentum of the particle uncertain ]
And the senses warrant us other means of perception: hearing and smelling. As in the same way an image traverses through the air, the atoms of sound and smell traverse the same way. This perceptive experience is itself the flow of the moving atoms; and like the changeable and unchangeable forms, the form from which the flow traverses is shed and shattered into even smaller atoms, atoms of which still represent the original form, but they are slightly disconnected and of diverse magnitudes. This flow, like that of an echo, reverberates (off one's senses) and goes back to its start; meaning, one’s sensory perception happens in the coming, going, or arch, of the flow; and when the flow retreats back to its starting position, the atomic image is back together again [Compare the modern theory of sound. Sound' is Vibration transmitted through a Solid, Liquid, or Gas; particularly sound means those vibrations composed of Frequencies ]: thus when one smells something one has the ability to see it too [because atoms reach the one who smells or sees from the object. ]
And this leads to the question of how atomic speed and motion works. Epicurus says that there are two kinds of motion: the straight motion and the curved motion, and its motion traverse as fast as the speed of thought. [Compare the modern theory of the speed of light. ]
Epicurus proposed the idea of 'the space between worlds' (metakosmia) the relatively empty spaces in the infinite void where worlds had not been formed by the joining together of the atoms through their endless motion. The metakosmia ( Greek: μετακόσμια Latin: intermundia according to Epicurean philosophy were the relatively empty spaces in the infinite void History See also Atomic theory, Atomism The concept that matter is composed of discrete units and cannot be divided into arbitrarily tiny [Compare the modern concepts of interstellar and intergalactic space. Interstellar Space was the one of the final studio albums recorded by the saxophonist John Coltrane before his death in 1967 originally-released posthumously Intergalactic space is the physical space between galaxies. Generally free of dust and debris intergalactic space is very close to a total Vacuum. ]
Epicurean epistemology has three criteria of truth: sensations (aesthêsis), preconceptions (prolepsis), and feelings (pathê). Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge The meaning of the word truth extends from Honesty, Good faith, and Sincerity in general to agreement with Fact or Reality Prolepsis is sometimes translated as "basic grasp" but could also be described as "universal ideas": concepts that are understood by all. An example of prolepsis is the word "man" because every person has a preconceived notion of what a man is. Sensations or sense perception is knowledge that is received from the senses alone. Much like modern science, epicurean philosophy posits that empiricism can be used to sort truth from falsehood. In Philosophy, empiricism is a theory of Knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from Experience. Feelings are more related to ethics than Epicurean physical theory. Theoretical physics employs Mathematical models and Abstractions of Physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world Feelings merely tell the individual what brings about pleasure and what brings about pain. This is important for the Epicurean because these are the basis for the entire Epicurean ethical doctrine.
According to Epicurus, the basic means for our understanding of things are the ‘sensations’ (aestheses), 'concepts' (prolepsis), ‘emotions’ (pathe) and the ‘focusing of thought into an impression’ (phantastikes epiboles tes dianoias). Prolepsis ( from the Greek prolambanein, to anticipate can be A Figure of speech in which a future event is referred to
Epicureans reject dialectic as confusing (parelkousa) because for the physical philosophers it is sufficient to use the correct words which refer to the concepts of the world. In classical Philosophy, dialectic (διαλεκτική is controversy the exchange of arguments and counter-arguments respectively advocating Propositions Epicurus then, in his work On the Canon, says that the criteria of truth are the senses, the preconceptions and the feelings. Epicureans add to these the focusing of thought into an impression. He himself is referring to those in his Epitome to Herodotus and in Principal Doctrines. 
The senses are the first criterion of truth, since they create the first impressions and testify the existence of the external world. Sensory input is neither subjective nor deceitful, but the misunderstanding comes when the mind adds to or subtracts something from these impressions through our preconceived notions. Therefore, our sensory input alone cannot lead us to inaccuracy, only the concepts and opinions that come from our interpretations of our sensory input can. Therefore our sensory data is the only truly accurate thing which we have to rely for our understanding of the world around us.
And whatever image we receive by direct understanding by our mind or through our sensory organs of the shape or the essential properties that are the true form of the solid object, since it is created by the constant repetition of the image or the impression it has left behind. There is always inaccuracy and error involved in bringing into a judgment an element that is additional to sensory impressions, either to confirm [what we sensed] or deny it.
Epicurus said that all the tangible things are real and each impression comes from existing objects and is determined by the object that causes the sensations.
Therefore all the impressions are real, while the preconceived notions are not real and can be modified.
If you battle with all your sensations, you will be unable to form a standard for judging which of them are incorrect.
