|جمهورية مصر العربية|
Gumhūriyyat Miṣr al-ʿArabiyyah
Arab Republic of Egypt
|Anthem: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady|
(and largest city)
|-||Prime Minister||Ahmed Nazif|
|-||First Dynasty||c.3150 BCE|
|-||Independence from United Kingdom||February 28, 1922|
|-||Republic declared||June 18, 1953|
|-||Total||980,869 km² (30th)|
378,715 sq mi 386,660 Including Hala'ib Triangle sq mi
|-||Water (%)||0. The flag of Egypt ( علم مصر) in its current form was adopted on October 4, 1984. The Egyptian Coat of arms ( شعار مصر) is a Golden eagle looking towards the viewer's left ( Dexter A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Bilady Bilady Bilady ("My country my country my country" Arabic: بلادي بلادي بلادي has been Egypt 's national anthem since 1979 Egypt is the most populous country in the Middle East and the second-most populous on the African continent Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The semi-presidential system is a System of government in which a prime minister and a President are both active participants in the day-to-day administration A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the elected Head of State of Egypt. The Prime Minister of Egypt ( Arabic: رئيس الوزراء المصرى, رئيس الحكومة is the head of the Egyptian government Dr Ahmed Nazif ( أحمد نظيف) (born July 8 1952 in Alexandria) has served as the Prime Minister of Egypt since 14 July The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history as a unified state of any country in the world The first dynasty of Ancient Egypt is often combined with the second dynasty under the group title Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. Circa (often abbreviated c, ca, ca or cca and sometimes Italicized to show it is Latin) means "about" The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Events 202 BC - coronation ceremony of Liu Bang as Emperor Gaozu of Han takes place initiating four centuries of the Han Dynasty 's rule Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different surface Areas here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. The Hala'ib Triangle (مثلث حلايب in Arabic, transliterated Muthallath Halāʾib or Muṯallaṯ Ḥalāʾib is an area of land measuring 20580 km² located The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 632|
|-||2007 estimate||80,335,036 (est. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology )|
|GDP (PPP)||2006 estimate|
|-||Total||$329. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 791 billion (29th)|
|-||Per capita||$4,836 (110th)|
|Gini (1999–00)||34. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 5 (medium)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 708 (medium) (112nd)|
|Currency||Egyptian pound (|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|-||Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|1||Spoken language is Egyptian Arabic. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The Egyptian pound or gineih (الجنيه المصرى el-Gineih el-Miṣrī) ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Eastern European Time ( EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. Daylight saving time ( DST Eastern European Summer Time ( EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 Time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E|
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, (Egyptian: Kemet; Coptic: Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Kīmi; Arabic: مصر Miṣr; Egyptian Arabic: Máṣr) is a country in North Africa. Egyptian is an Afro-Asiatic language most closely related to the Berber, Semitic, Somali and Beja languages Coptic or Coptic Egyptian ( MetRemenkīmi) is the final stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan The Sinai Peninsula is part of northeastern Egypt, which also forms a land bridge to Asia. The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء Covering an area of about 1,001,450 square kilometers (386,660 sq mi), Egypt borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south and the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. The Gaza Strip (قطاع غزة, רצועת עזה Retzu'at 'Azza) is a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt on the south-west For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The northern coast borders the Mediterranean Sea; the eastern coast borders the Red Sea. The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia.,
Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The great majority of its estimated 80,300,000 people (2007 US State Department estimate) live near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable agricultural land is found. The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River In Geography, arable land (from Latin arare, to Plough) is an agricultural term meaning land that can be used for The large areas of the Sahara Desert are sparsely inhabited. The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with the majority spread across the densely-populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια The Nile Delta ( Arabic: دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt ( Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads
Egypt is famous for its ancient civilization and some of the world's most famous monuments, including the Giza pyramid complex and its Great Sphinx. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. The Great Sphinx of Giza (أبو الهول "The Father of Fear" is a half-human half-lion Sphinx statue in Egypt, on the Giza Plateau at the The southern city of Luxor contains numerous ancient artifacts, such as the Karnak Temple and the Valley of the Kings. Luxor (in Arabic: الأقصر al-Uqṣur) is a city in Upper (southern Egypt and the capital of Luxor The Karnak temple complex, universally known only as Karnak, describes a vast conglomeration of ruined temples chapels pylons and other buildings The Valley of the Kings ( Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; "Gates of the King" is a Valley in Egypt where for Egypt is widely regarded as an important political and cultural nation of the Middle East. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East.
|km. t (Egypt)|
One of the ancient Egyptian names of the country, Kemet (kṃt), or "black land" (from kem "black"), is derived from the fertile black soils deposited by the Nile floods, distinct from the deshret, or "red land" (dšṛt), of the desert. Egyptian hieroglyphs (ˈhaɪərəʊɡlɪf from Greek grc-Grek ἱερογλύφος " sacred carving " also hieroglyphic = grc-Grek Egyptian is an Afro-Asiatic language most closely related to the Berber, Semitic, Somali and Beja languages The name is realized as kīmi and kīmə in the Coptic stage of the Egyptian language, and appeared in early Greek as Χημία (Khēmía). Coptic or Coptic Egyptian ( MetRemenkīmi) is the final stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt Another name was t3-mry "land of the riverbank". The names of Upper and Lower Egypt were Ta-Sheme'aw (t3-šmˁw) "sedgeland" and Ta-Mehew (t3 mḥw) "northland", respectively. Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions known as Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.
Miṣr, the Arabic and modern official name of Egypt (Egyptian Arabic: Maṣr), is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם (Mitzráyim), literally meaning "the two straits" (a reference to the dynastic separation of upper and lower Egypt). Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language In Linguistics and Ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical " Shem " Hebrew שם translated as "name" Arabic: ساميّ Cognates in Linguistics are words that have a common origin They may occur within a language such as shirt and skirt as two English words descended from  The word originally connoted "metropolis" or "civilization" and also means "country", or "frontier-land".
The English name "Egypt" came via the Latin word Aegyptus derived from the ancient Greek word Aígyptos (Αίγυπτος). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c The adjective aigýpti, aigýptios was borrowed into Coptic as gyptios, kyptios, and from there into Arabic as qubṭī, back formed into qubṭ, whence English Copt. A Copt ( Coptic: ouRemenkīmi enEkhristianos, literally Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. The term is derived from Late Egyptian Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hat-ka-Ptah (ḥwt-k3-ptḥ), meaning "home of the ka (soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. Late Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language that began to be written in the New Kingdom around the Amarna period. Egyptian is an Afro-Asiatic language most closely related to the Berber, Semitic, Somali and Beja languages In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead Cosmogony, which was more literally Memphis was the ancient capitol of the first nome of Lower Egypt, and of the Old Kingdom of Egypt from its foundation until around 2200 BC and Strabo provided a folk etymology according to which Aígyptos (Αίγυπτος ) had evolved as a compound from Aegaeon uptiōs (Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως), meaning "below the Aegean". Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word a False etymology.
