Ein deutsches Requiem, nach Worten der heiligen Schrift, Op. 45 (English: A German Requiem, to words of the Holy Scriptures) is a large-scale work for chorus, orchestra, and soloists, composed by Johannes Brahms between 1865 and 1868. Opus, from the Latin word opus meaning "work" is usually used in the sense of "a Work of art " English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States For the musical composition see Chorale. A choir, chorale, or chorus is a Musical ensemble of Singers An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well Johannes Brahms ( pronounced ˈbʁaːms (May 7 1833 &ndash April 3 1897 was a German Composer Ein deutsches Requiem is sacred but non-liturgical. It comprises seven movements, which together last 70-80 minutes, making Ein deutsches Requiem Brahms's longest composition. A movement is a self-contained part of a Musical composition or Musical form.
Brahms's mother died in February 1865, a loss that painfully grieved him and that may well have inspired Ein deutsches Requiem. Brahms's lingering feelings over Robert Schumann's death in July 1856 may also have been a motivation, though his reticence about such matters makes this uncertain. Robert Schumann, sometimes given as Robert Alexander Schumann (June 8 1810 &ndash July 29 1856 was a German Composer, Aesthete and influential Music critic 
By the end of April 1865, Brahms had completed the first, second, and fourth movements. The second movement used some previously abandoned musical material written in 1854, the year of Schumann's mental collapse and attempted suicide, and of Brahms's move to Düsseldorf to assist Clara Schumann and her seven children. Düsseldorf (ˈdʏsəldɔɐf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13 1819 &ndash May 20 1896 was a German musician one of the most distinguished Pianists of the Romantic era, as
Brahms completed all but what is now the fifth movement by August 1866. Johannes Herbeck conducted the first three movements in Vienna on December 1, 1867. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1867 ( MDCCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Though the partial premiere went poorly, all six movements then extant were premiered in the Bremen cathedral six months later on Good Friday, 10 April 1868, with Brahms conducting and Julius Stockhausen as the baritone soloist. Bremen (ˈbʁeːmən is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany (official name Stadtgemeinde Bremen / City Municipality of Bremen Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday ("Pascha" Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama Year 1868 ( MDCCCLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Julius Christian Stockhausen ( 22 July 1826, Paris - 22 September 1906, Frankfurt am Main) was a German The performance was a great success and marked a turning point in his career. 
Brahms added the fifth movement in May 1868. It was first sung in Zurich on September 12, 1868 by Ida Suter-Weber, with Friedrich Hegar conducting the Zurich Tonhalle Orchestra. Zürich (, Zürich German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo; in English generally Zurich) is the largest city in Switzerland and capital of the Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Year 1868 ( MDCCCLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Friedrich Hegar ( 11 October 1841 &ndash 2 June 1927) was as Swiss Composer, conductor, Violinist Tonhalle Orchester Zürich is a Symphony orchestra founded in 1868 in Zürich Switzerland, where it established its residence in the The final, seven-movement version of Ein deutsches Requiem was premiered in Leipzig on February 18, 1869 with Carl Reinecke conducting the Gewandhaus Orchestra and Chorus, and soloists Emilie Bellingrath-Wagner and Franz Krükl. This sort of fix restores section edit linkpoints to where they belong Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy Year 1869 ( MDCCCLXIX) is a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Carl Heinrich Carsten Reinecke ( June 23, 1824 &ndash The Gewandhausorchester Leipzig ( Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra) is a famous German Orchestra based in Leipzig, Germany.