The concepts are the categories which have formed mentally according to our sensory input, for example the concepts "man", "warm", and "sweet", etc. These concepts are directly related to memory and can be recalled at any time, only by the use of the respective word. (Compare the anthropological Sapir-Whorf hypothesis). Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of In Linguistics, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis ( SWH) (also known as the " Linguistic relativity hypothesis " postulates a systematic relationship Epicurus also calls them "the meanings that underlie the words" (hypotetagmena tois phthongois: semantic substance of the words) in his letter to Herodotus. The feelings or emotions (pathe) are related to the senses and the concepts. They are the inner impulses that make us feel like or dislike about certain external objects, which we perceive through the senses, and are associated with the preconceptions that are recalled.
In this moment that the word "man" is spoken, immediately due to the concept [or category of the idea] an image is projected in the mind which is related to the sensory input data.
First of all Herodotus, we must understand the meanings that underlie the words, so that by referring to them, we may be able to reach judgments about our opinions, matters of inquiry, or problems and leave everything undecided as we can argue endlessly or use words that have no clearly defined meaning.
Apart from these there is the assumption (hypolepsis), which is either the hypothesis or the opinion about something (matter or action), and which can be correct or incorrect. The assumptions are created by our sensations, concepts and emotions. Since they are produced automatically without any rational analysis and verification (see the modern idea of the subconscious) of whether they are correct or not, they need to be confirmed (epimarteresis: confirmation), a process which must follow each assumption. The term subconscious is defined as existing or operating in the Mind beneath or beyond Conscious Awareness.
For beliefs they [the Epicureans] use the word hypolepsis which they claim can be correct or incorrect.
Referring to the "focusing of thought into an impression" or else "intuitive understandings of the mind", they are the impressions made on the mind that come from our sensations, concepts and emotions and form the basis of our assumptions and beliefs. All this unity (sensation – concept or category – emotion – focusing of thought into an impression) leads to the formation of a certain assumption or belief (hypolepsis). (Compare the modern anthropological concept of a "world view". Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of A comprehensive world view (or worldview) is a term Calqued from the German word Weltanschauung ( Welt is the German ) Following the lead of Aristotle, Epicurus also refers to impressions in the form of mental images which are projected on the mind. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. The "correct use of impressions" was something adopted later by the Stoics. Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy, was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC Our assumptions and beliefs have to be ’confirmed', which actually proves if our opinions are either accurate or inaccurate. This verification and confirmation (epimarteresis) can only be done by means of the "evident reason" (henargeia), which means what is self-evident and obvious through our sensory input.
An example is when we see somebody approaching us, first through the sense of eyesight, we perceive that an object is coming closer to us, then through our preconceptions we understand that it is a human being, afterwards through that assumption we can recognize that he is someone we know, for example Theaetetus. This assumption is associated with pleasant or unpleasant emotions accompanied by the respective mental images and impressions (the focusing of our thoughts into an impression), which are related to our feelings toward each other. When he gets close to us, we can confirm (verify) that he is Socrates and not Theaetetus through the proof of our eyesight. Therefore, we have to use the same method to understand everything, even things which are not observable and obvious (adela, imperceptible), that is to say the confirmation through the evident reason (henargeia). In the same way we have to reduce (reductionism) each assumption and belief to something that can be proved through the self-evident reason (empirically verified). Reductionism can either mean (a an approach to understanding the nature of complex things by reducing them to the interactions of their parts or to simpler or more fundamental things Verification theory and reductionism have been adopted, as we know, by the modern philosophy of science. The verification theory (of meaning is a philosophical theory proposed by the logical positivists of the Vienna Circle. Reductionism can either mean (a an approach to understanding the nature of complex things by reducing them to the interactions of their parts or to simpler or more fundamental things Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions foundations and implications of Science. In this way, one can get rid of the incorrect assumptions and beliefs (biases) and finally settle on the real (confirmed) facts. Bias is a term used to describe a Tendency or Preference towards a particular perspective, Ideology or result especially when the tendency interferes
Consequently the confirmation and lack of disagreement is the criterion of accuracy of something, while non-confirmation and disagreement is the criterion of its inaccuracy. The basis and foundation of [understanding] everything are the obvious and self-evident [facts].
All the above mentioned criteria of knowledge form the basic principles of the [scientific] method, that Epicurus followed in order to find the truth. He described this method in his work On the Canon or On the Criteria.
If you reject any sensation and you do not distinguish between the opinion based on what awaits confirmation and evidence already available based on the senses, the feelings and every intuitive faculty of the mind, you will send the remaining sensations into a turmoil with your foolish opinions, thus getting rid of every standard for judging. And if among the perceptions based on beliefs things that are verified and things that are not, you are guaranteed to be in error since you have kept everything that leads uncertainty concerning the correct and incorrect.