Evidence of human habitation in the Nile Valley since the Paleolithic era appears in the form of artifacts and rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in the desert oases. The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history as a unified state of any country in the world Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone" Petroglyphs are Images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising pecking carving and abrading The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers replaced a grain-grinding culture. A hunter-gatherer society is one whose primary subsistence method involves the direct procurement of edible plants and animals from the wild Foraging and Hunting For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic Climate changes and/or overgrazing around 8000 BC began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture An economic system is a System that involves the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services between A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions 
By about 6000 BC, organized agriculture and large building construction had appeared in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos The Predynastic Period of Egypt (prior to 3100 BC is traditionally the period between the Early Neolithic and the beginning of the Pharaonic monarchy beginning with King Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions known as Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. The Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are generally regarded as precursors to Dynastic Egyptian civilization. The Badarian culture provides the earliest direct evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt. This article is about the Egyptian village See also Naqahdah for the fictional element from the Stargate setting Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining somewhat culturally separate, but maintaining frequent contact through trade. The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BC. Egyptian hieroglyphs (ˈhaɪərəʊɡlɪf from Greek grc-Grek ἱερογλύφος " sacred carving " also hieroglyphic = grc-Grek This article is about the Egyptian village See also Naqahdah for the fictional element from the Stargate setting 
|tAwy ('Two Lands')|
A unified kingdom was founded circa 3150 BC by King Menes, giving rise to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia. Egyptian hieroglyphs (ˈhaɪərəʊɡlɪf from Greek grc-Grek ἱερογλύφος " sacred carving " also hieroglyphic = grc-Grek Menes is the name of the Egyptian Pharaoh credited with founding the First dynasty, sometime around 3100 BC Egyptians subsequently referred to their unified country as tawy, meaning "two lands", and later kemet (Coptic: kīmi), the "black land", a reference to the fertile black soil deposited by the Nile river. This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group Coptic or Coptic Egyptian ( MetRemenkīmi) is the final stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religion, arts, language and customs. The Culture of Egypt has five thousand years of recorded history Ancient Egyptian religion encompasses the various religious beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Egypt from the predynastic period until the adoption of Christianity Ancient Egyptian art refers to the style of painting sculpture crafts and architecture developed by the Civilization in the lower Nile Valley from 5000 Egyptian is an Afro-Asiatic language most closely related to the Berber, Semitic, Somali and Beja languages The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period, c. The Protodynastic Period of Egypt (generally dated 3200 BC - 3000 BC) refers to the period of time at the very end of the Predynastic Period. The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BCE when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement 2700−2200 BC. , famous for its many pyramids, most notably the Third Dynasty pyramid of Djoser and the Fourth Dynasty Giza Pyramids. The Egyptian pyramids are pyramid shaped structures located in Egypt, and were built as a tomb for dead pharaohs Third Dynasty The Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt is the first dynasty of the Old Kingdom. The Pyramid of Djoser(Zoser, or step pyramid ( kbhw-ntrw in Egyptian) is an archeological remain in the Saqqara necropolis Egypt The fourth dynasty of Ancient Egypt is characterized as a Golden age of the Old Kingdom. The Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt.
The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval for about 150 years. The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Stronger Nile floods and stabilization of government, however, brought back renewed prosperity for the country in the Middle Kingdom c. The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of Ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty 2040 BC, reaching a peak during the reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. Amenemhat III, alt Amenemhet III, (c 1860 BC-1814 BC was a Pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt. A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic Hyksos. The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New In Linguistics and Ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical " Shem " Hebrew שם translated as "name" Arabic: ساميّ The Hyksos ( Egyptian heqa khasewet, "foreign rulers" Greek,, Arabic,) were an Asiatic people who invaded the eastern Nile The Hyksos invaders took over much of Lower Egypt around 1650 BC and founded a new capital at Avaris. Avaris ( Egyptian: ħt wʕrt Hatwaret, Greek: αυαρις Auaris) located at Tell ed-Dab'a, was the ancient capital of the They were driven out by an Upper Egyptian force led by Ahmose I, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to Thebes. See Amasis II for the 26th Dynasty pharaoh whose name sometimes appears as Ahmose II "Amarna period" redirects here For information on Amarna see Amarna The Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1292 BC is perhaps the best known of Memphis was the ancient capitol of the first nome of Lower Egypt, and of the Old Kingdom of Egypt from its foundation until around 2200 BC and Thebes ( Thēbai) was a city in Ancient Egypt located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean on the east bank of the river Nile (
The New Kingdom (c. The New Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in Ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and 1550−1070 BC) began with the Eighteenth Dynasty, marking the rise of Egypt as an international power that expanded during its greatest extension to an empire as far south as Jebel Barkal in Nubia, and included parts of the Levant in the east. Power in international relations is defined in several different ways Jebel Barkal or Gebel Barkal (جبل بركل is a small Mountain located some 400 km north of Khartoum, in Sudan, on a large bend of the This article is about the region in Africa for other uses see Nubia (disambiguation. See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the This period is noted for some of the most well-known Pharaohs, including Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun and Ramesses II. Pharaoh is the title given in modern parlance to the ancient Egyptian kings of all periods Hatshepsut (or Hatchepsut, hætˈʃɛpsʊt meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies, was the fifth Pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III and meaning Thoth is Born) was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Akhenaten (often alt: Akhnaten, or rarely Ikhnaton) (In English ˌɑkəˡnɑtən or approximately "AHK-en-AHT-en" his royal name Amenhotep Nefertiti (pronounced at the time something like *nafratiːta (c The first known self-conscious expression of monotheism came during this period in the form of Atenism. For the Celtic Frost album see Monotheist (album In Theology, monotheism (from Greek grc [[wiktμόνος μόνος]] Atenism (or the Amarna heresy) is the earliest known if not well-documented Monotheistic religion associated above all with the eighteenth dynasty Frequent contacts with other nations brought new ideas to the New Kingdom. The country was later invaded by Libyans, Nubians and Assyrians, but native Egyptians drove them out and regained control of their country. Ancient Libya was the region west of the Nile Valley. It corresponds to what is now generally called Northwest Africa. Kush civilization centered in the confluence of the Blue Nile and the White Nile, and the confluence of the River Atbara and Nile in what Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture
The Thirtieth Dynasty was the last native ruling dynasty during the Pharaonic epoch. The Thirtieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt followed Nectanebo I 's deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor. It fell to the Persians in 343 BC after the last native Pharaoh, King Nectanebo II, was defeated in battle. Nectanebo II (ruled 360 - 343 BC also known by the name Nakhthoreb, was the third and last king of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt and also the last native Later, Egypt fell to the Greeks and Romans, beginning over two thousand years of foreign rule. Ptolemaic Egypt began when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt in 305 BC and ended with the death of queen Cleopatra Ægyptus redirects here See Egypt Province for the province of the Ottoman Empire
Before Egypt became part of the Byzantine realm, Christianity had been brought by Saint Mark the Evangelist in the AD first century. Ægyptus redirects here See Egypt Province for the province of the Ottoman Empire "Saint Mark" redirects here For other uses see Saint Mark (disambiguation. Diocletian's reign marked the transition from the Roman to the Byzantine era in Egypt, when a great number of Egyptian Christians were persecuted. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The New Testament had by then been translated into Egyptian. After the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, a distinct Egyptian Coptic Church was firmly established. The Council of Chalcedon was the fourth Ecumenical council. It was held from 8 October to 1 November 451 at Chalcedon (a city of History of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Apostolic foundation Egypt is identified in the Bible as the place of refuge that the 
The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Persian invasion early in the seventh century, until in AD 639, Egypt was invaded by the Muslim Arabs. Ægyptus redirects here See Egypt Province for the province of the Ottoman Empire At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The form of Islam the Arabs brought to Egypt was Sunni. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with indigenous beliefs and practices that had survived through Coptic Christianity, giving rise to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day. History of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Apostolic foundation Egypt is identified in the Bible as the place of refuge that the Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف  Muslim rulers nominated by the Islamic Caliphate remained in control of Egypt for the next six centuries, including a period for which it was the seat of the Caliphate under the Fatimids. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history During the initial Islamic invasion in 639 AD, Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Righteous Caliphs, and then the Ummayad With the end of the Ayyubid dynasty, the Mamluks, a Turco-Circassian military caste, took control about AD 1250. The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for The Turkish people (Türk Halkı also known as " Turks " ( Türkler) are defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a First language Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess ( Çerkes) and is not the self-designation of any people They continued to govern even after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517 Egypt was always a difficult province for the Ottoman Sultans to control The Ottoman Turks were the subdivision of the Ottoman Muslim Millet that dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire.
