|Elizabeth Cady Stanton|
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and her daughter Harriot.
|Born||November 12, 1815|
Johnstown, New York
|Died||October 26, 1902 (aged 86)|
New York, New York (Stanton died of heart failure. Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Johnstown, surrounded by the Town of Johnstown, is the county seat of Fulton County, New York, USA. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The City of New York New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous )
|Occupation||Writer, suffragist and women's rights activist|
|Spouse||Henry Brewster Stanton (1805-1887)|
|Children||Daniel Cady Stanton (1842-1891)|
Henry Brewster Stanton, Jr. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Henry Brewster Stanton ( June 27, 1805 &ndash January 14, 1887) was a 19th century Abolitionist and Social activist (1844-1903)
Gerrit Smith Stanton (1845-1927)
Theodore Weld Stanton (1851-1925)
Margaret Livingston Stanton Lawrence (1852-1938?)
Harriot Eaton Stanton Blatch (1856-1940)
Robert Livingston Stanton (1859-1920)
|Parents||Daniel Cady (1773-1859)|
Margaret Livingston Cady (1785-1871)
|Relatives||Gerrit Smith, cousin|
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902) was an American social activist and leading figure of the early woman's movement. Daniel Cady (1773-1859 was a prominent lawyer and judge in upstate New York Gerrit Smith ( March 6, 1797 &ndash December 28, 1874) was a leading United States social reformer Abolitionist, Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the first women's rights convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States. The Declaration of Sentiments is a document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men delegates to the first Women's rights convention in Seneca Falls New York The Seneca Falls Convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 to July 20, 1848, was the first Women's rights Seneca Falls is a Village in Seneca County, New York, United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
Before Stanton narrowed her political focus almost exclusively to women's rights, she was an active abolitionist together with her husband, Henry Brewster Stanton and cousin, Gerrit Smith. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies Henry Brewster Stanton ( June 27, 1805 &ndash January 14, 1887) was a 19th century Abolitionist and Social activist Gerrit Smith ( March 6, 1797 &ndash December 28, 1874) was a leading United States social reformer Abolitionist, Unlike many of those involved in the women's rights movement, Stanton addressed a number of issues pertaining to women beyond voting rights. Her concerns included women's parental and custody rights, property rights, employment and income rights, divorce laws, the economic health of the family, and birth control.  She was also an outspoken supporter of the 19th-century temperance movement. See also Prohibition, Teetotalism The Temperance Movement attempted to reduce the amount of Alcohol consumed within a community or society in
After the American Civil War, Stanton's commitment to female suffrage caused a schism in the women's rights movement when she, along with Susan B. Anthony, declined to support passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally Susan Brownell Anthony ( February 15, 1820 &ndash March 13, 1906) was a prominent American Civil rights leader who played The Fourteenth Amendment ( Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution is one of the post- Civil War Reconstruction Amendments, first The Fifteenth Amendment ( Amendment XV) of the United States Constitution prohibits each government in the United States to prevent a citizen from voting based on that The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. She opposed giving added legal protection and voting rights to African American men while continuing to deny women, black and white, the same rights. Her position on this issue, together with her thoughts on organized Christianity and women's issues beyond voting rights, led to the formation of two separate women's rights organizations that were finally rejoined, with Stanton as president of the joint organization, approximately twenty years later. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the eighth of eleven children, was born in Johnstown, New York, to Daniel Cady and Margaret Livingston Cady. Johnstown, surrounded by the Town of Johnstown, is the county seat of Fulton County, New York, USA. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Daniel Cady (1773-1859 was a prominent lawyer and judge in upstate New York Five of her siblings died in early childhood or infancy. A sixth, her brother Eleazar, died at age 20 just prior to his graduation from Union College in Schenectady, New York. Union College is a non-denominational independent liberal arts college located in Schenectady New York. Schenectady (skəˈnɛktədi Θkahnéhtati in Tuscarora) is a City in Schenectady County, New York, United States Only Elizabeth Cady and four sisters lived well into adulthood and old age. Later in life, Elizabeth named her two daughters after two of her sisters, Margaret and Harriot. 
Daniel Cady, Stanton's father, was a prominent attorney who served one term in the United States Congress (Federalist; 1814-1817) and later became both a circuit court judge and, in 1847, a New York Supreme Court justice. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The term " federalist " describes several political beliefs around the world  Judge Cady introduced his daughter to the law and, together with her brother-in-law, Edward Bayard, planted the early seeds that grew into her legal and social activism. The Bayard family has been a prominent family of Lawyers and Politicians throughout American history primarily from Wilmington Delaware. Even as a young girl, she enjoyed perusing her father's law library and debating legal issues with his law clerks. It was this early exposure to law that, in part, caused Stanton to realize how disproportionately the law favored men over women, particularly over married women. Her realization that married women had virtually no property, income, employment, or even custody rights over their own children, helped set her course toward changing these inequities. 