Brahms assembled the libretto to Ein deutsches Requiem himself. In contrast to the traditional Roman Catholic requiem mass, which employs a standardized text in Latin, Ein deutsches Requiem derives its text from Martin Luther's German Bible translation. The Requiem (from Latin requiem, accusative case of requies, rest or Requiem Mass (informally a funeral Mass also known formally (in Latin as the For other uses see Mass (disambiguation The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin
Brahms's first known use of the title A German Requiem was in an 1865 letter to Clara Schumann in which he wrote that he intended for the piece to be "a sort of German Requiem". Brahms was quite moved when he found out years later that Robert Schumann had planned a work of the same name.  German refers primarily to the language rather than the intended audience. Brahms told Karl Martin Reinthaler, director of music at the Bremen cathedral, that he would have gladly called the work A Human Requiem. Carl Martin Reinthaler ( October 13, 1822 - February 13, 1896) was a German Organist, conductor and Composer 
Although the Requiem Mass in the Roman Catholic liturgy begins with prayers for the dead ("Grant them eternal rest, O Lord"), Ein deutsches Requiem emphasizes comforting the living, beginning with the text "Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. " A comparable sacred, humanist worldview persists through the work. 
In fact, Brahms purposefully omitted Christian dogma.  In his correspondence with Karl Reinthaler, when Reinthaler expressed concern over this, Brahms refused to add references to "the redeeming death of the Lord", as Reinthaler put it, such as John 3:16. In the Bremen performance of the piece, Reinthaler took the liberty of inserting the aria "I know that my redeemer liveth" from Handel's Messiah, with a view to satisfy the clergy. Messiah ( HWV 56 is an Oratorio by George Frideric Handel based on a Libretto by Charles Jennens. 
Ein deutsches Requiem is scored for:
Notable orchestrational devices include the first movement's lack of violins, as well as piccolo, clarinets, one pair of horns, trumpets, tuba, and timpani; and the use of harps at the close of both the first and seventh movements, most striking in the latter because at that point they have not played since the middle of the second movement. This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. The flute is a Musical instrument of the Woodwind family Unlike other woodwind instruments a flute is a Reedless wind instrument that produces its The piccolo is a small Flute. Like the flute the piccolo is normally pitched in the key of C one octave above the concert flute (making it effectively a sopranino "Hautbois" redirects here for the strawberry variety see Hautbois strawberry. The clarinet is a Musical instrument in the Woodwind family The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word The bassoon is a Woodwind instrument in the Double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and Tenor registers and occasionally The contrabassoon is a larger version of the Bassoon sounding an octave lower The trombone is a Musical instrument in the brass family Like all brass instruments it is a lip-reed Aerophone: sound is produced when the player’s Mediatubaogg -->The tuba is the largest and lowest pitched Brass instrument. Timpani (also known colloquially as kettledrums or kettle drums) are Musical instruments in the percussion family The harp is a Stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. The organ (from Greek όργανον – organon "organ instrument tool" is a Keyboard instrument of one or more divisions each A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a Musical instrument that produces Sound by means of Vibrating strings In the Hornbostel-Sachs Orchestration is the study or practice of writing Music for Orchestra (or more loosely for any Musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed
Also notable is that the four voice parts of the choir do not divide, e. g. into first and second sopranos, as often as they do in other major choral works of its era.