(Based on excerpt from Epicurus' Gnoseology 'Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments', Nikolaos Bakalis, Trafford Publishing 2005, ISBN 1-4120-4843-5.
Tetrapharmakos, or "The four-part cure", is Epicurus' basic guideline as to how to live the happiest possible life. The Tetrapharmakos (τετραφάρμακος or "The four-part cure" is the Greek philosopher Epicurus ' ( 341 BC, Samos – 270 BC This poetic doctrine was handed down by an anonymous Epicurean who summed up Epicurus' philosophy on happiness in four simple lines:
Don't fear god,
Don't worry about death;
What is good is easy to get, and
What is terrible is easy to endure.
– Philodemus, Herculaneum Papyrus, 1005, 4. Philodemus of Gadara (in Greek) ( Gadara, Coele-Syria, c 110 BCE&ndashprobably Herculaneum c Herculaneum (in modern Italian Ercolano) is an ancient Roman town located in the territory of the current commune of Ercolano. 9-14
One of the earliest Roman writers espousing Epicureanism was Amafinius. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC C (probably Gaius) Amafinius (or Amafanius) was one of the earliest Roman writers in favour of the Epicurean philosophy Other adherents to the teachings of Epicurus included the poet Horace, whose famous statement Carpe Diem ("Seize the Day") illustrates the philosophy, as well as Lucretius, as he showed in his De Rerum Natura. Quintus Horatius Flaccus, ( Venosa, December 8, 65 BC - Rome, November 27, 8 BC known in the English-speaking world as Horace Titus Lucretius Carus (ca 99 BC- ca 55 BC was a Roman Poet and Philosopher.
Julius Caesar leaned considerably toward Epicureanism and rejected the idea of an afterlife, which e. g. lead to his plea against the death sentence during the trial against Catiline, where he spoke out against the Stoic Cato. Lucius Sergius Catilina (108 BC–62 BC known in English as Catiline, was a Roman Politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy, was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC&ndash46 BC known as Cato the Younger ( Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather ( Cato the Elder 
In modern times Thomas Jefferson referred to himself as an Epicurean, and the preamble to the United States Declaration of Independence demonstrates Epicurean influence by inalienable right of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence This article is about declarations of independence in general
Other modern-day Epicureans were Gassendi, Walter Charleton, François Bernier, Saint-Evremond, Ninon de l'Enclos, Diderot, and Jeremy Bentham. Walter Charleton (February 1619-c April 1707 was an English writer educated at Magdalen Hall Oxford, who according to Jon Parkin was "the main conduit for the François Bernier (1625&ndash1688 was a French Physician and traveler born at Joué-Etiau / Anjou. Charles de Marguetel de Saint-Denis seigneur de Saint-Évremond ( April 1, 1610 - September 29, 1703) was a French soldier Anne "Ninon" de l'Enclos also spelled Ninon de Lenclos and Ninon de Lanclos ( November 10, 1620 &ndash October 17, Denis Diderot ( October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French Philosopher and writer Jeremy Bentham ( IPA: or) (15 February 1748&ndash6 June 1832 was an English Jurist, Philosopher, and legal and Social reformer Christopher Hitchens has referred to himself as an Epicurean. Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British Author, Journalist, Literary critic and American 
Karl Marx made Epicurus the subject of his doctoral thesis. His teachings are still followed today by Homerton College, Cambridge University, who have named a successful social society after him: "The Epicureans".
In modern popular usage, an epicure is a connoisseur of the arts of life and the refinements of sensual pleasures; epicureanism implies a love or knowledgeable enjoyment especially of good food and drink—see the definition of gourmet at Wiktionary.
This can be attributed to a misunderstanding of the Epicurean doctrine, as promulgated by Christian polemicists. Because Epicureanism posits that pleasure is the ultimate good (telos), it is commonly misunderstood as a doctrine that advocates the partaking in fleeting pleasures such as constant partying, sexual excess and decadent food. This is not the case. Epicurus regarded ataraxia (tranquility, freedom from fear) and aponia (absence of pain) as the height of happiness. Ataraxia (Ἀταραξία is a Greek term used by Pyrrho and Epicurus for a limpid state characterized by freedom from worry or any He also considered prudence an important virtue and perceived excess and overindulgence to be contrary to the attainment of ataraxia and aponia.
In the Jewish exegetical tradition, the word "Apiqoros" (אפיקורוס) appears in Rabbinical literature as a reference to those who lack religion or are ostensibly atheistic. Its origins are uncertain, but it may have originally referred specifically to the Epicurean philosophy, although it eventually came to refer to any philosophy lacking a God or a spiritually based morality. It is also occasionally used to describe heretic principles or heretics themselves. The word is still used in modern Hebrew, mainly among religious Jews.