The brief French Invasion of Egypt led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798 had a great social impact on the country and its culture. The French Invasion of Egypt (1798-1801 was Napoleon Bonaparte 's unsuccessful campaign in Egypt and Syria to protect French trade Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Native Egyptians became exposed to the principles of the French Revolution and had a chance to exercise self-governance. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of Organization.  A series of civil wars took place between the Ottoman Turks, the Mamluks, and Albanian mercenaries following the evacuation of French troops, resulting in the Albanian Muhammad Ali (Kavalali Mehmed Ali Pasha) taking control of Egypt. This article is about the leader of Egypt For other people named Muhammad Ali or Mehmet Ali see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation and Mehemet Ali (disambiguation The process of Muhammad Ali's seizure of power in Egypt was a long three way civil war between the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian Mamluks and Albanian He was appointed as the Ottoman viceroy in 1805. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the Monarch. He led a modernization campaign of public works, including irrigation projects, agricultural reforms and increased industrialization, which were then taken up and further expanded by his grandson and successor Isma'il Pasha. Isma'il Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent (إسماعيل باشا ( December 31, 1830 &ndash March 2, 1895) was Wāli
In 1866, the Assembly of Delegates was founded to serve as an advisory body for the government. Members of the Assembly were elected from across Egypt and came to have an important influence on governmental decisions.  Following the completion of the Suez Canal by Khedive Ismail in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation and trading hub. The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation However, the country fell heavily into debt to European powers. As a result, the United Kingdom seized control of Egypt's government in 1882 to protect its financial interests, especially those in the Suez Canal. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa, was the proliferation of conflicting European claims to African territory during the New
Shortly after its political intervention, Britain sent troops into Alexandria and the Canal Zone, taking advantage of Egypt's weak military. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια With the defeat of the Egyptian army at the Battle of Tel el-Kebir, British troops reached Cairo, eliminated the nationalist government and disbanded the Egyptian military. The Battle of Tel el-Kebir or el-Tal el-Kebir was between the Egyptian army led by Ahmed Urabi and the British military fought near Tel-el-Kebir Technically, Egypt remained an Ottoman province until 1914, when Britain formally declared a protectorate over Egypt and deposed Egypt's last khedive, Abbas II. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect For the HMS Khedive, see ''USS'' Cordova. Khedive (from Persian for "lord" was a title first Abbas II (also known as Abbas Hilmi Pasha) (عباس حلمي باشا ( July 14, 1874, Alexandria &ndash 19 December His uncle, Husayn Kamil, was appointed as Sultan in his place. Sultan Husayn Kamil ( November 21, 1853 - October 9 1917) (سلطان حسين كامل was the Sultan of Egypt and Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt after the establishment of the Ayyubid Dynasty of Saladin in 1174 until the Ottoman conquest 
Between 1882 and 1906, a local nationalist movement for independence, spurred by British actions, was taking shape. The Dinshaway Incident prompted Egyptian opposition to take a stronger stand against British occupation. Denshawai (AR دنشواي is an Egyptian village that witnessed the Denshawai Incident of 1906 The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The first political parties were founded. After the First World War, Saad Zaghlul and the Wafd Party led the Egyptian nationalist movement, gaining a majority at the local Legislative Assembly. Saad Zaghloul ( Arabic سعد زغلول; also Saad Zaghloul Sa'd Zaghloul Pasha ibn Ibrahim) ( 1859 - August 23 In post- World War I Egypt, the term wafd ( وفد) referred to a "delegation" and more specifically the one that had the direct goal Legislative Assembly is the name given in some countries to either a Legislature, or to one of its chambers. When the British exiled Zaghlul and his associates to Malta on March 8, 1919, the country arose in its first modern revolution. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands Events 1618 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 was a countrywide non-violent revolution against the British occupation of Egypt. Constant revolting by the Egyptian people throughout the country led Great Britain to issue a unilateral declaration of Egypt's independence on February 22, 1922. Events 1495 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 
The new Egyptian government drafted and implemented a new constitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary representative system. The 1923 Constitution was a previous working Constitution of Egypt during the period 1923-1952 A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which Saad Zaghlul was popularly-elected as Prime Minister of Egypt in 1924. The Prime Minister of Egypt ( Arabic: رئيس الوزراء المصرى, رئيس الحكومة is the head of the Egyptian government In 1936 the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty was concluded. The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 was a treaty signed in 1936, between the United Kingdom and Egypt, officially (but seldom known as The Treaty of Continued instability in the government due to remaining British control and increasing political involvement by the king led to the ouster of the monarchy and the dissolution of the parliament in a military coup d'état known as the 1952 Revolution. The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 (ثورة 23 يوليو 1952 also known as the July 23 Revolution, began with a military Coup d'état that took place on The officers, known as the Free Officers Movement, forced King Farouk to abdicate in support of his son Fuad. In Egypt, the clandestine revolutionary Free Officers Movement (Arabic حركة الضباط الأحرار was composed of young junior army officers committed to unseating Farouk I of Egypt ( Arabic: فاروق الأول Fārūq al-Awwal) (February 11 1920 &ndash March 18 1965 was the tenth ruler from the Muhammad Fuad II King of Egypt and the Sudan – (الملك فؤاد الثاني – was born prince Ahmad Fuad on 16 January, 1952.
On 18 June 1953, the Egyptian Republic was declared, with General Muhammad Naguib as the first President of the Republic. Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Muhammad Naguib (محمد نجيب) (born 20 February, 1901 &ndash 29 August, 1984) was the first President of Egypt, serving Naguib was forced to resign in 1954 by Gamal Abdel Nasser – the real architect of the 1952 movement – and was later put under house arrest. Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President In Justice and Law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or electronic monitoring) is a measure by which Nasser assumed power as President and declared the full independence of Egypt from the United Kingdom on June 18, 1956. Political power ( Imperium in Latin is a type of power held by a group in a Society which allows administration of some or all of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. His nationalization of the Suez Canal on July 26, 1956 prompted the 1956 Suez Crisis. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation Events 657 - Battle of Siffin. 811 - Battle of Pliska; Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, (أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي Crise du canal de Suez מבצע קדש Kadesh
Three years after the 1967 Six Day War, during which Israel had invaded and occupied Sinai, Nasser died and was succeeded by Anwar Sadat. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء Sadat switched Egypt's Cold War allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States, expelling Soviet advisors in 1972. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the He launched the Infitah economic reform policy, while violently clamping down on religious and secular opposition alike. Infitah ( Arabic: إنفتاح is an Arabic word meaning "open door" and refers to Egyptian President Anwar Sadat
In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched the October War, a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights. The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War (מלחמת יום הכיפורים transliterated: Milkhemet Yom HaKipurim or מלחמת יום Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous It was an attempt to liberate the territory Israel had captured 6 years earlier. Both the US and the USSR intervened and a cease-fire was reached. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 A ceasefire (or truce) is a temporary stoppage of a War or any Armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees Despite not being a complete military success, most historians agree that the October War presented Sadat with a political victory that later allowed him to regain the Sinai in return with peace with Israel. The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War (מלחמת יום הכיפורים transliterated: Milkhemet Yom HaKipurim or מלחמת יום
Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in 1977, which led to the 1979 peace treaty in exchange for the complete Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Sadat's initiative sparked enormous controversy in the Arab world and led to Egypt's expulsion from the Arab League, but it was supported by the vast majority of Egyptians.  A fundamentalist military soldier assassinated Sadat in Cairo in 1981. He was succeeded by the incumbent Hosni Mubarak. In 2003, the Egyptian Movement for Change, popularly known as Kefaya, was launched to seek a return to democracy and greater civil liberties. Kefaya (Arabic كفاية Egyptian Arabic for “Enough!” is the unofficial Moniker of the Egyptian Movement for Change (Arabic الحركة المصرية Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government.