Stanton's mother, Margaret Livingston Cady, a descendant of early Dutch settlers, was the daughter of Colonel James Livingston, an officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. Colonel James Livingston ( March 27, 1747 &ndash March 9, 1832) was an American colonist living in Quebec who fought on the U In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Having fought at Saratoga and Quebec, he assisted in the capture of Benedict Arnold at West Point, New York. Background See also Saratoga campaign The British plan and Howe's blunder The original conception of the campaign had been for Burgoyne with some eight The Battle of Quebec was an attempt on December 31, 1775, by American colonial rebels to capture the Canadian city of Quebec and enlist French Canadian Benedict Arnold V ( – June 14, 1801) was a General during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental West Point is a federal military reservation (and a Census-designated place) located North of the Village of Highland Falls in Orange County New York  Margaret Cady, an unusually tall woman for her time, had a commanding presence, and Stanton routinely described her as "queenly. " While Stanton's daughter, Harriot Stanton Blatch, remembers her grandmother as being fun, affectionate, and lively, Stanton herself did not apparently share such memories. Harriot Eaton Stanton Blatch ( January 20, 1856 – November 20, 1940) was a notable American writer and Suffragist and Emotionally devastated by the loss of so many children, Margaret Cady fell into a depression, which kept her from being fully involved in the lives of her surviving children and left a maternal void in Stanton's childhood. 
Since Judge Cady coped with this loss by immersing himself in his work, many of the childrearing responsibilities fell to Stanton's elder sister, Tryphena, eleven years her senior, and Tryphena's husband, Edward Bayard, a Union College classmate of Eleazar Cady's and son of James A. Bayard, Sr., a U. James Asheton Bayard ( July 28, 1767 &ndash August 6, 1815) was an American Lawyer and Politician from S. Senator from Wilmington, Delaware. Wilmington is the largest city in the state of Delaware, United States and is located at the confluence of the Christina River and Brandywine Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. At the time of his engagement and marriage to Tryphena, Edward Bayard worked as an apprentice in Daniel Cady's law office and was instrumental in nurturing Stanton's growing understanding of the explicit and implicit gender hierarchies within the legal system. 
Like many men of his day, Judge Cady was a slave holder in Johnstown. Peter Teabout, a slave in the Cady household and later a freeman in Johnstown, took care of Elizabeth and her sister Margaret. He is remembered with particular fondness by Stanton in her memoir, Eighty Years & More, where she reminisces about the pleasure she took in attending the Episcopal church with Teabout, where, as Judge Cady's daughters, she and her sister enjoyed sitting with him in the back of the church rather than alone in front with the white families of the congregation.  It seems it was, however, not immediately the fact that her family owned at least one slave, but her exposure to the abolition movement as a young woman visiting her cousin, Gerrit Smith, in Peterboro, New York, that led to her staunch abolitionist sentiments. Peterboro, located about twenty-five miles southeast of Syracuse, New York, is a historic village situated in the Town of Smithfield, Madison County 
Unlike many women of her era, Stanton was formally educated. She attended Johnstown Academy, where she studied Latin, Greek and mathematics until the age of 16. At the Academy, she enjoyed being in co-educational classes where she could compete intellectually and academically with boys her age and older.  She did this very successfully, winning several academic awards and honors, including the award for Greek language. 
In her memoir, Stanton credits the Cadys' neighbor, Rev. Simon Hosack, with strongly encouraging her intellectual development and academic abilities at a time when she felt these were undervalued by her father. Writing of her brother, Eleazar's, death in 1826, Stanton remembers trying to comfort her father, saying that she would try to be all her brother had been. At the time, her father's response devastated Stanton: "Oh, my daughter, I wish you were a boy!" Understanding from this that her father valued boys above girls, Stanton tearfully took her disappointment to Hosack, whose firm belief in her abilities counteracted her father's perceived disparagement. Hosack went on to teach Stanton Greek, encouraged her to read widely, and ultimately bequeathed to her his own Greek lexicon along with other books. His confirmation of her intellectual abilities did much to buttress Stanton's belief in her own wide-ranging abilities and prowess. 
