Environmental vegetarianism is the practice of vegetarianism based on the fact that the production of meat by intensive agriculture is environmentally unsustainable. Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes Meat (including game and slaughter by-products Fish (including Shellfish and other sea In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an Agricultural production system characterized by the high Inputs of Capital, Fertilizers See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present The primary environmental concerns with meat production are pollution and the use of resources such as fossil fuels, water, and land. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. Water Crisis is a term that refers to the status of the world’s Water resources relative to human demand
The use of large industrial monoculture that is common in industrialised agriculture, typically for feed crops such as corn and soy is more damaging to ecosystems than more sustainable farming practices such as organic farming, permaculture, arable, pastoral, and rain-fed agriculture. This article discusses the environmental effects of livestock and poultry farming Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on Crop rotation, Green manure, Compost, Biological pest control, and mechanical Cultivation The word permaculture, coined by Australians Bill Mollison and David Holmgren during the 1970s is a Portmanteau of perma nent agri' In Geography, arable land (from Latin arare, to Plough) is an agricultural term meaning land that can be used for Pastoral, as an adjective refers to the lifestyle of Shepherds and Pastoralists moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture
According to a 2006 United Nations initiative, the livestock industry is one of the largest contributors to environmental degradation worldwide, and modern practices of raising animals for food contributes on a "massive scale" to air and water pollution, land degradation, climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The initiative concluded that "the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global. "
Animals fed on grain and those which rely on grazing need more water than grain crops.  In tracking food animal production from the feed through to the dinner table, the inefficiencies of meat, milk and egg production range from a 4:1 energy input to protein output ratio up to 54:1. Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. An egg is a round or oval body laid by the female of many animals consisting of an Ovum surrounded by layers of Membranes and an outer casing which acts to nourish  The result is that producing animal-based food is typically much less efficient than the harvesting of grains, vegetables, legumes, seeds and fruits, though this might not be largely true for animal husbandry in the developing world where factory farming is almost non existent, making animal based food much more sustainable. A legume is a Plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae or a Fruit of these specific plants
Environmental vegetarianism can be compared with economic vegetarianism. An economic vegetarian is a person who practices Vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint that the consumption of meat is expensive part of a conscious An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism either out of necessity or because of a conscious simple living strategy. Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals choose to minimize the 'more-is-better' pursuit of Wealth and consumption. Such a person may base this belief on a philosophical viewpoint, such as the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound or that vegetarianism will help improve public health and curb starvation. Starvation (also called inanition) is a severe reduction in Vitamin, Nutrient, and Energy intake and is the most extreme form of According to the Worldwatch Institute, "massive reductions in meat consumption in industrial nations will ease the health care burden while improving public health; declining livestock herds will take pressure off of rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to rejuvenate. The Worldwatch Institute is a globally-focused environmental research organization based in Washington D The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors As populations grow, lowering meat consumption worldwide will allow more efficient use of declining per capita land and water resources, while at the same time making grain more affordable to the world's chronically hungry. "
Environmental vegetarians call for a reduction of first world consumption of meat, especially in the US. According to the United Nations Population Fund "Each U. The United Nations Population Fund ( UNFPA) began operations in 1969 as the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (the name was changed in 1987 S. citizen consumes an average of 260 lbs. of meat per year, the world's highest rate. That is about 1. 5 times the industrial world average, three times the East Asian average, and 40 times the average in Bangladesh. " In addition, "the ecological footprint of an average person in a high-income country is about six times bigger than that of someone in a low-income country, and many more times bigger than in the least-developed countries. The ecological footprint is a measure of human demand on the Earth's Ecosystems. "
The World Health Organization calls malnutrition "the silent emergency", and says it is a factor in at least half of the 10. Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet. 4 million child deaths which occur every year.  Cornell scientists have advised that the U. S. could feed 800 million people with grain that livestock eat, although they distinguish "grain-fed meat production from pasture-raised livestock, calling cattle-grazing a more reasonable use of marginal land. "
Critics note, starvation in the modern world is largely a political problem and may not be solved through flooding world markets with more grain.  Indeed, critics of environmental vegetarianism point out that should the U. S. give this "freed" grain to the developing world, it would amount to dumping, undermining local markets and worsening the situation. Among other results, this could lead also to a decrease in biodiversity. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth.  Some environmentalists go even as far as to characterise food aid, in particular grain, as a commercial enterprise interested more in supporting farmers in the developed world than alleviating famine in the developing world. 
A widely adopted vegetarian diet, in and of itself, may not have profound effects on the health of the environment. The support of alternative farming practices (e. g. well husbanded organic farming, permaculture, and rotational grazing) and certain plant commodity avoidance such as rice, have a similarly beneficial impact on environmental health and sustainable agriculture. Management Intensive Grazing ( MIG) is the practice of using rotational Grazing and careful usually daily management to get optimal production According to Cornell scientists, "the heavy dependence on fossil energy suggests that the US food system, whether meat-based or plant-based, is not sustainable. "
Some environmental activists point out, adopting a vegetarian diet may be a way of focusing on personal actions and righteous gestures rather than systemic change. Dave Riley, an Australian environmentalist, echoes the views of some non-vegetarian environmentalists when he states that "being meatless and guiltless seems seductively simple while environmental destruction rages around us," noting that animals can contribute to the food chain. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. "For instance, yams, which keep poorly, are stored inside pigs, and today's rotting apples attracting fruit fly are tomorrow's bacon,". 
The adoption of a lacto-ovo vegetarian or entirely plant-based vegan diet may not be totally necessary, because even modest reductions in meat consumption in industrialised societies would substantially reduce the burden on our natural resources. "One personal act that can have a profound impact on these issues is reducing meat consumption. To produce 1 pound of feedlot beef requires about 2,400 gallons of water and 7 pounds of grain (42). Considering that the average American consumes 97 pounds of beef (and 273 pounds of meat in all) each year, even modest reductions in meat consumption in such a culture would substantially reduce the burden on our natural resources. "