The Egyptian Nile Valley was home to one of the oldest cultures in the world, spanning three thousand years of continuous history. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now When Egypt fell under a series of foreign occupations after 343 BC, each left an indelible mark on the country's cultural landscape. The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history as a unified state of any country in the world The Culture of Egypt has five thousand years of recorded history Egyptian identity evolved in the span of this long period of occupation to accommodate, in principle, two new religions, Christianity and Islam; and a new language, Arabic, and its spoken descendant, Egyptian Arabic. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language The degree to which Egyptians identify with each layer of Egypt's history in articulating a sense of collective identity can vary. A collective identity refers to individuals' sense of belonging to a group (the Collective) Questions of identity came to fore in the last century as Egypt sought to free itself from foreign occupation for the first time in two thousand years. Three chief ideologies came to head: ethno-territorial Egyptian nationalism, secular Arab nationalism and pan-Arabism, and Islamism. Arab nationalism ( Arabic: القومية العربية is a Nationalist ideology which rose to prominence amongst Arabs from the early 20th century onwards Pan-Arabism is a movement for Unification among the peoples and countries of the Arab World, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only Egyptian nationalism predates its Arab counterpart by many decades, having roots in the nineteenth century and becoming the dominant mode of expression of Egyptian anti-colonial activists and intellectuals until the early 20th century.  Arab nationalism reached a peak under Nasser but was once again relegated under Sadat; meanwhile, the ideology espoused by radical muslim groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood is present in small segments of the lower-middle strata of Egyptian society . Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President The Muslim Brothers ( Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان 
At 1,001,450 square kilometers (386,660 sq mi), Egypt is the world's 38th-largest country (after Mauritania). The Geography of Egypt can be split into two general sections The Farafra Oasis White Desert) ???? source??? --> (الفرافرة is the smallest Oasis located in Western Egypt Mauritania (موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country It is comparable in size to Tanzania, twice the size of France, four times the size of the United Kingdom, and is more than half the size of the US state of Alaska. Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent
Nevertheless, due to the aridity of Egypt's climate, population centres are concentrated along the narrow Nile Valley and Delta, meaning that approximately 99% of the population uses only about 5. 5% of the total land area. 
Egypt is bordered by Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. The Gaza Strip (قطاع غزة, רצועת עזה Retzu'at 'Azza) is a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt on the south-west For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Egypt's important role in geopolitics stems from its strategic position: a transcontinental nation, it possesses a land bridge (the Isthmus of Suez) between Africa and Asia, which in turn is traversed by a navigable waterway (the Suez Canal) that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea. This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent, sometimes referred to as transcontinental states. The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia.
Apart from the Nile Valley, the majority of Egypt's landscape is a sandy desert. The winds blowing can create sand dunes more than 100 feet (30 m) high. In physical Geography, a dune is a Hill of Sand built by Aeolian processes. Egypt includes parts of the Sahara Desert and of the Libyan Desert. The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest The Libyan Desert (24 degrees North 25 degrees East (الصحراء الليبية is an African Desert that is located in the northern and eastern part of the These deserts were referred to as the "red land" in ancient Egypt, and they protected the Kingdom of the Pharaohs from western threats.
Towns and cities include Alexandria, one of the greatest ancient cities, Aswan, Asyut, Cairo, the modern Egyptian capital, El-Mahalla El-Kubra, Giza, the site of the Pyramid of Khufu, Hurghada, Luxor, Kom Ombo, Port Safaga, Port Said, Sharm el Sheikh, Suez, where the Suez Canal is located, Zagazig, and Al-Minya. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Aswan (formerly spelled Assuan (in standard أسوان Aswān) Egyptian: Swenet ( trade) Coptic: Swān; Greek Lycopolis and Lykopolis redirect here for the ancient city bearing those names located in the delta of the Nile see Lycopolis (Delta Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. El-Mahalla El-Kubra ( Arabic: المحلة الكبرى is a large industrial and agricultural city in Egypt, located in the middle of the Nile Delta on You may have been looking for the Great Pyramid of Giza. For the three pyramids of Giza visit the Giza pyramid complex. Hurghada ( ar: Al Ghardaqah, الغردقة is an Egyptian City and a tourist center on the Red Sea. Luxor (in Arabic: الأقصر al-Uqṣur) is a city in Upper (southern Egypt and the capital of Luxor Kom Ombo (كوم أمبو ( Coptic: Embo; Greek: Omboi, Ptol iv Port Safaga, also known as Bur Safaga and Safaga (سفاجا is a town in Egypt, on the coast of the Red Sea, located 53 Km Port Said ( Arabic بورسعيد transliterated Būr Saʻīd) is a northeastern Egyptian city near the Suez Sharm el Sheikh (شرم الشيخ Sharm al-Shaykh) often known simply as "Sharm" is a city situated on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in Suez (السويس) is a Seaport town (population ca 497000 in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez, near the southern Zagazig ( Zakazik, Arabic الزقازيق az-Zaqāzīq colloquial zaʔaziːʔ or zaɡaziːɡ is a town of Lower Egypt, in the eastern part Minya is the capital of Minya Governorate in Egypt. The name of the city is derived from its Egyptian name Men'at Oases include Bahariya, el Dakhla, Farafra, el Kharga and Siwa. In Geography, an oasis (plural oases) or Cienega ( Southwestern United States) is an isolated area of vegetation in a Desert, typically El-Waha el-Bahariya or Bahariya ( Arabic: الواحة البحرية meaning the "northern oasis" is an Oasis in Egypt. Dakhla Oasis ( Arabic الداخلة al-Dākhla; BGN: Al Wāḩāt ad Dākhilah) also called the "inner oasis" is The Farafra Oasis White Desert) ???? source??? --> (الفرافرة is the smallest Oasis located in Western Egypt El-Kharga' (meaning the outer oasis ( Arabic الخارجة is the southernmost of Egypt 's five western oases. The Siwa Oasis (واحة سيوة Wāḥat Sīwah, from Berber Siwa "prey bird protector of the sun god Amon-Ra Protectorates include Ras Mohamed National Park, Zaranik Protectorate and Siwa. In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect See Egyptian Protectorates for more information. Law 102 of 1983 empowered the Prime Minister to designate certain areas to be declared as protectorates
Egypt does not receive much rainfall except in the winter months. In Computer graphics, a raster graphics image or bitmap, is a Data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of Pixels The Map Library should not be confused with the Map Library of The British Museum. South of Cairo, rainfall averages only around 2 to 5 mm (0. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. In Mathematics, an average, or central tendency of a Data set refers to a measure of the "middle" or " expected " value of 1 to 0. 2 in) per year and at intervals of many years. A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the Orbit of the Earth around the Sun On a very thin strip of the northern coast the rainfall can be as high as 410 mm (16 in), with most of the rainfall between October and March. Snow falls on Sinai's mountains and some of the north coastal cities such as Damietta, Baltim, Sidi Barrany, etc. The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the Ocean. and rarely in Alexandria, frost is also known in mid-Sinai and mid-Egypt.
Temperatures average between 80 °F (27 °C) and 90 °F (32 °C) in summer, and up to 109 °F (43 °C) on the Red Sea coast. The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the Ocean. Temperatures average between 55 °F (13 °C) and 70 °F (21 °C) in winter. A steady wind from the northwest helps hold down the temperature near the Mediterranean coast. The Khamaseen is a wind that blows from the south in Egypt in spring, bringing sand and dust, and sometimes raises the temperature in the desert to more than 100 °F (38 °C). Khamsin, khamseen, chamsin or hamsin ( Egyptian Arabic: خمسين khamsīn, "fifty" also known as khamaseen A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation.