Upon graduation from Johnstown Academy, Stanton received one of her first tastes of sexual discrimination. Stanton watched with dismay as the young men graduating with her, many of whom she had surpassed academically, went on to Union College, as her older brother, Eleazar, had done previously.  In 1830, with Union College taking only men, Stanton enrolled in the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York, which was founded and run by Emma Willard. The Emma Willard School, originally called Troy Female Seminary and often referred to simply as "Emma" is an independent university-preparatory day and Boarding Troy is a City in New York, US, and the County seat of Rensselaer County. Emma C (Hart Willard ( February 23, 1787 &ndash April 15, 1870) was an American Women's rights advocate and the (In 1895, the school was renamed the Emma Willard School in honor of its founder, and Stanton, spurred by her respect for Willard and despite her growing infirmities, was a keynote speaker at this event. The Emma Willard School, originally called Troy Female Seminary and often referred to simply as "Emma" is an independent university-preparatory day and Boarding )
Early during her student days in Troy, Stanton remembers being strongly influenced by Charles Grandison Finney, an evangelical preacher and central figure in the revivalist movement. Charles Grandison Finney ( August 29, 1792 – August 16, 1875) was a minister of the gospel originally in upstate New York and grew to become Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel His influence, combined with the Calvinistic Presbyterianism of her childhood, caused her great unease. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity After hearing Finney speak, Stanton became terrified at the possibility of her own damnation: "Fear of judgment seized my soul. Visions of the lost haunted my dreams. Mental anguish prostrated my health. Dethronement of my reason was apprehended by my friends. " Stanton credits her father and brother-in-law, Edward Bayard, with convincing her to ignore Finney's warnings and, after taking her on a rejuvenating trip to Niagara Falls, restoring her reason and sense of balance. The Niagara Falls are massive Waterfalls on the Niagara River, straddling the international border separating the Canadian province of Ontario  She never returned to organized Christianity and, after this experience, always maintained that logic and a humane sense of ethics were the best guides to both thought and behavior. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings 
As a young woman, Elizabeth Cady met Henry Brewster Stanton through her early involvement in the temperance and the abolition movements. See also Prohibition, Teetotalism The Temperance Movement attempted to reduce the amount of Alcohol consumed within a community or society in Henry Stanton was an acquaintance of Elizabeth Cady's cousin, Gerrit Smith, an abolitionist and member of the "Secret Six" that supported John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. Gerrit Smith ( March 6, 1797 &ndash December 28, 1874) was a leading United States social reformer Abolitionist, The Secret Six, or the Secret Committee of Six, were six wealthy and influential men who secretly funded the American abolitionist, John Brown. John Brown (May 9 1800 December 2 1859 was an American Abolitionist who advocated and practiced armed Insurrection as a means to end all Slavery Harpers Ferry redirects here For other uses see Harpers Ferry (disambiguation. West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by  Stanton was a journalist, an antislavery orator, and, after his marriage to Elizabeth Cady, an attorney. Despite Daniel Cady's reservations, the couple were married in 1840 and had six children, carefully planned, between 1842 and 1856. The Stantons' seventh and last child, Robert, was an unplanned menopausal baby born in 1859 when Elizabeth Cady Stanton was forty-four. Menopause is the permanent shutting down of the female Reproductive system, a considerable length of time before the end of the lifespan 
Soon after returning to the United States from their European honeymoon, the Stantons moved into the Cady household in Johnstown, New York. Henry Stanton studied law under his father-in-law until 1843, when the Stantons moved to Boston, Massachusetts, where Henry joined a law firm. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. While living in Boston, Elizabeth thoroughly enjoyed the social, political, and intellectual stimulation that came with a constant round of abolitionist gatherings and meetings. Here she enjoyed the company of and was influenced by such people as Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Louisa May Alcott, and Ralph Waldo Emerson, among others. Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, February 14 1818 February 20 1895 was an American abolitionist, editor, Orator William Lloyd Garrison ( December 12 1805 – May 24 1879) was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer Louisa May Alcott ( November 29, 1832 – March 6, 1888) was an American Novelist. Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25 1803 &ndash April 27 1882 was an American essayist philosopher poet and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early 19th century 
Throughout her marriage and eventual widowhood, Stanton took her husband's surname as part of her own, signing herself Elizabeth Cady Stanton or E. Cady Stanton, but she refused to be addressed as Mrs. Henry B. Stanton. Asserting that women were individual persons, she stated that, "[t]he custom of calling women Mrs. John This and Mrs. Tom That and colored men Sambo and Zip Coon, is founded on the principle that white men are lords of all. Sambo is a racial term for a person with mixed Amerindian and African heritage in the Caribbean, also for a black or South Asian person The following is a list of ethnic slurs that are or have been used as insinuations or allegations about members of a given Ethnicity or to refer to them in a derogatory (critical "  She further refused to include the promise "to obey" her husband as part of her wedding vows, agreeing instead to treat him as an equal. 
