|(Bei) Zhou Xiaomindi ((北)周孝閔帝)|
|Family name:||Yuwen (宇文, yǔ wén)|
|Given name:||Jue (覺, jué)|
|Posthumous name:||Xiaomin (孝閔, xiào mǐn),|
"filial and careful"
Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou ((北)周孝閔帝) (542-557), personal name Yuwen Jue (宇文覺), nickname Tuoluoni (陀羅尼), was an emperor of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou (although he used the alternative title "Heavenly Prince" (Tian Wang). Personal Names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. The Yuwen ( is a Chinese compound surname first originated from the a pre-state Clan of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms Personal Names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty nobles and sometimes others in some cultures after the person's death Events By Place Byzantine Empire An outbreak of the plague kills at least 230000 in Constantinople (before they stopped Events By Place Asia The Northern Zhou Dynasty begins in northern China; its first ruler is Northern Zhou Xiao Min Di An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era The Xianbei ( were a significant nomadic people residing in Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan. The Northern Zhou Dynasty (Chinese北周 followed the Western Wei, and ruled northern China from 557 to 581. Tian Wang (天王 translatable as either "heavenly prince" or "heavenly king" was a Chinese regal title that was most frequently used during the Sixteen He was the heir of Western Wei's paramount general Yuwen Tai, and after Yuwen Tai's death in 556, his cousin Yuwen Hu, serving as his guardian, forced Emperor Gong of Western Wei to yield the throne to Yuwen Jue in spring 557, establishing Northern Zhou. The Western Wèi Dynasty (Chinese西魏 followed the disintegration of the Northern Wei, and ruled northern China from 535 to 556. Yuwen Tai (宇文泰 (507-556 nickname Heita (黑獺 formally Duke Wen of Anding (安定文公 later further posthumously honored by Northern Zhou Events By Place Europe Cynric and Ceawlin of Wessex fight against the Britons at Beranburh Yuwen Hu (宇文護 (515-572 Courtesy name Sabao (薩保 formally Duke Dang of Jin (晉蕩公 was a Regent of the Chinese / Background Yuan Kuo was born in 537 as the fourth son of Emperor Wen. Later in 557, however, Yuwen Jue, wanting to assume power personally, plotted to kill Yuwen Hu, who in turn deposed him and replaced him with his brother Yuwen Yu (Emperor Ming). Background Yuwen Yu was born in 534 as the oldest son of the then- Northern Wei general Yuwen Tai. Later that year, Yuwen Hu had Yuwen Jue executed.
Yuwen Jue was born in 542, as the son of Yuwen Tai, then the paramount general of Western Wei, and Yuwen Tai's wife Princess Fengyi, the sister of Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei. Events By Place Byzantine Empire An outbreak of the plague kills at least 230000 in Constantinople (before they stopped Yuwen Tai (宇文泰 (507-556 nickname Heita (黑獺 formally Duke Wen of Anding (安定文公 later further posthumously honored by Northern Zhou The Western Wèi Dynasty (Chinese西魏 followed the disintegration of the Northern Wei, and ruled northern China from 535 to 556. Background Yuan Xiu was born in 510 as the third son of Yuan Huai (元懷 the Prince of Guangping a son of Emperor Xiaowen and a younger brother of the then-reigning He was Yuwen Tai's third son, but was largely viewed as Yuwen Tai's likely heir, because his mother was both of royal birth and Yuwen Tai's wife, while his older brothers Yuwen Yu and Yuwen Zhen (宇文震) were sons of concubines. Background Yuwen Yu was born in 534 as the oldest son of the then- Northern Wei general Yuwen Tai. Concubinage is the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status In 550, he was created the Duke of Lüeyang. Events By place Byzantine Empire January 16 — Gothic War (535–552: The Ostrogoths, under King Totila Sometime after he became a duke, he married Emperor Wen's daughter Yuan Humo the Princess Jin'an as his wife and duchess. Background Yuan Baoju was born in 507 His father Yuan Yu (元愉 the Prince of Jingzhao was the son of Emperor Xiaowen and a younger brother of the then-reigning Empress Yuan Humo (元胡摩 (died 616 was an Empress of the Chinese / Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou (although during her husband Emperor
In spring 556, Yuwen Tai was pondering the issue of succession. Yuwen Jue was born of the Princess Fengyi, but Yuwen Yu was older and married to the daughter of one of his chief generals, Dugu Xin (獨孤信). On the advice of Li Yuan (李遠), who argued that the son of a wife always had precedence over the son of a concubine, Yuwen Tai made Yuwen Jue his heir apparent. An heir apparent is an Heir who (short of a fundamental change in the situation cannot be displaced from inheriting the term is used in contrast to Heir presumptive
in fall 556, while Yuwen Tai was on a tour of the norther provinces, he became ill at Qiantun Mountain (牽屯山, in modern Guyuan, Ningxia). Events By Place Europe Cynric and Ceawlin of Wessex fight against the Britons at Beranburh Guyuan (固原 | Gùyuán Shì) is a " Prefecture-level city " (a multi-county administartive unit of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in Ningxia ( Postal map spelling: Ningsia full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region ( is a Hui autonomous region of the People's Republic He summoned his nephew Yuwen Hu the Duke of Zhongshan to Qiantun and entrusted the affairs of the state as well as his sons to Yuwen Hu. Yuwen Hu (宇文護 (515-572 Courtesy name Sabao (薩保 formally Duke Dang of Jin (晉蕩公 was a Regent of the Chinese / He soon died, and Yuwen Jue took over his titles (among them, Duke of Anding), while Yuwen Hu took the reigns of the state. Yuwen Jue set up his headquarters at Tong Province (同州, roughly modern Weinan, Shaanxi), where Yuwen Tai's headquarters had been. Weinan ( is a Prefecture-level city in the People's Republic of China province Shaanxi. ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess
Around the new year 557, Yuwen Jue was created the greater title of Duke of Zhou. Events By Place Asia The Northern Zhou Dynasty begins in northern China; its first ruler is Northern Zhou Xiao Min Di
In spring 557, Yuwen Hu, believing that Yuwen Jue's youth meant that he needed to take imperial title to affirm his authority, forced Emperor Gong to yield the throne to Yuwen Jue (as Emperor Xiaomin), ending Western Wei and starting Northern Zhou.