The rise in sea levels due to global warming threatens Egypt’s densely populated coastal strip and could have grave consequences for the country’s economy, agriculture and industry. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Combined with growing demographic pressures, a rise in sea levels could turn millions of Egyptians into environmental refugees by the end of the century, according to climate experts. A Climate refugee is a Displaced person caused by Climate change induced Environmental disasters Such disasters are evidence of human-influenced ecological 
Egypt has been a republic since 18 June 1953. Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak has been the President of the Republic since October 14, 1981, following the assassination of former-President Mohammed Anwar El-Sadat. The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the elected Head of State of Egypt. Events 1066 - Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings - In England on Senlac Hill seven miles from Hastings, the forces Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Mubarak is currently serving his fifth term in office. He is the leader of the ruling National Democratic Party. The National Democratic Party ( Arabic:الحزب الوطنى الديمقراطى often simply الحزب الوطني--the "National Party" or "Nationalist Prime Minister Dr. This page lists the holders of the office of Prime Minister of Egypt. Ahmed Nazif was sworn in as Prime Minister on 9 July 2004, following the resignation of Dr. Dr Ahmed Nazif ( أحمد نظيف) (born July 8 1952 in Alexandria) has served as the Prime Minister of Egypt since 14 July Events 455 - Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Atef Ebeid from his office. Dr Atef Muhammad Ebeid (عاطف محمد عبيد (born 14 April, 1932) was the Prime Minister of Egypt from October 1999 to July 2004
Although power is ostensibly organized under a multi-party semi-presidential system, whereby the executive power is theoretically divided between the President and the Prime Minister, in practice it rests almost solely with the President who traditionally has been elected in single-candidate elections for more than fifty years. A multi-party system is a system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition The semi-presidential system is a System of government in which a prime minister and a President are both active participants in the day-to-day administration The Prime Minister of Egypt ( Arabic: رئيس الوزراء المصرى, رئيس الحكومة is the head of the Egyptian government Egypt also holds regular multi-party parliamentary elections. The last presidential election, in which Mubarak won a fifth consecutive term, was held in September 2005. The Egyptian presidential election of 2005, held on September 7, 2005, was the first allegedly contested presidential election in Egypt 's history
In late February 2005, President Mubarak announced in a surprise television broadcast that he had ordered the reform of the country's presidential election law, paving the way for multi-candidate polls in the upcoming presidential election. For the first time since the 1952 movement, the Egyptian people had an apparent chance to elect a leader from a list of various candidates. In Egypt, the clandestine revolutionary Free Officers Movement (Arabic حركة الضباط الأحرار was composed of young junior army officers committed to unseating The President said his initiative came "out of my full conviction of the need to consolidate efforts for more freedom and democracy. " However, the new law placed draconian restrictions on the filing for presidential candidacies, designed to prevent well-known candidates such as Ayman Nour from standing against Mubarak, and paved the road for his easy re-election victory. Ayman Abd El Aziz Nour (أيمن عبد العزيز نور (born 10 October 1964) is an Egyptian Politician, a former member of that country's  Concerns were once again expressed after the 2005 presidential elections about government interference in the election process through fraud and vote-rigging, in addition to police brutality and violence by pro-Mubarak supporters against opposition demonstrators.  After the election, Egypt imprisoned Nour, and the U. S. Government stated the “conviction of Mr. Nour, the runner-up in Egypt's 2005 presidential elections, calls into question Egypt's commitment to democracy, freedom, and the rule of law. ”
As a result, most Egyptians are skeptical about the process of democratization and the role of the elections. Democratization ( British English: Democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic Political regime. Less than 25 percent of the country's 32 million registered voters (out of a population of more than 78 million) turned out for the 2005 elections.  A proposed change to the constitution would limit the president to two seven-year terms in office. 
Thirty-four constitutional changes voted on by parliament on March 19, 2007 prohibit parties from using religion as a basis for political activity; allow the drafting of a new anti-terrorism law to replace the emergency legislation in place since 1981, giving police wide powers of arrest and surveillance; give the president power to dissolve parliament; and end judicial monitoring of election. Events 1279 - A Mongolian victory in the Battle of Yamen ends the Song Dynasty in China. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.  As opposition members of parliament withdrew from voting on the proposed changes, it was expected that the referendum would be boycotted by a great number of Egyptians in protest of what has been considered a breach of democratic practices. Eventually it was reported that only 27% of the registered voters went to the polling stations under heavy police presence and tight political control of the ruling National Democratic Party. It was officially announced on March 27,2007 that 75. 9% of those who participated in the referendum approved of the constitutional amendments introduced by President Mubarak and was endorsed by opposition free parliament, thus allowing the introduction of laws that curb the activity of certain opposition elements, particularly Islamists.
Several local and international human rights organizations, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, have for many years criticized Egypt's human rights record as poor. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to Human Rights Watch is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Human rights. In 2005, President Hosni Mubarak faced unprecedented public criticism when he clamped down on democracy activists challenging his rule. Kefaya (Arabic كفاية Egyptian Arabic for “Enough!” is the unofficial Moniker of the Egyptian Movement for Change (Arabic الحركة المصرية Some of the most serious human rights violations, according to HRW's 2006 report on Egypt, are routine torture, arbitrary detentions and trials before military and state security courts. 
Discriminatory personal status laws governing marriage, divorce, custody and inheritance which put women at a disadvantage have also been cited. Laws concerning Coptic Christians which place restrictions on church building and open worship have been recently eased, but major construction still requires governmental approval, while sporadic attacks on Christians and churches continue. A Copt ( Coptic: ouRemenkīmi enEkhristianos, literally Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth  Intolerance of Bahá'ís and unorthodox Muslim sects, such as Sufis and Shi'a, also remains a problem. The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف  The Egyptian legal system only recognizes three religions: Islam, Christianity and Judaism. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut When the government moved to computerize identification cards, members of religious minorities, such as Bahá'ís, could not obtain identification documents. The Egyptian identification card controversy resulted from a ruling of the Supreme Administrative Council of Egypt on December 16, 2006 against the  An Egyptian court ruled in early 2008 that members of other faiths can obtain identity cards without listing their faiths, and without becoming officially recognized.  (For more on the status of religious minorities, see the Religion section. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. )
In 2005, the Freedom House rated political rights in Egypt as "6" (1 representing the most free and 7 the least free rating), civil liberties as "5" and gave it the freedom rating of "Not Free. Freedom House is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Democracy, political A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government. " It however noted that "Egypt witnessed its most transparent and competitive presidential and legislative elections in more than half a century and an increasingly unbridled public debate on the country's political future in 2005. "
In 2007, human rights group Amnesty International released a report criticizing Egypt for torture and illegal detention. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally The report alleges that Egypt has become an international center for torture, where other nations send suspects for interrogation, often as part of the War on Terror. The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military political and legal, and ideological conflict and specifically for U The report calls on Egypt to bring its anti-terrorism laws into accordance with international human rights statutes and on other nations to stop sending their detainees to Egypt. Anti-terrorism legislation designs all types of Laws passed in the purported aim of fighting Terrorism.  Egypt's foreign ministry quickly issued a rebuttal to this report, claiming that it was inaccurate and unfair, as well as causing deep offense to the Egyptian government. 
Consensual homosexual conduct between adults is criminalized under Egyptian law as a "practice of debauchery". Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation.  Since 2001, Egyptian authorities have made hundreds of arbitrary arrests of young gay men, many of whom have been tried and convicted for acts of "debauchery", while hundreds of others have been harassed and tortured, according to HRW. In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality.  In February 2008, a new round of arrests and torture of HIV-positive citizens followed a man's admission to the police that he was HIV-positive, sparking international outcry that the Egyptian government was treating the AIDS disease as a homosexual "crime" instead of providing care, prevention and education. Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 
The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights (EOHR) is one of the longest-standing bodies for the defence of human rights in Egypt. Rights and liberties ratings Freedom House places Egypt's political rights at 6 civil liberties at 5 and an average of 5  In 2003, the government established the National Council for Human Rights, headquartered in Cairo and headed by former UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali who directly reports to the president. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. Boutros Boutros-Ghali ( Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي Coptic: Ⲃⲟⲩⲧⲣⲟⲥ Ⲃⲟⲩⲧⲣⲟⲥ Ⲅⲁⲗⲏ (born November 14, 1922  The council has come under heavy criticism by local NGO activists, who contend it undermines human rights work in Egypt by serving as a propaganda tool for the government to excuse its violations and to provide legitimacy to repressive laws such as the recently renewed Emergency Law.  Egypt had announced in 2006 that it was in the process of abolishing the Emergency Law, but in March 2007 President Mubarak approved several constitutional amendments to include "an anti-terrorism clause that appears to enshrine sweeping police powers of arrest and surveillance", suggesting that the Emergency Law is here to stay for the long haul. 