The Stanton marriage was not entirely without tension and disagreement. Henry Stanton, like Daniel Cady, disagreed with the notion of female suffrage.  Because of employment, travel, and financial considerations, husband and wife lived more often apart than together. Friends of the couple found them very similar in temperament and ambition, but quite dissimilar in their views on certain issues including women's rights. In 1842, abolitionist reformer Sarah Grimke counseled Elizabeth in a letter: "Henry greatly needs a humble, holy companion and thou needest the same. Sarah Moore Grimké ( November 26, 1792 &ndash December 23, 1873) was an American Abolitionist writer and suffragist " However, both Stantons considered their marriage an overall success, and the marriage lasted for forty-seven years, ending with Henry's death in 1887. .
In 1847, concerned about the effect of New England winters on Henry Stanton's fragile health, the Stantons moved from Boston to Seneca Falls, New York, situated at the northern end of Cayuga Lake, one of the Finger Lakes found in upstate New York. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the Cayuga Lake (pronounced either "kā-'yü-gə" or "kī-'yü-gə" is the longest of western New York 's glacial Finger Lakes, and is the second largest The Finger Lakes are a chain of lakes in the west-central section of Upstate New York that are a popular tourist destination Their house, purchased for them by Daniel Cady, was located some distance from town.  The couple's last four children, two sons and two daughters, were born there, with Stanton asserting that her children were conceived under a program she called "voluntary motherhood," asserting her firm belief that women should have command over their sexuality and childbearing.  As a mother who advocated homeopathy, freedom of expression, lots of outdoor activity, and a solid, highly academic education for all of her children, Stanton nurtured a breadth of interests, activities, and learning in both her sons and daughters. This article has been the subject of edit wars and has been placed on probation  She was remembered by her daughter Margaret as being "cheerful, sunny and indulgent". 
Although she enjoyed motherhood and assumed primary responsibility for rearing the children, Stanton found herself unsatisfied and even depressed by the lack of intellectual companionship and stimulation in Seneca Falls.  As an antidote to the boredom and loneliness, Stanton became increasingly involved in the community and, by 1848, had established ties to similarly-minded women in the area. By this time, she was firmly committed to the nascent women's rights movement and was ready to engage in organized activism. 
Prior to living in Seneca Falls, Stanton had become a great admirer and friend of Lucretia Mott, the Quaker minister, feminist, and abolitionist whom she had met at the International Anti-Slavery Convention in London, England in the spring of 1840 while on her honeymoon. Lucretia Coffin Mott ( January 3, 1793 – November 11, 1880) was an American Quaker minister, Abolitionist, London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The two women became allies when the male delegates attending the convention voted that women should be denied participation in the proceedings, even if they, like Mott, had been nominated to serve as official delegates of their respective abolitionist societies. After considerable debate, the women were required to sit in a roped-off section hidden from the view of the men in attendance. They were soon joined by the prominent abolitionist, William Lloyd Garrison, who arrived after the vote had been taken and, in protest of the outcome, refused his seat, electing instead to sit with the women. William Lloyd Garrison ( December 12 1805 – May 24 1879) was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer 
Mott's example and the decision to prohibit women from participating in the convention strengthened Stanton's commitment to women's rights. By 1848, her early life experiences, together with the experience in London and her initially debilitating experience as a housewife in Seneca Falls, galvanized Stanton. She later wrote:
"The general discontent I felt with woman's portion as wife, housekeeper, physician, and spiritual guide, the chaotic conditions into which everything fell without her constant supervision, and the wearied, anxious look of the majority of women, impressed me with a strong feeling that some active measures should be taken to remedy the wrongs of society in general, and of women in particular. My experience at the World Anti-slavery Convention, all I had read of the legal status of women, and the oppression I saw everywhere, together swept across my soul, intensified now by many personal experiences. It seemed as if all the elements had conspired to impel me to some onward step. I could not see what to do or where to begin -- my only thought was a public meeting for protest and discussion. "
In 1848, acting on these feelings and perceptions, Stanton joined Mott and a handful of other women in Seneca Falls. Together they organized the first women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls on July 19 and 20. The Seneca Falls Convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 to July 20, 1848, was the first Women's rights Stanton drafted a Declaration of Sentiments, which she read at the convention. The Declaration of Sentiments is a document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men delegates to the first Women's rights convention in Seneca Falls New York Modeled on the United States Declaration of Independence, Stanton's declaration proclaimed that men and women are created equal. The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 1776 announcing that the thirteen American colonies then She proposed, among other things, a then-controversial resolution demanding voting rights for women. The final resolutions, including female suffrage, were passed, in no small measure, because of the support of Frederick Douglass, who attended and informally spoke at the convention. 