An alternative version of the work was prepared by Brahms to be performed as a piano duet, four hands on one piano. This version also incorporates the vocal parts, suggesting that it was intended as a self-contained version probably for at-home use, but the vocal parts can also be omitted, making the duet version an acceptable substitute accompaniment for choir and soloists in circumstances where a full orchestra is unavailable. The first complete (excepting the yet-unwritten fifth movement) performance of the Requiem in London, in July 1871 at the home of Sir Henry Thompson and his wife, the pianist Kate Loder (Lady Thompson), utilized this piano-duet accompaniment (and was, incidentally, sung in English). Henry Thompson redirects here For the American songwriter see H
Ein deutsches Requiem is unified compositionally by a three-note motif of a leap of a major third, followed by a (usually) half-step in the same direction. In Music, a motif or motive is a perceivable or salient recurring fragment or succession of notes that may be used to construct the entirety or parts In Music theory, the term interval describes the relationship between the pitches of two Notes Intervals may be described as vertical In Music theory, the term interval describes the relationship between the pitches of two Notes Intervals may be described as vertical The first exposed choral entry presents the motif in the soprano voice (F-A-B flat). This motif pervades every movement and much of the thematic material in the piece. In Music, a theme is the initial or primary Melody. The Encyclopédie Fasquelle (Michel 1958–61 defines a theme as follows "Any 
Listed alphabetically by conductor
- Claudio Abbado conducting the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra (Germany). WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Claudio Abbado, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (born June The Berlin Philharmonic (in German: Die Berliner Philharmoniker) is an Orchestra based in Berlin, Germany. Recorded live in 1992 and released in 1993 by Deutsche Grammophon; with the Swedish Radio Chorus, Eric Ericson Chamber Choir, Cheryl Studer (soprano), Andreas Schmidt (bass-baritone). Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical Record label. The company has long been known for its high standards of audio fidelity. Cheryl Studer (born October 24, 1955) is a Grammy Award winning American Dramatic soprano who has sung at many of the world's major Andreas Schmidt was born March 28, 1961 in the small university town of Göttingen[http //www (A later DVD with Abbado/Berlin features Barbara Bonney, soprano. )
- Gerd Albrecht conducting the Danish National Orchestra (Denmark). Gerd Albrecht (born July 19, 1935, Essen) is a German conductor. Released in 2003 by Chandos Records. Chandos Records is an independent classical music label based in the United Kingdom, founded by Brian Couzens.
- Herbert Blomstedt conducting the San Francisco Symphony (United States). WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Herbert Blomstedt (born July 11 1927) is a Swedish The San Francisco Symphony ( SFS) is a leading Orchestra based in San Francisco California. Released in 1995 by London and winner of the 1995 Grammy Award for Best Choral Performance.
- Sergiu Celibidache conducting the Münchner Philharmoniker. Sergiu Celibidache (/'serʤju ʧelibi'dake/ ser-joo chay-lee-bee-DAH-kay ( June 28, 1912 &ndash August 14, 1996) was a Romanian-born German The Münchner Philharmoniker ( Munich Philharmonic) is one of three orchestras located in the city of Munich, along with the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra Recorded live in 1981 and released in 1999 by EMI. The EMI Group is a British music company comprising the major record company EMI Music – which operates several labels and is based in Kensington in
- Stephen Cleobury conducting the King's College Choir, using Brahms's 2-piano arrangement. Stephen Cleobury (ˈkliːbrɪ KLEE-bri) (b 31 December 1948) is an English organist and conductor. The world-famous Choir of King's College Cambridge is one of today's most accomplished and renowned representatives of the great British choral tradition Recorded in 2006 and released by EMI.
- Harry Christophers conducting The Sixteen, also using Brahms's 2-piano arrangement. Harry Christophers is an English conductor born on December 26, 1953 in Goudhurst, Kent. The Sixteen is an English Choir performing early Religious music. Recorded in 2006 and released on Coro Records.
- Wilhelm Furtwängler conducting the Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus live in concert, with soloists Kerstin Lindberg-Torlind, soprano and Bernhard Sönnerstedt, baritone, recorded in 1948, and released on various labels, most recently Music and Arts. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25 1886 &ndash November 30 1954 was a
- Wilhelm Furtwängler conducting the Lucerne Festival orchestra and chorus live in concert, with soloists Elizabeth Schwarzkopf and Hans Hotter, also recorded in 1948. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25 1886 &ndash November 30 1954 was a The recording is incomplete, however, and suffers from severe wow, surface noise, and overload distortion.
- Sir John Eliot Gardiner conducting the Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique. Sir John Eliot Gardiner CBE FKC (born April 20, 1943, Fontmell Magna, Dorset The Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique, founded in 1990 by John Eliot Gardiner, performs Classical and Romantic music using the principles Recorded in 1990 and released by Philips in 1991. Philips Classics Records was started in the eighties as the new classics Record label for Philips Records. Uses period instruments.