Egypt's foreign policy operates along moderate lines. Egypt's foreign policy operates along a non-aligned level Factors such as population size historical events military strength diplomatic expertise and a strategic geographical position Factors such as population size, historical events, military strength, diplomatic expertise and a strategic geographical position give Egypt extensive political influence in Africa and the Middle East. In Population genetics and Population ecology, population size (usually denoted N) is the number of individual Organisms in a Population The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Cairo has been a crossroads of regional commerce and culture for centuries, and its intellectual and Islamic institutions are at the center of the region's social and cultural development. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Sociocultural evolution(ism is an umbrella term for theories of cultural evolution and Social evolution, describing how Cultures and societies
The permanent Headquarters of the Arab League are located in Cairo and the Secretary General of the Arab League has traditionally been an Egyptian. The headquarters of the Arab League are located near the central business district of Cairo, Egypt. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Former Egyptian Foreign Minister Amr Moussa is the current Secretary General. Amr Moussa (عمرو موسى (born 1936 has been the current Secretary-General of the League of Arab States since his election to the position in May 2001 The Arab League briefly moved from Egypt to Tunis in 1978, as a protest to the signing by Egypt of a peace treaty with Israel, but returned in 1989.
Egypt was the first Arab state to establish diplomatic relations with Israel, with the signing of the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty in 1979. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Egypt has a major influence amongst other Arab states, and has historically played an important role as a mediator in resolving disputes between various Arab states, and in the Israeli-Palestinian dispute. Most Arab states still give credence to Egypt playing that role, though its effects are often limited and recently challenged by Saudi Arabia and oil rich Gulf States. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are made of the kingdoms of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, the Sultanate of Oman, the States It is also reported that due to Egypt's indulgence in internal problems and its reluctance to play a positive role in regional matters had lost the country great influence in Africa and the neighbouring countries.
Former Egyptian Deputy Prime Minister Boutros Boutros-Ghali served as Secretary General of the United Nations from 1991 to 1996. A Deputy Prime Minister or Vice Prime Minister is in some countries a government minister who can take the position of acting Prime Minister when the Boutros Boutros-Ghali ( Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي Coptic: Ⲃⲟⲩⲧⲣⲟⲥ Ⲃⲟⲩⲧⲣⲟⲥ Ⲅⲁⲗⲏ (born November 14, 1922 The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
Egypt is divided into 28 governorates (in Arabic, called muhafazat, singular muhafazah). A Governorate is an Administrative division of a country It is headed by a Governor. The Arabic word muhafazah (محافظة muḥāfaẓä plural محافظات muhafazat) is usually translated to Governorate in English occasionally to The governorates are further divided into regions (markazes).
Each governorate has a capital, often having the same name as the governorate (see map, showing names of the 28 capitals).
The tables (below) list the governorates in alphabetical order. In April 2008, Cairo and Giza have divided to 4 governorates, the new governorates are 6th of October and Helwan beside Cairo and Giza
Egypt's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum exports, and tourism; there are also more than three million Egyptians working abroad, mainly in Saudi Arabia, the Persian Gulf and Europe. Alexandria governorate ( الإسكندرية) is one of the governorates of Egypt, located in the north of the country lying directly on the Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Aswan Governorate (أسوان is one of the Governorates of Egypt. Aswan (formerly spelled Assuan (in standard أسوان Aswān) Egyptian: Swenet ( trade) Coptic: Swān; Greek Asyut Governorate (أسيوط is one of the governorates of Egypt. Lycopolis and Lykopolis redirect here for the ancient city bearing those names located in the delta of the Nile see Lycopolis (Delta Beheira Governorate ( Arabic: البحيرة, el-Beheirah; 'the Lake' is a coastal governorates in Egypt. Damanhur ( Egyptian: Dmỉ-n-Ḥrw ("Village of Horus " Coptic:; Arabic: دمنهور or Hermopolis Mikra Beni Suef ( بني سويف) is one of the governorates of Egypt. Beni Suef, also spelled Bani Suwayf, Beni Sueif, Beni Swaif, Beni Sweif, Beni Suaif, and Beni Suef ( Coptic Cairo Governorate (القاهرة is one of the governorates of Egypt. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Dakahlia governorate (الدقهلية is an Egyptian governorate lying northeast of Cairo. El Mansurah (also spelled as Mansoura; Arabic: المنصورة) is a city in Egypt, with a population of 420000 Damietta Governorate or Domyat ( دمياط) is one of the governorates of Egypt. Damietta, Damiata, or Domyat (دمياط is a port and the capital of the governorate of Domyat, Egypt. Faiyum Governorate ( Arabic: محافظة الفيوم from Coptic: Efiom, meaning the Sea) is one of the governorates of Egypt Faiyum ( Arabic: الفيوم Coptic:) is a city in Middle Egypt and the capital of the Faiyum Governorate. Gharbia Governorate (الغربية is one of the governorates of Egypt. Tanta ( Arabic: طنطا) is an Egyptian town with an estimated 429000 inhabitants (2008 Giza Governorate (الجيزة is one of the governorates of Egypt. You may have been looking for the Great Pyramid of Giza. For the three pyramids of Giza visit the Giza pyramid complex. Helwan, also spelled Hilwan or Hulwan or Holwan, is a place in Egypt on the bank of the Nile river opposite the ruins of Memphis Helwan, also spelled Hilwan or Hulwan or Holwan, is a place in Egypt on the bank of the Nile river opposite the ruins of Memphis Ismailia Governorate (الإسماعيلية is one of the governorates of Egypt. Ismaïlia (الإسماعيلية is the Capital of Al Isma'iliyah Governorate. Kafr el-Sheikh Governorate ( كفر الشيخ) is one of the governorates of Egypt. Kafr el-Sheikh (كفر الشيخ is the capital of Kafr el-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, about 134 km north of Cairo in the Nile Delta Luxor Governorate ( الأقصر) is one of the governorates of Egypt. Luxor (in Arabic: الأقصر al-Uqṣur) is a city in Upper (southern Egypt and the capital of Luxor Matruh ( Arabic: مطروح) is one of the governorates of Egypt. Marsa Matruh ( Arabic مرسى مطروح Maṭrūḥ (known in Ptolemaic and Byzantine times as Paraitonion (Παραιτόνιον and Minya Governorate ( محافظة المنيا) is one of the governorates of Upper Egypt. Minya is the capital of Minya Governorate in Egypt. The name of the city is derived from its Egyptian name Men'at Monufia Governorate ( المنوفية) is one of the principal governorates of Egypt. Shibin el Kom ( Arabic: شبين الكوم is a city in Lower Egypt and the capital of the Monufia Governorate. The New Valley Governorate (الوادى الجديد is one of the governorates of Egypt. El-Kharga' (meaning the outer oasis ( Arabic الخارجة is the southernmost of Egypt 's five western oases. North Sinai Governorate (شمال سيناء Shamal Sina) is one of the governorates of Egypt. Arish or el-Arīsh (العريش is the Capital and largest city (with 114900 inhabitants As of 2002) of the Egyptian governorate of Shamal Port Said Governorate ( محافظة بور سعيد) is one of the governorates of Egypt. Port Said ( Arabic بورسعيد transliterated Būr Saʻīd) is a northeastern Egyptian city near the Suez Qalyubia Governorate ( القليوبية) is one of the governorates of Egypt. Banha (also spelled Benha) ( بنها) is a city in northeastern Egypt, also the capital of the Qalyubia Governorate. Qena Governorate ( قنا) is one of the governorates of Egypt. Qena ( قنا) is a city in Upper Egypt, and the capital of the Qena Governorate. Red Sea Governorate ( Arabic: البحر الأحمر "El Bahr El Ahmar" is one of the governorates of Egypt. Hurghada ( ar: Al Ghardaqah, الغردقة is an Egyptian City and a tourist center on the Red Sea. "Sharqia" redirects here For the region of Oman see Ash Sharqiyah. Zagazig ( Zakazik, Arabic الزقازيق az-Zaqāzīq colloquial zaʔaziːʔ or zaɡaziːɡ is a town of Lower Egypt, in the eastern part Sohag Governorate ( Arabic: محافظة سوهاج is one of the governorates of Egypt. Sohag ( سوهاج) is the capital of Sohag Governorate in Egypt. South Sinai Governorate ( Arabic: جنوب سيناء) is one of the governorates of Egypt. El-Tor (الطور) also known as Tur Sinai, formerly Raithu, is the capital of Janub Sina' governorate of Egypt, located at Suez Governorate ( Arabic: محافظة السويس) is one of the governorates of Egypt. Suez (السويس) is a Seaport town (population ca 497000 in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez, near the southern Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley where most economic activity takes place Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. Aswan (Assuan is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. Lake Nasser ( Arabic: بحيرة ناصر transliterated: Buhayrat Nasir is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture A rapidly-growing population, limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress the economy. In Geography, arable land (from Latin arare, to Plough) is an agricultural term meaning land that can be used for