Soon after the convention, Stanton was invited to speak at a second women's rights convention in Rochester, New York, solidifying her role as an activist and reformer. Rochester is a city in Monroe County, New York State, south of Lake Ontario in the United States. In 1851, Stanton was introduced to Susan B. Anthony on a street in Seneca Falls by Amelia Bloomer, a feminist and mutual acquaintance who had not signed the Declaration of Sentiments and subsequent resolutions despite her attendance at the Seneca Falls convention. Susan Brownell Anthony ( February 15, 1820 &ndash March 13, 1906) was a prominent American Civil rights leader who played Amelia Jenks Bloomer ( May 27, 1818 &mdash December 30, 1894) was an American Women's rights 
Although best known for their joint work on behalf of women's suffrage, Stanton and Anthony first joined the temperance movement. Together, they were instrumental in founding the short-lived Woman's State Temperance Society (1852-53). During her presidency of the organization, Stanton scandalized many supporters by suggesting that drunkenness be made sufficient cause for divorce.  Stanton and Anthony's focus, however, soon shifted to female suffrage and women's rights.
Single and having no children, Anthony had the time and energy to do the speaking and traveling that Stanton was unable to do. Their skills complemented each other; Stanton, the better orator and writer, scripted many of Anthony's speeches, while Anthony was the movement's organizer and tactician. Writing a tribute that appeared in the New York Times when Stanton died, Anthony described Stanton as having "forged the thunderbolts" that she (Anthony) "fired. " Unlike Anthony's relatively narrow focus on suffrage, Stanton wanted to push for a broader platform of women's rights in general. Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally While their opposing viewpoints led to some discussion and conflict, no disagreement threatened their friendship or working relationship; the two women remained close friends and colleagues until Stanton's death some fifty years after their initial meeting.
While always recognized as movement leaders whose support was sought, Stanton and Anthony's voices were soon joined by others who began assuming leadership positions within the movement. These women included, among others, Lucy Stone and Matilda Joslyn Gage. Lucy Stone ( August 13, 1818 &ndash October 19, 1893) was a prominent American Suffragist. Matilda Electa Joslyn Gage ( Cicero New York, March 24, 1826 &ndash March 18, 1898 in Chicago) was a suffragist 
|"The prejudice against color, of which we hear so much, is no stronger than that against sex. It is produced by the same cause, and manifested very much in the same way. "|
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
After the American Civil War, both Stanton and Anthony broke with their abolitionist backgrounds and lobbied strongly against ratification of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the US Constitution granting African American men the right to vote. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South  Believing that African American men, by virtue of the Thirteenth Amendment, already had the legal protections, except for suffrage, offered to white male citizens and that so largely expanding the male franchise in the country would only increase the number of voters prepared to deny women the right to vote, both Stanton and Anthony were angry that the abolitionists, their former partners in working for both African American and women's rights, refused to demand that the language of the amendments be changed to include women. The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished and continues to prohibit Slavery, and with limited exceptions such as those 
Eventually, Stanton's oppositional rhetoric took on racial overtones.  Arguing on behalf of female suffrage, Stanton posited that women voters of "wealth, education, and refinement" were needed to offset the effect of former slaves and immigrants whose "pauperism, ignorance, and degradation" might negatively affect the American political system.  She declared it to be "a serious question whether we had better stand aside and see 'Sambo' walk into the kingdom [of civil rights] first. Sambo is a racial term for a person with mixed Amerindian and African heritage in the Caribbean, also for a black or South Asian person " While her frustration was palpable and perhaps understandable after her long fight for female suffrage, some scholars have argued that Stanton's emphasis on property ownership and education, opposition to black male suffrage, and desire to holdout for universal suffrage fragmented the civil rights movement by pitting African-American men against women and, together with Stanton's emphasis on "educated suffrage," in part established a basis for the literacy requirements that followed in the wake of the passage of the fifteenth amendment. 
Stanton's position caused a significant rift between herself and many civil rights leaders, particularly Frederick Douglass, who believed that white women, already empowered by their connection to fathers, husbands, and brothers, at least vicariously had the vote. Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, February 14 1818 February 20 1895 was an American abolitionist, editor, Orator According to Douglass, their horrifying treatment as slaves entitled the now liberated African-American men, who lacked women's indirect empowerment, to voting rights before women were granted the franchise. African-American women, he believed, would have the same degree of empowerment as white women once African-American men had the vote; hence, general female suffrage was, according to Douglass, of less concern than black male suffrage. 