- Philippe Herreweghe conducting the Orchestre des Champs-Elysées (France). Philippe Knight Herreweghe (Born May 2 1947 in Ghent) is a Belgian conductor. Recorded live in 1996 and released in 1996 by Harmonia Mundi. "Harmonia Mundi" is also the title of a track on Mike Oldfield 's Music of the Spheres album Uses period instruments.
- Craig Jessop conducting the Utah Symphony Orchestra (United States) & Mormon Tabernacle Choir. Craig Jessop is an American academic musician and singer best known for his tenure as the music director of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir from 1999 to 2008 The Utah Symphony Orchestra is a symphony Orchestra located in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Mormon Tabernacle Choir is a 360 member all-volunteer Choir. Recorded February 1999 and released in October 1999 by Telarc. Telarc International Corporation is an Independent record label, based in Cleveland Ohio, United States, and founded in 1977 by two classically Recorded in English.
- Herbert von Karajan conducting the Berliner Philharmoniker and Wiener Singverein (Germany). WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Herbert von Karajan ( April 5 The Berlin Philharmonic (in German: Die Berliner Philharmoniker) is an Orchestra based in Berlin, Germany. Recorded in 1964 and released in 2002 by Deutsche Grammophon. Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical Record label. The company has long been known for its high standards of audio fidelity.
- Herbert von Karajan conducting the Berliner Philharmoniker. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Herbert von Karajan ( April 5 The Berlin Philharmonic (in German: Die Berliner Philharmoniker) is an Orchestra based in Berlin, Germany. Recorded in 1976 and released in 2003 by EMI. The EMI Group is a British music company comprising the major record company EMI Music – which operates several labels and is based in Kensington in
- Rudolf Kempe conducting the Berliner Philharmoniker. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Rudolf Kempe ( June 14, 1910 &ndash May 12 The Berlin Philharmonic (in German: Die Berliner Philharmoniker) is an Orchestra based in Berlin, Germany. Recorded in 1955 Jesus-Christus Kirche, Berlin-Dahlem, Choir of St. Hedwigs-Kathedral, Elizabeth Grümmer, Deitrich Fischer-Dieskau. EMI
- Otto Klemperer conducting the Philharmonia Orchestra (England). The EMI Group is a British music company comprising the major record company EMI Music – which operates several labels and is based in Kensington in WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Otto Klemperer (born Breslau, May 14, 1885 The Philharmonia is an Orchestra based in London. Since 1995 it has been based in the Royal Festival Hall. Recorded in 1961 and released in 1999 by EMI Classics. Artists Composers Thomas Adès Karl Jenkins Sir Paul McCartney Ian Anderson
- Rafael Kubelík conducting the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Rafael Jeroným Kubelík ( June 29 1914 &ndash The Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra ( Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks) is the internationally renowned Orchestra of the Bayerischer Rundfunk Recorded live in 1978 and released in 2002 by Audite.
- Bernard Haitink conducting the Vienna Philharmonic. Bernard Johan Herman Haitink CH KBE (born March 4, 1929) is a Dutch conductor and Violinist Early The Vienna Philharmonic (in German: die Wiener Philharmoniker) is an Orchestra in Austria, regularly considered one of the finest in the Recorded in 1980 and released by Philips Records. Philips Records is a Record label that was founded by Dutch electronics giant Philips.
- James Levine conducting the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and Chicago Symphony Chorus. James Lawrence Levine (born 23 June 1943) is an American orchestral conductor and pianist. The Chicago Symphony Orchestra ( CSO) is an American orchestra based in Chicago Illinois. The Chicago Symphony Chorus ’s fifty-year history began on September 22, 1957, when the Chicago Symphony Orchestra announced that Margaret Hillis Recorded in 1983 by RCA. RCA Corporation, founded as Radio Corporation of America, was an electronics company in existence from 1919 to 1986
- Kurt Masur conducting the New York Philharmonic (United States). WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Kurt Masur (b The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active Symphony Orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842 Recorded live in 1995 and released in 1995 by Teldec. TELDEC, or Teldec Record Service GmbH is a German Record label in Hamburg, Germany
- Roger Norrington conducting the London Classical Players and Schütz Choir of London. Sir Roger Arthur Carver Norrington, CBE (born March 16, 1934) is a British conductor. The London Classical Players (LCP was a British Orchestra that specialized in music following Historically informed performance (HIP practices and orchestral performances Recorded and released in 1999 by Virgin.