Emperor Xiaomin took the throne, but did not use the title "emperor" (皇帝, huáng dì), but used the Zhou Dynasty-style title "Heavenly Prince" (Tian Wang). The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. Tian Wang (天王 translatable as either "heavenly prince" or "heavenly king" was a Chinese regal title that was most frequently used during the Sixteen He posthumously honored Yuwen Tai as Prince Wen and the Princess Fengyi as Princess Wen. He created the former Emperor Gong the Duke of Song, but soon thereafter, the duke was executed. The governmental structure and ceremonies were largely imitative of Zhou Dynasty, but also incorporated many Xianbei elements, largely abandoning Han customs originated in the post-Zhou centuries. The Xianbei ( were a significant nomadic people residing in Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan. Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. He created his wife, Duchess Yuan, princess.
The political situation, with Yuwen Hu as regent, was unstable. About a month after Emperor Xiaomin took the throne, two of the most senior officials, Zhao Gui (趙貴) the Duke of Chu and Dugu Xin the Duke of Wei, showed signs of displeasure about Yuwen Hu's hold on power. Zhao wanted to kill Yuwen Hu, an action that Dugu tried to persuade him against. Soon thereafter, however, Zhao's plans were revealed by another official, Yuwen Sheng (宇文盛), and Yuwen Hu had Zhao executed and removed Dugu from his office. Soon, he also forced Dugu to commit suicide. When another official, Qi Gui (齊軌), criticized Yuwen Hu's regency, he was also executed.
Meanwhile, Emperor Xiaomin himself, wanting to take power, was engaging in a plot to kill Yuwen Hu. His plot included two of Yuwen Tai's key associates, Li Zhi (李植) and Sun Heng (孫恆), as well as the other officials Yifu Feng (乙弗鳳) and Heba Ti (賀拔提), each of whom was ambitious and therefore further tried to fan Emperor Xiaomin's suspicions against Yuwen Hu. After Li tried to engage another official, Zhang Guangluo (張光洛) in the plot, however, Zhang revealed the plot to Yuwen Hu. Yuwen Hu, not wanting to take drastic actions at first, sent Li and Sun away to be provincial governors. When Emperor Xiaomin wanted to summon Li and Sun back to the capital Chang'an, Yuwen Hu urged against it, pledging his loyalty. Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. However, Yifu and Heba became fearful and plotted to carry out the plot anyway. Zhang again informed Yuwen Hu, who discussed the matter with the generals Helan Xiang (賀蘭祥) and Weichi Gang (尉遲綱). Helan suggested to him to depose Emperor Xiaomin, and Yuwen Hu had Weichi arrest Yifu and Heba and disband the imperial guards. Emperor Xiaomin, surprised by the move, barricaded himself in the palace and armed his ladies in waiting and eunuchs. A lady-in-waiting (also called waiting maid) is a female personal assistant at a Noble court, attending to a queen, a Princess or other A eunuch (ˈjuːnək is a Castrated man in particular one castrated early enough to have major hormonal consequences the term usually refers to those castrated in order to Yuwen Hu sent Helan into the palace to force Emperor Xiaomin to leave the palace and put him under house arrest at his old residence as the Duke of Lüeyang.
Yuwen Hu summoned the high level officials and informed them the situation, proposing to depose Emperor Xiaomin and replace him with Yuwen Yu. The high level officials, not daring to oppose Yuwen Hu, agreed. Emperor Xiaomin's coconspirators were executed, while he himself was demoted to the rank of Duke of Lüeyang. A month later, Yuwen Hu executed him and forced his wife, Princess Yuan, to become a Buddhist nun. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices After another brother of Emperor Xiaomin, Emperor Wu killed Yuwen Hu in 572, he posthumously honored Emperor Xiaomin as emperor and reburied him with honors due one. Background Yuwen Yong was born in 543 as the fourth son of the Western Wei paramount general Yuwen Tai. Events By Place Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire begins a war with Persia.
None (dynasty founded)
|Emperor of Northern Zhou|
Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou
Emperor Gong of Western Wei
|Emperor of China (Western)|