The term energy superpower has several potential definitions that might be used relating to different contexts. A superpower is a State with a leading position in the international system and the ability to Influence events and project power on a worldwide scale  In recent years, however, it has come to be used to refer to a nation that supplies large amounts of energy resources (oil, natural gas, coal, uranium, etc) to a significant number of other states, and which therefore has the potential to influence world markets to gain a political or economic advantage. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified ( natural) form An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the This might be exercised, for example, by significantly influencing the price on global markets, or by withholding supplies.  The status of "energy superpower" should not be confused with that of "superpower", as the nature of an energy superpower is defined very differently due to the non-military nature of an energy superpower's power base. A superpower is a State with a leading position in the international system and the ability to Influence events and project power on a worldwide scale
Energy superpowers project greater power than would be otherwise possible due to their lock on the exportable energy markets, and are becoming increasingly valuable to the global economy. In the global commodities' boom of recent years many of these states have benefited massively from increased production and prices.
There are currently two "recognized" energy superpowers globally, both of whom have the largest reserves and production in their areas of energy they specialize in. Russia has the world's largest reserves of natural gas, and is is the worlds largest gas producer and exporter, while Saudi Arabia has the world's largest conventional oil reserves and maintains the world’s largest crude oil production capacity, estimated to be around 10. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit 5-11. 0 million bbl/d.  Actions taken by companies or the government in either state are enough to produce an immediate reaction in the stock market, although the markets have been known to second-guess Saudi Arabia's stated production numbers.
Russia has the largest known natural gas reserves of any state on earth, along with the second largest coal reserves, and the eighth largest oil reserves. The Energy policy of Russia is contained in an Energy Strategy document which sets out policy for the period up to 2020 Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane,  It is the world's second largest oil producer and, from time to time, overtakes Saudi Arabia as the world's number one. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi 
Russia is also the world biggest natural gas producer with 22. 3% of global natural gas production and also the biggest exporter with 24. 0% of global natural gas export. In recent years Russia has identified the gas sector as being of key strategic importance. Many private oil and natural gas companies, most notably Yukos and Sibneft have been consolidated under the control of the state-controlled Rosneft and Gazprom respectively. Yukos Oil Company (ОАО НК ЮКОС was a Petroleum company in Russia which until recently was controlled by Russian Gazprom Neft ( ( Газпром нефть) is the fifth largest oil producing and refining company in Russia. OAO Rosneft Oil Company ( Роснефть) () is an integrated petroleum company owned by the Russian Government OJSC Gazprom, (Газпром long version Открытое Aкционерное Oбщество Газпром sometimes transcribed as Gasprom is the largest Russian company
Gazprom also has control over all gas pipelines leading out of Central Asia, a region also rich in gas. Russia has used such gas, primarily that from Turkmenistan, on occasions where it has found itself unable to meet all its delivery obligations from its own production. Turkmenistan ( Türkmenistan; also known as Turkmenia) is a Turkic country in Central Asia. Such circumstances in 2000 led to Gazprom allowing Turkmenistan to use its pipelines to supply gas to the highly-subsidised, low price Russian domestic market - leaving Gazprom free to fulfil its obligations towards European customers.  Gazprom sells 33% of its gas to Europe, accounting for nearly 70% of the company's revenue. The remaining 30% is sold for domestic Russian consumption at highly subsidized prices.
As of 2006, Russia supplies over 25% of Europe's oil and over 40% of its gas. Its energy superpower status has recently become a hot topic in the European Union. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in  Russia's overwhelmingly large reserves of natural gas have helped give it the title without much debate.  Still, Russia's status as an energy superpower has been called into question by some. As Vladimir Milov, of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, says:
The “energy superpower" concept is an illusion with no basis in reality. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a formally private nonprofit organization in practice closely associated with the United States Department of State, Perhaps most dangerously, it doesn’t recognize the mutual dependence between Russia and energy consumers. Because of political conflicts and declining production, future supply disruptions to Europe are likely. As a result, there will come a day when European gas companies demand elimination of the take-or-pay conditions in their Russian contracts. This will threaten Gazprom’s ability to borrow. Putin’s attempt to use energy to increase Russian influence could backfire in the long run. 
