Eivind Groven (October 8, 1901 – February 8, 1977) was a Norwegian microtonal composer and music-theorist. Events 314 - Roman Emperor Licinius is defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and loses Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Events 421 - Constantius III becomes co- Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Microtonal music is Music using microtones — intervals of less than an equally spaced Semitone. A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. He was from the fylke (province or county) of Telemark in southern Norway and had his background in the folk music of the area. is a county in Norway, bordering Vestfold, Buskerud, Hordaland, Rogaland and Aust-Agder. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional
Groven was born in Lårdal and came from a gifted family of musicians and artists, prominent in his home area. Lårdal is a former municipality in Telemark county Norway The parish of Laurdal was established as a municipality January 1 1838 (see Formannskapsdistrikt His father, Olav Aasmundsson Gøytil, was the youngest of eight siblings, and two of his father's brothers played the hardanger fiddle. A Hardanger fiddle (or in hardingfele is a traditional Stringed instrument used originally to play the Music of Norway. His mother, Aslaug Rikardsdotter Berge, was the youngest daughter of Rikard Aslaksson Berge, known for preserving a great amount of old tunes, religious songs and dance-tunes. Two of Groven's maternal uncles also played the hardanger fiddle, and his mother's sisters, as well as Aslaug herself, were gifted folk singers. Thus, Groven's rural background was filled with traditional music.
Groven was the youngest of five brothers. Two of his brothers began to play the fiddle, and soon Eivind joined them. His father Olav was also an apt player, and in their childhood, the brothers learned notes, and sometimes played together, when they got their hands on classical sheet music. Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music Sheet music is a hand-written or printed form of Musical notation; like its analogs -- books pamphlets etc Otherwise, local folk music ruled. As Eivind grew up, he understood the value of writing down the tunes he heard from other fiddlers, and in this way, he soon gained great knowledge. He was also a skilled mathematician, and early on surpassed his older brothers.
Eivind Groven studied at Notodden to become a teacher, as his father had been, but soon abandoned this, because music called to him. is a city and municipality in the county of Telemark, Norway. He studied musical theory and composition for a year, mostly Berlioz and Beethoven. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. He held Beethoven in highest esteem for the rest of his life, and wished for the 9th symphony anthem to be played at his funeral. The Symphony No 9 in D minor Op 125 "Choral" is the last complete Symphony composed by Ludwig van Beethoven. Unlike many other young Norwegian composers at the time, he refused to go abroad, but stayed at home, composing, and developing his own distinct musical forms, based on a merging of the sonata form with the special metamorphic principles unique to the dance music from Telemark, closely related to the forms of late baroque. Sonata form is a Musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc
In 1925, Groven married Ragna Hagen, the younger sister of the author Ingeborg Refling Hagen. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. IngeborgreflinghagenbyMikkelsenJPG|thumb|Ingeborg as the roots and rock of culture drawing by Oddmund Mikkelsen, 1985]] Ingeborg Refling Hagen ( December 19, This resulted in a fruitful artistic relationship, and Groven created great music based on the texts written by his sister-in-law. He and Ragna had four children, Aslaug, Tone, Dagne and Gudmund. Tone Alis Groven Holmboe (born 9 January 1930) is a Norwegian composer and teacher
Meanwhile, in 1931 Groven was appointed by the Norwegian Broadcasting Company, NRK, to be responsible for half an hour of folk music every week. Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation ( Norwegian: Norsk rikskringkasting AS) which is usually known as the NRK, is the Norwegian Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous Thus, he got a lot of gifted rural musicians to the radio, thereby preserving the folk music for posterity. Reactions from the urban public were harsh and unfriendly. Debates intensified, and people living in Oslo mostly expressed their disgust for this "barbaric music". (called Christiania from 1624 to 1878 and Kristiania from 1878 to 1924 is the Capital and largest city of Norway. Groven worked on, said little, as was his way, but it is known that he silently burnt all the hate-mail. He received great and valuable support from his original rural community, and from his family. Groven resigned his post in NRK during the war, after a brief and unwelcome encounter with Joseph Goebbels, in his own studio. Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation ˈɡœbəls English generally ˈɡɝbəlz (29 October 1897 1 May 1945 was a German politician and Reich Minister of Public
From 1938 and into the war, Groven started his work on pure tuning, which resulted in his special organ, completed in 1952. Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Albert Schweitzer wrote to Groven and wished he could try this organ, and when he was granted the Nobel Peace Prize, he seized the opportunity. Albert Schweitzer, MD, OM, (January 14 1875 &ndash September 4 1965 was an Alsatian theologian, Musician, Philosopher The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor He exclaimed that a great organ had to be built. The concept of pure tuning in all keys had been Groven's dream from childhood.