Disagreeing with Douglass, and despite the racist language she sometimes resorted to, Stanton firmly believed in a universal franchise that empowered blacks and whites, men and women. Speaking on behalf of black women, she stated that not allowing them to vote condemned African American freedwomen "to a triple bondage that man never knows," that of slavery, gender, and race.  She was joined in this belief by Anthony, Olympia Brown, and most especially Frances Gage, who was the first suffragist to champion voting rights for freedwomen. Olympia Brown ( January 5, 1835 – October 23, 1926) was an American suffragist. Frances Dana Barker Gage ( October 12 1808 – November 10 1884) was a leading American reformer feminist and 
Thaddeus Stevens, a Republican congressman from Pennsylvania and ardent supporter of abolition and, after the Civil War, Reconstruction, agreed that voting rights should be universal. Thaddeus Stevens ( April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868) of Pennsylvania, was a Republican leader and one of the most powerful The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern In 1866, Stanton, Anthony, and several other suffragists drafted a universal suffrage petition demanding that the right to vote be given without consideration of sex or race. The petition was introduced in the United States Congress by Stevens.  Despite these efforts, the Fourteenth Amendment was passed, without adjustment, in 1868.
By the time the Fifteenth Amendment was making its way through Congress, Stanton's position led to a major schism in the women's rights movement itself. Many leaders in the women's rights movement, including Lucy Stone, Elizabeth Blackwell, and Julia Ward Howe, strongly argued against Stanton's "all or nothing" position. Elizabeth Blackwell ( February 3, 1821 &ndash May 31, 1910) was an Abolitionist, Women's rights Activist Julia Ward Howe (May 27 1819 &ndash October 17 1910 was a prominent American abolitionist, social activist, and Poet most famous as By 1869, disagreement over ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment had given birth to two separate women's suffrage organizations. The National Woman's Suffrage Association (NWSA) was founded in May 1869 by Anthony and Stanton, who served as its president for 21 years. The National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA was formed on May 15, 1869 in New York in response to a split in the American Equal Rights Association over  The NWSA opposed passage of the Fifteenth Amendment without changes to include female suffrage and, under Stanton's influence in particular, championed a number of women's issues that were deemed too radical by more conservative members of the suffrage movement. The American Woman's Suffrage Association (AWSA), founded the following November and led by Stone, Blackwell, and Howe, supported the Fifteenth Amendment as written and preferred to focus only on female suffrage rather than advocate for broader women's rights such as gender-neutral divorce laws, a woman's right to sexually refuse her husband, increased economic opportunities for women, and the right of women to serve on juries, issues which were espoused by Stanton. The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA was created in 1890 when two competing American women's suffrage advocacy groups united 
Believing that men should not be given the right to vote without women also being granted the franchise, Sojourner Truth, a former slave and feminist, affiliated herself with Stanton and Anthony's organization. Sojourner Truth (1797– November 26, 1883) was the self-given name from 1843 of Isabella Baumfree, an American abolitionist and Women's  Stanton, Anthony, and Truth were joined by Matilda Joslyn Gage, who later worked on The Women's Bible with Stanton. Despite Stanton's position and the efforts of herself and others to expand the Fifteenth Amendment to include voting rights for all women, this amendment also passed, as originally written, in 1870.
In the decade following ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment, both Stanton and Anthony increasingly took the position, first advocated by Victoria Woodhull, that the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments actually did give women the right to vote. Victoria Claflin Woodhull ( September 23, 1838 &ndash June 9, 1927) was an American suffragist who was publicized  They argued that the Fourteenth Amendment, which defined citizens as "all persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof," included women and that the Fifteenth Amendment provided all citizens with the right to vote.  Using this logic, they asserted that women now had the constitutional right to vote and that it was simply a matter of claiming that right. This constitutionally-based argument, which came to be called "the new departure" in women's rights circles because of its divergence from earlier attempts to change voting laws on a state-by-state basis, led to first Anthony (in 1872), and later Stanton (in 1880), going to the polls and demanding to vote.  Despite this, and similar attempts made by hundreds of other women, it would be nearly fifty years before women obtained the right to vote throughout the United States.
During this time, Stanton maintained a broad focus on women's rights in general rather than narrowing her focus only to female suffrage in particular. After passage of the Fifteenth Amendment in 1870 and its support by the Equal Rights Association and prominent suffragists such as Stone, Blackwell, and Howe, the gap between Elizabeth Cady Stanton and other leaders of the women's movement widened as Stanton took issue with the fundamental religious leanings of several movement leaders. The American Equal Rights Association (also known as the Equal Rights Association) was an Organization formed by Women's rights and black rights activists Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally Unlike many of her colleagues, Stanton believed organized Christianity relegated women to an unacceptable position in society. She explored this view in The Woman's Bible, which elucidated a feminist understanding of biblical scripture and sought to correct the fundamental sexism Stanton saw as being inherent to organized Christianity.  Likewise, Stanton supported divorce rights, employment rights, and property rights for women, issues in which the American Women's Suffrage Association (AWSA) preferred not to become involved. 