The government has struggled to prepare the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investments in communications and physical infrastructure. Egypt has been receiving U. S. foreign aid (since 1979, an average of $2. Aid (from the french word aide, also known as international aid, overseas aid, or foreign aid, especially in the United States) is 2 billion per year) and is the third-largest recipient of such funds from the United States following the Iraq war. Its main revenues however come from tourism as well as traffic that goes through the Suez Canal. The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation
Egypt has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas, and hydro power. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the Force or Energy of moving water which may Substantial coal deposits are in the north-east Sinai, and are mined at the rate of about 600,000 tonnes (590,000 LT/660,000 ST) per year. This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. The short ton ( S/T) is a unit of mass equal to 2000 lb (around 907 Oil and gas are produced in the western desert regions, the Gulf of Suez, and the Nile Delta. Egypt has huge reserves of gas, estimated at over 1,100,000 cubic meters (39,000,000 cu ft) in the 1990s, and LNG is exported to many countries. CM3 redirects here If you were looking for the 3rd game in the Cooking Mama series abbreviated as CM3 see here. The cubic foot is an imperial and US customary (non- metric) unit of Volume, used in the United States Canada and the United Kingdom
Economic conditions have started to improve considerably after a period of stagnation from the adoption of more liberal economic policies by the government, as well as increased revenues from tourism and a booming stock market. A stock market, or (equity market is a private or public market for the trading of company Stock and derivatives of company In its annual report, the IMF has rated Egypt as one of the top countries in the world undertaking economic reforms. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic Some major economic reforms taken by the new government since 2003 include a dramatic slashing of customs and tariffs. A new taxation law implemented in 2005 decreased corporate taxes from 40% to the current 20%, resulting in a stated 100% increase in tax revenue by the year 2006. "Tax code" redirects here For the term as used in the United Kingdom PAYE system see Tax code (PAYE. Tax revenue is the Income that is gained by Governments because of Taxation of the people
FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) into Egypt has increased considerably in the past few years due to the recent economic liberalization measures taken by minister of investment Mahmoud Mohieddin, exceeding $6 billion in 2006. Foreign direct investment ( FDI) in its classic definition is defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory in another country Economic liberalism is the Economic component of Classical liberalism. Egypt is slated to overcome South Africa as the highest earner of FDI on the African continent in 2007. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Although one of the main obstacles still facing the Egyptian economy is the trickle down of the wealth to the average population, many Egyptians criticize their government for higher prices of basic goods while their standards of living or purchasing power remains relatively stagnant. The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these goods and services are distributed within a population Often corruption is blamed by Egyptians as the main impediment to feeling the benefits of the newly attained wealth. Major reconstruction of the country's infrastructure is promised by the government, with a large portion of the sum paid for the newly acquired 3rd mobile license ($3 billion) by Etisalat. This is slated to be pumped into the country's railroad system, in response to public outrage against the government for disasters in 2006 that claimed more than 100 lives.
The best known examples of Egyptian companies that have expanded regionally and globally are the Orascom Group and Raya. Orascom is an Egyptian business group It holds a portfolio of business activities ranging from contracting to railways and navigation services to manufacturing The IT sector has been expanding rapidly in the past few years, with many new start-ups conducting outsourcing business to North America and Europe, operating with companies such as Microsoft, Oracle and other major corporations, as well as numerous SME's. Some of these companies are the Xceed Contact Center, Raya Contact Center, E Group Connections and C3 along with other start ups in that country. The sector has been stimulated by new Egyptian entrepreneurs trying to capitalize on their country's huge potential in the sector, as well as constant government encouragement.
Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East and the second-most populous on the African continent, with an estimated 78 million people. Egypt is the most populous country in the Middle East and the second-most populous on the African continent This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Almost all the population is concentrated along the banks of the Nile (notably Cairo and Alexandria), in the Delta and near the Suez Canal. The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation Approximately 80-90% of the population adheres to Islam and most of the remainder to Christianity, primarily the Coptic Orthodox denomination. The republic of Egypt has recognized Islam as the State religion since 1980 History of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Apostolic foundation Egypt is identified in the Bible as the place of refuge that the  Apart from religious affiliation, Egyptians can be divided demographically into those who live in the major urban centers and the fellahin or farmers of rural villages. Fellah (فلاح (plural Fellahin, فلاحين is a Peasant, farmer or agricultural laborer in the Middle East. The last 40 years have seen a rapid increase in population due to medical advances and massive increase in agricultural productivity, made by the Green Revolution. All human societies have medical beliefs that provide explanations for birth, Death, and Disease. The Green Revolution refers to the transformation of Agriculture that began in 1945 at the request of the Mexican government to establish an agricultural research station to 
Egyptians are by far the largest ethnic group in Egypt at 94% (about 72. This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group 5 million) of the total population.  Ethnic minorities include the Bedouin Arab tribes living in the eastern deserts and the Sinai Peninsula, the Berber-speaking Siwis (Amazigh) of the Siwa Oasis, and the ancient Nubian communities clustered along the Nile. The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (ar بدوي pl badū) are a desert-dwelling Arab Nomadic pastoralist, or previously The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء Nomenclature The term Berber has been used in Europe since at least the 17th century and is still used today The Siwis are a Berber ethnic group living in the Siwa Oasis. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. The Siwa Oasis (واحة سيوة Wāḥat Sīwah, from Berber Siwa "prey bird protector of the sun god Amon-Ra The Nubians (Arabic نوبي Nuubi are an ethnic group originally from northern Sudan, now inhabiting East Africa and some parts of Northeast Africa in southern Egypt There are also tribal communities of Beja concentrated in the south-eastern-most corner of the country, and a number of Dom clans mostly in the Nile Delta and Faiyum who are progressively becoming assimilated as urbanization increases. The Beja (البيجا are an ethnic group dwelling in parts of North Africa and the Horn of Africa. The Dom (or Domi (دومي or دومري of the Middle East are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group Faiyum ( Arabic: الفيوم Coptic:) is a city in Middle Egypt and the capital of the Faiyum Governorate.