Russia has recently been accused by the West of using its natural resources as a policy tool to be wielded against offending states like Georgia, the Ukraine, and other states it perceives as hindrances to its power. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. At the beginning of 2006 Russia greatly increased the price of gas for Ukraine following that country's Orange Revolution. The Orange Revolution (Помаранчева революція Pomarancheva revolyutsiya) was a series of Protests and political events that took place in Ukraine It later doubled natural gas prices to Georgia following an international incident. Critics speculated that this was an attempt to influence the Georgian leadership's defiance of Moscow.
Russia, in turn, accuses the West of applying double-standards relating to market principles, pointing out that it has been supplying gas to the states in question (ruled by regimes Moscow considers unfriendly) at prices that were significantly below world market levels, and in some cases remain so even after the increases. Russia argues that it is not obligated to effectively subsidize the economies of post-Soviet states by offering them resources at below-market prices. Russia has greatly increased the price of gas for Armenia and Belarus, which, unlike Georgia and Ukraine, has been closely allied with Moscow and forms a loose union state with Russia. The Russia-Belarus energy dispute began when Russian State-owned gas supplier Gazprom demanded an increase in gas prices paid by Belarus Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east
Despite Russia's vast potential, there have been concerns voiced by TNK-BP's Viktor Vekselberg that it will run into grave difficulties in 2007, citing that Russia has not opened up any new gas fields since the fall of the Soviet Union, and those which are currently in operation are rapidly depleting. TNK-BP Ltd ( is a major Vertically integrated Russian oil company registered in the British Virgin Islands in September 2003 as a result of the merger Viktor Felixovich Vekselberg (Виктор Феликсович Вексельберг born April 14, 1957, Drohobych, Ukraine, Soviet
However, this opinion comes in direct contradiction to known facts, as Russia was not reported to have run into gas shortages during 2007. In October of 2001 Gazprom began production at the Zapolyarnoye field in western Siberia measured at 3. 2 trillion cubic meters. This puts Zapolyarnoye field in the top 10 largest fields in the world.  
Despite this fact, some continue to argue that inefficient plant and aging infrastructure could force Russia to import additional gas from Central Asia.  Such a scenario is not inevitable, as Gazprom has access to vast amounts of gas, and according to Gazprom's Alexey Miller intends to singlehandedly explore the Shtokman Field, one of the world's largest natural gas fields. OJSC Gazprom, (Газпром long version Открытое Aкционерное Oбщество Газпром sometimes transcribed as Gasprom is the largest Russian company Alexei Borisovich Miller (Алексей Борисович Миллер (born January 31, 1962) is Deputy Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chairman of the The Shtokman field (also Stockman field; Штокмановское месторождение one of the world's largest Natural gas fields lies in the central 
It is noteworthy that Russian gas imports present a lucrative opportunity for the country. In 2008 Russia plans to import most of its gas from Central Asian republics for a price that ranges between $100 and $150 per 1000 cubic meters. It resells most of this gas to Europe for a price that tops $250 per 1000 cubic meters.
Saudi Arabia possesses both the world's largest known oil reserves and produces the largest amount of the world's oil, sometimes being outproduced by Russia, though maintaining the world’s largest crude oil production capacity. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Considered to be the leading state of OPEC, its decisions to raise or cut production almost immediately impact world oil prices. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC) is a Cartel of thirteen countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador 
In 2005, oil export revenues accounted for around 90 percent of total Saudi export earnings, which accounted for 70-80 percent of state revenues, and 44 percent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP), as reported by the IMF. Saudi Arabia is increasing its oil production capacity to 12 million barrels per day (1,900,000 m³/d) (bbl/d), by 2009. 
Canada holds perhaps one of the more ambiguous status' in international relations when it comes to its status as an energy power. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Supporters of it being included with Saudi Arabia & Russia will point out that Canada has the world's highest production of uranium, producing over a quarter of the world's uranium in 2006.  Canada also ranks number one on earth in energy produced via hydroelectricity, and exports large amounts of electricity to the US from hydroelectric production.  Some Canadian institutions have taken to even calling the country an energy superpower, but these claims are almost all predicated on its oil production rates.  Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper has taken to calling the country an energy superpower in Summer 2006. WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Honorific prefixes --> Stephen Joseph Harper PC  Currently Canada also ranks 3rd on earth in natural gas production behind Russia and the US, and seventh in oil production. 
