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|Articles on Neoplatonism|
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|Platonic doctrine of recollection|
|Form of the Good|
|Participants in Dialogues|
|Discussions of Plato's works|
|Dialogues of Plato|
|Metaphor of the sun|
|Analogy of the divided line|
|Allegory of the cave|
|Third Man Argument|
|Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?|
The Six Enneads, sometimes abbreviated to The Enneads or Enneads, is the collection of writings of Plotinus, edited and compiled by his student Porphyry (c. Platonism is the Philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it The phrase Platonic idealism usually refers to Plato's theory of forms or doctrine of ideas the exact philosophical meaning of which is perhaps one of the most disputed questions Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals after the Greek Middle Platonism was the development of certain philosophical doctrines associated with Plato from approximately 130 B Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Platonic Epistemology holds that knowledge is innate so that learning is the development of ideas buried deep in the soul often under the mid-wife-like guidance of The Socratic Method (or Method of Elenchus or Socratic Debate) named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates, is a form of Socratic dialogue ( Greek Σωκρατικός λόγος or Σωκρατικός διάλογος) is a genre of prose literary works developed in Plato 's Theory of Forms asserts that Forms (or Ideas) and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess Platonic Epistemology holds that knowledge is innate so that learning is the development of ideas buried deep in the soul often under the mid-wife-like guidance of Plato describes "The Idea of the Good" in his Dialogue, The Republic, speaking through the character of Socrates. SOCRATES is the European Community action programme in the field of Education. Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (ˌælsɨˈbaɪədiːz (pronunciation Greek:, transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnidēs) meaning Alcibiades Protagoras ( Greek:) (ca 490&ndash 420 BC was a pre-Socratic Greek Philosopher and is numbered as one of the Sophists by Parmenides of Elea ( Greek:, early 5th century BC was an Ancient Greek Philosopher born in Elea, a Greek city on the southern coast of Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Plotinus ( Greek:) (ca AD 204–270 was a major philosopher of the ancient world who is widely considered the founder of Neoplatonism (along with his Proclus Lycaeus ( February 8, c 411 &ndash April 17, 485) called "The Successor" or "Diadochos" ( Greek Próklos Plato, in ''The Republic'' (507b-509c uses the sun as a Metaphor for the source of "illumination" arguably intellectual illumination which he held to Plato, in his dialogue The Republic Book 6 (509D–513E has Socrates explain the literary device of a divided line to teach basic philosophical The Allegory of the Cave is an Allegory used by the Greek Philosopher Plato in his work The Republic. Plato, in his dialogue Phaedrus (sections 246a - 254e uses the Chariot Allegory to explain his view of the human soul The Third Man Argument (commonly referred to as TMA) first offered by Plato in his dialogue Parmenides, is a Philosophical criticism of Plato's la ''Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?'' is a Latin phrase from the Roman poet Juvenal, variously translated as "Who watches the watchmen?" "Who watches Plotinus ( Greek:) (ca AD 204–270 was a major philosopher of the ancient world who is widely considered the founder of Neoplatonism (along with his Porphyry of Tyre ( Greek:, c AD 233&ndashc 309 was a Phoenician Neoplatonic philosopher 270 AD). Plotinus was a student of Ammonius Saccas and they were founders of Neoplatonism. Ammonius Saccas ( 3rd century AD) was a Greek Philosopher from Alexandria who was often referred to as one of the founders of Neoplatonism. Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by His work, through Augustine of Hippo, and therefore subsequent Christian and Muslim thinkers, has greatly influenced Western and Near-Eastern thought.
Porphyry edited the writings of Plotinus in fifty-four treatises, which greatly vary in length and number of chapters, mostly because he split some original texts and joined others together to match this very number. A treatise is a formal lengthy systematic Discourse on some subject Then he proceeded to set the fifty-four treatises in groups of nine (Greek. ennea) or Enneads. He also collected The Enneads into three volumes. The first volume contained the three firsts Enneads (I, III, III); the second the Fourth (IV) and the Fifth (V) Enneads; and the remaining volume was devoted to the Sixth (VI) and last. After correcting and naming each treatise, Porphyry wrote a biography of his master, Life of Plotinus, intended to be an Introduction to the Enneads.
Porphyry's edition does not follow the chronological order in which Enneads were written (see Chronological Listing below), but responds to a plan of study which leads the learner from subjects related to his own affairs to subjects concerning the uttermost principles of universe.
Although not exclusively, Porphyry tells us (Cf. Life of Plotinus, chapters. 24-26) that the First Ennead deals with Human or ethical topics; the Second and Third Enneads are mostly devoted to cosmological subjects or physical reality; The Fourth concerns about Soul; the Fifth to knowledge and intelligible reality; and finally the Sixth has for topics Being and what is above it, the One or first principle of all.
Since the publishing of modern critical edition of the Greek text by P. Henry and H. -R. Schwyzer (Plotini Opera. 3 volumes. Paris-Bruxelles, 1951-1973) and the revised one (Plotini Opera. 3 volumes. Oxford: Claredon Press, 1964-1984) there is the academic use to quote Enneads in such a way we first mention the number of Ennead (usually in Romans from I to VI), the number of treatise within each Ennead (in arabics from 1 to 9), the number of chapter (in arabics also), and the line(s) in one of the mentioned editions. These numbers are divided by dots, by commas or blank spaces (there is no absolute consensus about this).
E. g. For Fourth Ennead (IV), treatise number seven (7), chapter two (2), lines one to five (1-5), we write:
E. g. The following three mean Third Ennead (III), treatise number five (5), chapter nine (9), line eight (8):
It is important to remark that some translations or editions do not include the line numbers according to P. Henry and H. -R. Schwyzer’s. In addition to this, there is the use to indicate the chronological order of the treatises between brackets or parentheses.
E. g. For the previously given:
The names of treatises may differ according to translation.
After the fall of Western Roman Empire and during the period of the Byzantine Empire, the authorship of some Plotinus' texts became clouded. The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern Many pasages of Enneads IV-VI, now known as Plotiniana Arabica, circulated among Islamic scholars (as Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi and Avicenna) under the name The Theology of Aristotle or quoted as "Sayings of an old [wise] man". For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. ( أبو يوسف يعقوب إبن إسحاق الكندي) (c TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abū Nasr Muhammad ibn al-Farakh al-Fārābi ( Nastaliq:) or Abū Nasr al-Fārābi TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born The Theology of Aristotle was a paraphrase of parts of Plotinus ' Six Enneads along with Porphyry 's commentary into Arabic. The writings had a significant effect on Islamic philosophy, due to Islamic interest in Aristotle. Islamic philosophy is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between Philosophy ( Reason) and the religious teachings Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. A Latin version of the so called Theology appeared in Europe in 1519. (Cf. O'MEARA, An Introduction the Enneads. Oxford: 1995, 111ff. )
Contemporary scholars refer to the Plotinus' critical editions made by
Useful tools for the study of the Enneads are
According to the fourth chapter of Porphyry's Life of Plotinus, preserving the titles he assigned them and the corresponding treatise number in the Enneads.