After WWII, Groven participated in editing and publishing seven volumes of written and collected tunes for hardanger fiddle, along with two fellow folk musicians in Norway. The work was completed after their deaths. Groven continued composing, and was in later years greatly admired for his musical style and his use of the orchestra. An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well
His wife Ragna died in 1960, and Groven remarried two years later, to Signe Taraldlien from Telemark. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In the end, she outlived him by twenty years.
Groven got Parkinson's disease in 1964, and had to put away the fiddle. Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the Central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The medications available at the time caused undue stress to his heart, and he died at the age of 75, in Oslo during the winter of 1977. He is buried alongside his first wife in the cemetery at Tangen, Hedmark. is a county in Norway, bordering Sør-Trøndelag, Oppland and Akershus.
Groven's musical style is heavily influenced by his folk music background, both harmonic and formal. The blue notes common in folk music were often compensated in classical orchestra through imaginative use of overtones and in orchestration. In Jazz and Blues, a blue note (also "worried" note is a Note sung or played at a slightly lower pitch than that of the Groven's harmonies reflects often the harmonies of the hardanger fiddle, which is commonly played at on two or even three strings at a time. He also extracted harmonies from the Norwegian cither, the Langeleik, or the willow pipe. The langeleik is a traditional stringed Musical instrument from Norway.
It has been pointed out that Groven's harmonic principles are not far from the principles of the early Flemish Renaissance composers, such as Dufay and Obrecht. The terms Fleming and Flemings ( Vlaming and Vlamingen in Dutch) denote respectively a person and people and the Flemings or The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Guillaume Dufay ( Du Fay, Du Fayt) ( August 5, 1397 ? &ndash November 27, 1474) was a Franco-Flemish composer Like them, he often uses the sixth-chord, with a third at the bottom. Groven often thinks rather polyphonically, and this can also be traced to the hardanger fiddle, as well as to his admiration for Bach. In Music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more independent Melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice ( Monophony WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise"
In early years, critics accused him of atonality, but in fact, Groven's music is quite tonal. Atonality in its broadest sense describes Music that lacks a tonal center, or key. He can, however use drastic modulations, which in this context turn out as fairly logical. In Telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic Waveform, i Apart from this, he uses the old modes that are present in traditional Norwegian music. One has to remember, though, that he never heard much of the early flemish music, or even his older contemporary Stravinsky, and yet similarities can be found. Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) ( &ndash 6 April 1971 was a Russian born Composer, considered by many to Those similarities can be explained out of tonal feeling and tradition. Stravinsky in the early stage of his production used Russian folk music in an experimental way, like Groven. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
Groven's form is metamorphic. He often uses a kind of fortspinnung, and turns themes over to new themes gradually, in a very organic way.
Groven did not believe in the concept of absolute music. Absolute music (sometimes abstract music) is a term used to describe musicthat is not explicitly "about" anything non-representational ornon-objective He stated rather that "all music is about something". Thus, one will find that most of his works are based on literature, poems or novels, or even plays. He wrote a number of songs over poems written by Henrik Wergeland, and choral works based on texts by the Norwegian novelist and playwright Hans E. Kinck and his sister-in-law Ingeborg Refling Hagen. Henrik Arnold Thaulow Wergeland ( June 17, 1808 in Kristiansand – July 12, 1845 in Christiania) was a Norwegian Hans Ernst Kinck (ˈçɪŋk ( 11 October 1865 – 13 October 1926) was a Norwegian Author and philologist His piano concerto and two symphonies are also based on works by the latter two authors. A piano concerto is a work written for Piano and Orchestra.See also Harpsichord concerto; some of these works are occasionally played on piano
Groven also composed music for hardanger fiddle, experimenting with new ways of tuning the instrument, and wrote a number of folk tune arrangements for his own organ, using blue scales and irregular intervals, not to be achieved on a regular well-tempered piano.
He wrote also a number of essays on the topics of pure tuning and the overtone scale, as well as an essay of his own invention, the pure-tuning automath.