However, there are a number of critics of this view, who feel that Canada has not really established itself as an actual energy superpower. Critics, like Shawn McCarthy of Toronto-based Globe & Mail feel that in comparison to already existing energy superpowers like Russia, Canada is more like a "energy superstore" compared to Russia, which he says is the "real deal".  Still others feel that Canada has not yet achieved the status, but rather is emerging as its production rates in oil grow, like the Oxford Analytica independent scholarly consulting firm.  However, even proponents like Oxford Analytica acknowledged the incredible amount of investment that would be necessary to bring this about, and that Canada's growing energy production could precipitate a confrontation between the US and China over access to Canada's energy assets. Canada's potential status as an energy superpower is discussed in further detail below.
Still others like Dr. Raymont of EnergyINet Inc. are concerned that environmental principles will be sacrificed in the pursuit of Canada being an energy superpower, and wish it to set a standard as the world's only "clean" or "responsible" energy superpower. 
In addition to the recognised powers, certain states have large or even enormous energy reserves that have not yet been exploited significantly, and which therefore have the potential to become the energy superpowers in the future.
According to Manik Talwani, a geophysicist at Rice University, there are two countries that are most likely to attain the status of Oil superpower: Venezuela and Canada.  Citing their enormous potential reserves (1. 2 trillion potential barrels for Venezuela and 1. 75 trillion for Canada's oil sands), Dr. Talwani believes that they have the reserves to become energy superpowers in the next few decades as oil production declines elsewhere. However, as Dr. Talwani notes, both need 100 billion dollars or more to increase their production levels up to those of true energy superpowers.
In 2003 Dr. Talwani said of Venezuela's ability to expand production, quote, "Of course, expanding heavy oil production to make it a significant part of our energy strategy will require a huge investment. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the For example, oil companies have estimated that achieving just an additional 200 million barrels per day (32,000,000 m³/d) of converted Venezuelan heavy oil would take some $3-billion in research and new refining capacity. Extrapolating such figures is hard to do, but a back of the envelope calculation indicates that it could take more than $100-billion to bring Venezuelan daily production up to Saudi levels. "
Canada itself produces today some 3 million barrels per day (480,000 m³/d), and is projected to increase its production at least double by 2017. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page However, it has far larger capital costs associated with expanding production, as shown by the "30 percent increase in average capital costs over the last year has challenged the growing market along with major infrastructure issues", noted by Monsters & Critics' Kristyn Ecochard. 
Iran is the world's fourth largest producer,  and fifth largest exporter  of oil. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. It has the third largest proven reserves of oil in the world.  Iran is also the sixth largest producer of natural gas,  with the second largest proven reserves. . These give Iran a hybrid status between Russia and Saudi Arabia as a potential Energy superpower. If its current relations with United States become less tense, increased foreign direct investment in the energy sector may hold the potential for becoming an energy superpower in the combination of gas and oil energy. Foreign direct investment ( FDI) in its classic definition is defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory in another country British journalist Julian Evans has written that the sooner Iran lets go of its outdated ambitions to be a nuclear superpower, the quicker it can become a modern energy superpower. 
Recently a new strategy has emerged from al-Qaeda when it comes to fighting the United States. Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Rather than only targeting the U. S. interests directly in an attempt to cripple it, al-Qaeda now believes that cutting off the supply of energy to the U. S. should be a high priority.  In particular, several powerful energy producing states like Saudi Arabia & Canada have had their energy industries listed as targets in al-Qaeda's effort to bleed the U. S. dry. In an apparent attempt to carry out this strategy, several masked men attempted to enter and destroy a section of the Saudi Abqaiq oil refinery. As of yet no attempt to attack energy industry infrastructure has succeeded by a known terrorist group, although Nigeria faces disruption of its energy industry by local rebel forces.
Says Ian MacLeod of the CanWest News Service, "A major supply disruption would send energy prices soaring. Had the Abqaiq attack been successful -- guards fired on cars driven by the bombers, detonating the explosives inside -- some experts say oil prices would have likely broken all records. A catastrophic hit could bring transportation and other parts of the U. S. and world economies to a standstill. "
Energy superpowers as a result, while blessed with enormous natural wealth, are beginning to be pegged as targets in the worldwide war on terrorism. The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military political and legal, and ideological conflict and specifically for U While Saudi facilities are relatively well-protected, there is no consensus as yet as to the seriousness of the threat to other countries nor how well prepared they might be to stop an attack.