- Andre Previn conducting the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (England). WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> André Previn ( Andreas Ludwig Priwin) KBE (b The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra ( RPO) is a British Orchestra based in London. Recorded in 1986 and released in 2002 by Apex.
- Simon Rattle conducting the Berlin Philharmonic. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Sir Simon Denis Rattle, CBE, FRSA, (born January The Berlin Philharmonic (in German: Die Berliner Philharmoniker) is an Orchestra based in Berlin, Germany. Recorded in concert in 2006 and released in 2007 by EMI Classics. Artists Composers Thomas Adès Karl Jenkins Sir Paul McCartney Ian Anderson In 2008, winner of the 50th Grammy Award for Best Choral Performance. The 50th Annual Grammy Awards took place at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, California, on February 10 2008 starting at 8PM EST. The 50th Annual Grammy Awards took place at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, California, on February 10 2008 starting at 8PM EST.
- Wolfgang Sawallisch conducting the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra (Germany). The Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra ( Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks) is the internationally renowned Orchestra of the Bayerischer Rundfunk Released in 1995 by Orfeo.
- Carl Schuricht conducting the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra (Germany). Carl Adolph Schuricht ( July 3, 1880 &ndash January, 1967 was a German conductor. The Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra (German Radio-Sinfonieorchester Stuttgart des SWR) is an Orchestra based in Stuttgart in Germany. Recorded in 1959 and released in 2004 by Hänssler Classic.
- Robert Shaw conducting the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and Chorus (United States). WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Robert Shaw ( April 30, 1916 – January 25 The Atlanta Symphony Orchestra ( ASO) is an American Orchestra based in Atlanta, Georgia, USA Recorded in 1990 and released in 1992 by Telarc. Telarc International Corporation is an Independent record label, based in Cleveland Ohio, United States, and founded in 1977 by two classically
- Sir Georg Solti conducting the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and Chicago Symphony Chorus. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Sir Georg Solti, KBE ( 21 October 1912 The Chicago Symphony Orchestra ( CSO) is an American orchestra based in Chicago Illinois. The Chicago Symphony Chorus ’s fifty-year history began on September 22, 1957, when the Chicago Symphony Orchestra announced that Margaret Hillis Recorded in 1978 by London/Decca.
- Bruno Walter conducting the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and Westminster Choir. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Bruno Walter ( September 15, 1876 &ndash February The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active Symphony Orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842 Westminster Choir College is a residential College of music located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. Recorded live in Carnegie Hall in 1954. Carnegie Hall (generally ˌkɑrnɨgi ˈhɔːl is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east
Not all critics have responded favourably to the work. In particular George Bernard Shaw wrote that "it could only have come from the establishment of a first-class undertaker. George Bernard Shaw ( (26 July 1856 &ndash 2 November 1950 was an Irish Playwright. "
- Steinberg, Michael. "Johannes Brahms: A German Requiem on Words from Holy Scripture, op. 45. " Choral Masterworks: A Listener's Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, 68-74.
- ^ Steinberg, 69.
- ^ Steinberg, 68-69
- ^ Steinberg, 69
- ^ Steinberg, 70
- ^ Steinberg, 70
- ^ See analysis of the work under External links.
- ^ State of the Arts. , page 7
- ^ Steinberg, 71-74
© 2009 citizendia.org; parts available under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License, from http://en.wikipedia.org
network: | |