Her more radical positions included acceptance of interracial marriage. Interracial marriage occurs when two people of differing racial groups marry, often creating Multiracial children Despite her opposition to giving African-American men the right to vote without enfranchising all women and the derogatory language she had resorted to in expressing this opposition, Stanton had no objection to interracial marriage and wrote a congratulatory letter to Frederick Douglass upon his marriage to Helen Pitts, a white woman, in 1884. Helen Pitts (1838 - 1903 was an American Suffragette and the second wife of Frederick Douglass.  Anthony, fearing public condemnation of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and wanting to keep the demand for female suffrage foremost, pleaded with Stanton not to make her letter to Douglass or support for his marriage publicly known. 
Stanton went on to write many of the more important books, documents, and speeches of the women's rights movement. In 1881, Harper & Brothers Publishers issued the first volume of The History of Woman Suffrage, a seminal, six-volume work containing the full history, documents, and letters of the woman's suffrage movement.  While Stanton, along with Anthony and Gage, wrote the first three volumes, the work was eventually completed in 1922 by Ida Harper. Ida Husted Harper ( February 18 1851 &ndash March 14 1931) was a prominent figure in the United States Women's suffrage  Stanton's other major writings included The Women's Bible, first published in 1895; Eighty Years & More: Reminiscences 1815-1897, her autobiography, published in 1898; and The Solitude of Self, or "Self-Sovereignty," which she first delivered as a speech at the 1892 convention of the National American Women's Suffrage Association in Washington, D. C.. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D 
In 1868 Stanton—together with Susan B. Anthony and Parker Pillsbury, a leading male feminist of his day—began publishing a weekly periodical, Revolution, with editorials by Stanton that focussed on a wide array of women's issues. Parker Pillsbury ( September 22, 1809 &ndash July 7, 1898) was an American minister and advocate for Abolition and  In a view different from many modern feminists, Stanton, who supported birth control and likely used it herself, believed that abortion was infanticide, a position she discussed in Revolution. An  At this time, Stanton also joined the New York Lyceum Bureau, embarking on a twelve-year career on the Lyceum Circuit. The lyceum movement in the United States was a trend in architecture inspired by (or at least named for Aristotle 's Lyceum in ancient Greece Traveling and lecturing for eight months every year provided her both with the funds to put her two youngest sons through college and, given her popularity as a lecturer, with a way to spread her ideas among the general population, gain broad public recognition, and further establish her reputation as a pre-eminent leader in the women's rights movement. Among her most popular speeches were "Our Girls", "Our Boys", "Co-education", "Marriage and Divorce", "Prison Life", and "The Bible and Woman's Rights".  Her lecture travels so occupied her that Stanton, although president, presided at only four of fifteen conventions of the National Women's Suffrage Association during this period. 
In addition to her writing and speaking, Stanton was also instrumental in promoting women's suffrage in various states, particularly New York, Missouri, Kansas, where it was included on the ballot in 1867, and Michigan, where it was put to the vote in 1874. She made an unsuccessful bid for a U. S. Congressional seat from New York in 1868, and she was the primary force behind passage of the "Woman's Property Bill" that was eventually passed by the New York State Legislature.  She worked toward female suffrage in Wyoming, Utah, and California, and in 1878, she convinced California Senator Aaron A. Sargent to introduce a female suffrage amendment using wording similar to that of the Fifteenth Amendment passed some eight years previously. Aaron Augustus Sargent ( September 28, 1827 &ndash August 14, 1887) was an American journalist lawyer politician and diplomat 
As she aged, Stanton was also active internationally, spending a great deal of time in Europe, where her daughter and fellow feminist, Harriot Stanton Blatch, and son lived. Harriot Eaton Stanton Blatch ( January 20, 1856 – November 20, 1940) was a notable American writer and Suffragist and In 1888, she helped prepare for the founding of the International Council of Women. The International Council of Women ( ICW) was established in 1888 in Seneca Falls, New York State, USA by Susan B  In 1890, Stanton opposed the merger of the National Woman's Suffrage Association with the more conservative and religiously based American Woman Suffrage Association.  Over her objections, the organizations merged, creating the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA an American women's rights organization was formed as an amalgamation of the National Woman Suffrage Association Despite her opposition to the merger, Stanton became its first president, largely because of Susan B. Anthony's intervention. In good measure because of the Women's Bible and her position on issues such as divorce, she was, however, never popular among the more religiously conservative members of the "National American". 
On January 18, 1892, approximately ten years before she died, Stanton—together with Anthony, Stone, and Isabella Beecher Hooker—addressed the issue of suffrage before the United States House Committee on the Judiciary. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1892 ( MDCCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Isabella Beecher Hooker ( February 22 1822 &ndash January 25 1907) was a leader in the Women's suffrage movement and an author United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary US House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly the House Judiciary Committee, is a Standing committee of  After nearly five decades of fighting for female suffrage and women's rights, it was Elizabeth Cady Stanton's final appearance before members of the United States Congress.  Using the text of what became The Solitude of Self, she spoke of the central value of the individual, noting that value was not based on gender. As with the Declaration of Sentiments she had penned some 45 years earlier, Stanton's statement eloquently expressed not only the need for women's voting rights in particular, but the need for a revamped understanding of women's position in society and even of women in general:
"The isolation of every human soul and the necessity of self-dependence must give each individual the right to choose his own surroundings. The Declaration of Sentiments is a document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men delegates to the first Women's rights convention in Seneca Falls New York The strongest reason for giving woman all the opportunities for higher education, for the full development of her faculties, her forces of mind and body; for giving her the most enlarged freedom of thought and action; a complete emancipation from all forms of bondage, of custom, dependence, superstition; from all the crippling influences of fear--is the solitude and personal responsibility of her own individual life. The strongest reason why we ask for woman a voice in the government under which she lives; in the religion she is asked to believe; equality in social life, where she is the chief factor; a place in the trades and professions, where she may earn her bread, is because of her birthright to self-sovereignty; because, as an individual, she must rely on herself [. . . ]. "
Stanton died at her home in New York City on October 26, 1902 nearly twenty years before women were granted the right to vote in the United States. Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Survived by six of her seven children and by seven grandchildren, she was interred in Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx, New York. This article refers to the Woodlawn Cemetery in the New York City borough of The Bronx Although Elizabeth Cady Stanton had been unable to attend a formal college or university, her daughters did. Margaret Livingston Stanton Lawrence attended Vassar College (1876) and Columbia University (1891), and Harriot Stanton Blatch received both her undergraduate and graduate degrees from Vassar College in 1878 and 1891 respectively. Vassar College is a private Coeducational, liberal arts college situated in the town of Poughkeepsie, New York, USA. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. 
After Stanton's death, her radical ideas about religion and emphasis on female employment and other women's issues led many suffragists to focus on Anthony, rather than Stanton, as the founder of the women's suffrage movement. Because of her ongoing involvement in the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), Anthony was more familiar to many of the younger members of the movement.  By 1923, in celebrating the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Seneca Falls Convention, only Harriot Stanton Blatch paid tribute to the role her mother had played in instigating the women's rights movement. The Seneca Falls Convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 to July 20, 1848, was the first Women's rights  Even as late as 1977, attention was paid to Susan B. Anthony as the founder of the movement, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton was not mentioned. 
Over time, formal recognition of Stanton grew. Despite the focus on Anthony, Stanton was commemorated along with Lucretia Mott and Susan B. Anthony in a sculpture by Adelaide Johnson at the United States Capitol, unveiled in 1921. Adelaide Johnson (1859–1955 was an American Sculptor whose work is displayed in the U Originally kept on display in the crypt of the US Capitol, the sculpture was moved to its current location and more prominently displayed in the rotunda in 1997.  The Elizabeth Cady Stanton House in Seneca Falls was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965, and by the 1990s, interest in Stanton was substantially rekindled when Ken Burns, among others, presented the life and contributions of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. A National Historic Landmark (NHL is a Building, site, Structure, Object, or District, that is officially recognized by the Kenneth Lauren Burns (born July 29 1953) is an American director and producer of Documentary films known for his style of making use of archival Once again, attention was drawn to her central, founding role in shaping not only the woman's suffrage movement, but a broad women's rights movement in the United States that included women's suffrage, women's legal reform, and women's roles in society as a whole. 
Stanton's papers are archived at Rutgers University: The Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony Papers Project, Rutgers University (See particularly entries for Ann D. Rutgers The State University of New Jersey (also known as Rutgers University) is the largest institution for higher education in the state of New Jersey Gordon, Editor, in the bibliography below. )
|NAME||Stanton, Elizabeth Cady|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Suffragist and Women's Rights activist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November 12, 1815|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Johnstown, New York|
|DATE OF DEATH||26 October 1902|
|PLACE OF DEATH||New York, New York|