Egypt also hosts an unknown number of refugees and asylum seekers, but they are estimated to be between 500,000 and 3 million. According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race  There are some 70,000 Palestinian refugees, and about 150,000 recently arrived Iraqi refugees, but the number of the largest group, the Sudanese, is contested. Throughout the past 100 years there have been a growing number of Refugees fleeing Iraq and settling throughout the world peaking recently with the latest Iraq War There are tens of thousands of Sudanese refugees in Egypt, most of them seeking refuge from ongoing military conflicts in their home country of Sudan.  The once-vibrant Jewish community in Egypt has virtually disappeared, with only a small number remaining in the country, but many Egyptian Jews visit on religious occasions and for tourism. Egyptian Jews constitute perhaps the oldest Jewish community outside Israel in the world Antisemitism in the Arab world|Islam and Antisemitism The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion or mass departure of Jews primarily of Sephardi Several important Jewish archaeological and historical sites are found in Cairo, Alexandria and other cities. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια
Religion plays a central role in most Egyptians' lives. Religion in Egypt controls many aspects of social life and is endorsed by law The rolling calls to prayer that are heard five times a day have the informal effect of regulating the pace of everything from business to entertainment. Adhan (also - Athaan IPA /ʔæðæːn/ ( أَذَان) is the Islamic call to Prayer, recited by the Muezzin. Cairo is famous for its numerous mosque minarets and church towers. For the mountain formation see Minarets (California. Minarets ( Arabic manara (lighthouse منارة but more usually مئذنة
Egypt is predominantly Muslim, at 80-90% of the population, with the majority being adherents of the Sunni branch of Islam. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic  A significant number of Muslim Egyptians also follow native Sufi orders, and there is a minority of Shi'a. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Tariqah ( ar طريقه; pl طرق; Ṭuruq or Persian: Tarighat, Turkish: Tarikat) means "way"
Christians represent 10-20% of the population, more than 95% of whom belong to the native Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. History of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Apostolic foundation Egypt is identified in the Bible as the place of refuge that the Other native Egyptian Christians are adherents of the Coptic Catholic Church, the Coptic Evangelical Church and various Coptic Protestant denominations. The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite Sui juris Particular Church in Full communion with the Pope of Rome rather The Evangelical Church of Egypt (Synod of the Nile, (in Arabic El-Kanisah El-Injiliyah, and sometimes referred to as the Coptic Evangelical Church of Egypt Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Non-native Christian communities are largely found in the urban regions of Alexandria and Cairo, and are members of the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Roman Catholic Church, the Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East, the Maronite Church, the Armenian Catholic Church, the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Syriac Catholic Church, or the Syriac Orthodox Church. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. The Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, also known as the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa ( Greek:) is one of the autocephalous Meaning of church name Melkite comes from the Syriac word malko for "imperial" which was originally a Pejorative term for Middle-Eastern The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայաստանեայց Առաքելական Եկեղեցի Hayasdaneaytz Arakelagan The Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East is a province of the Anglican Communion stretching from Iran in the east to Algeria in Maronites ( الموارنة,, Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Syriac (Refer to List of Armenian Catholic Patriarchs of Cilicia) The Armenian Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic church Sui juris within The Chaldean Catholic Church or the Chaldean Church of Babylon (الكنيسة الكلدانية) is an Eastern particular church of the The Syriac Catholic Church, or Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant having The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world
According to the Constitution of Egypt, any new legislation must at least implicitly agree with Islamic laws. The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the supreme law of Egypt. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. The mainstream Hanafi school of Sunni Islam is largely organised by the state, through Wizaret Al-Awkaf (Ministry of Religious Affairs). The Hanafi ( Arabic حنفي school is the oldest of the four schools of thought ( Madhhabs Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Al-Awkaf controls all mosques and overviews Muslim clerics. Imams are trained in Imam vocational schools and at Al-Azhar University. An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community Al-Azhar University (pronounced "az-HAR" الأزهر الشريف, "the Noble Azhar" in Egypt, founded in 975 is the chief centre of The department supports Sunni Islam and has commissions authorised to give Fatwa judgements on Islamic issues. A fatwā (فتوى plural fatāwā فتاوى in the Islamic faith is a religious opinion on Islamic law issued by an
Egypt hosts two major religious institutions. Al-Azhar University is the oldest Islamic institution of higher studies (founded around 970 A.D) and considered by many to be the oldest extant university. Al-Azhar University (pronounced "az-HAR" الأزهر الشريف, "the Noble Azhar" in Egypt, founded in 975 is the chief centre of For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, headed by the Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, attests to Egypt's strong Christian heritage. The Pope of The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, or Pope of Alexandria for short is the head of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria It has a following of approximately 15 million Christians worldwide; affiliated sister churches are located in Armenia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, India, Lebanon and Syria. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية
Religious freedom in Egypt is hampered to varying degrees by extremist Islamist groups and by discriminatory and restrictive government policies. Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only Being the largest religious minority in Egypt, Coptic Christians are the most negatively affected community. Copts have faced increasing marginalization after the 1952 coup d'état led by Gamal Abdel Nasser. A Copt ( Coptic: ouRemenkīmi enEkhristianos, literally Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President Until recently, Christians were required to obtain presidential approval for even minor repairs in churches. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Although the law was eased in 2005 by handing down the authority of approval to the governors, Copts continue to face many obstacles in building new or repairing existing churches. These obstacles are not found in building mosques. 
In addition, Copts complain of being minimally represented in law enforcement, state security and public office, and of being discriminated against in the workforce on the basis of their religion.  The Coptic community, as well as several human rights activists and intellectuals (such as Saad Eddin Ibrahim and Tarek Heggy), maintain that the number of Christians occupying government posts is not proportional to the number of Copts in Egypt, who constitute between 10 and 15% of the population in Egypt. Saad Eddin Ibrahim ( Arabic: سعد الدين ابراهيم (born December 3, 1938 in Bedeen Mansoura, Egypt) is an Egyptian Tarek Heggy (born October 12 1950 Port Said, Egypt) is an Egyptian liberal political thinker and international petroleum strategist Of the 32 cabinet ministers, two are Copts: Finance Minister Youssef Boutros Ghali and Minister of Environment Magued George; and of the 25 local governors, only one is a Copt (in the Upper Egyptian governorate of Qena). The Cabinet of Egypt (الحكومة المركزية (Al-Hokouma Al-Misreya is the chief executive body of the Arabic Republic of Egypt. Youssef Boutros Ghali ( يوسف بطرس غالي) has been the Minister of Finance in Egypt since 2004 Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر Sa'id Misr) is a narrow strip of land that extends from the cataract boundaries of modern-day Aswan to the area between Qena ( قنا) is a city in Upper Egypt, and the capital of the Qena Governorate. However, Copts have demonstrated great success in Egypt's private business sector; Naguib Sawiris, an extremely successful businessman and one of the world's wealthiest 100 people is a Copt. Naguib Sawiris ( 15 June 1954) (also Sawires Arabic: نجيب ساويرس) is an Egyptian Businessman. In 2002, under the Mubarak government, Coptic Christmas (January 7) was recognized as an official holiday.  Nevertheless, the Coptic community has occasionally been the target of hate crimes and physical assaults. The most significant was the 2000-2001 El Kosheh attacks , in which 21 Copts and one Muslim were killed. A 2006 attack on three churches in Alexandria left one dead and 17 injured, although the attacker was not linked to any organisation. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια 
Egypt was once home to one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world. Egyptian Jews, who were mostly Karaites, partook of all aspects of Egypt's social, economic and political life; one of the most ardent Egyptian nationalists, Yaqub Sanu' (Abu Naddara), was a Jew, as were famous musician Dawoud Husni, popular singer Leila Mourad, and prominent filmmaker Togo Mizrahi. Egyptian Jews constitute perhaps the oldest Jewish community outside Israel in the world Karaite Judaism or Karaism (ˈkærəˌaɪt ˈkærəˌɪzəm) is a Jewish movement NOTE The word sect should not be used without defining it first and Yaqub Sanu (1839-1912 also known as James Sanua was an Egyptian Jew born to an Egyptian mother and an Italian father Leila Mourad (ليلى مراد February 17, 1918 - November 21, 1995) was an Egyptian Singer. For a while, Jews from across the Ottoman Empire and Europe were attracted to Egypt due to the relative harmony that characterized the local religious landscape in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish After the 1956 Suez Crisis, a great number of Jews were expelled by Gamal Abdel Nasser, many of whom holding official Egyptian citizenship. The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, (أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي Crise du canal de Suez מבצע קדש Kadesh Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President Their Egyptian citizenship was revoked and their property was confiscated. A steady stream of migration of Egyptian Jews followed, reaching a peak after the Six-Day War with Israel in 1967. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt Today, Jews in Egypt number less than 100. 
Bahá'ís in Egypt, whose population is estimated to be a couple of thousands, have long been persecuted, having their institutions and community activities banned. The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind The persecution of Bahá'ís is the Religious persecution of Bahá'ís in various countries especially in Iran, where the Bahá'í Faith originated and Since their faith is not officially recognized by the state, they were not allowed to use it on their national identity cards; a court case in 2008 allowed Bahá'ís to obtain birth certificates and identification documents, so long as they omit their religion on court documents. The Egyptian identification card controversy resulted from a ruling of the Supreme Administrative Council of Egypt on December 16, 2006 against the 
There are Egyptians who identify as atheist and agnostic, but their numbers are largely unknown, as openly advocating such positions risks legal sanction on the basis of apostasy (if a citizen takes the step of suing the 'apostating' person, though not automatically by the general prosecutor). Atheism Agnosticism ( Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the In 2000, an openly atheist Egyptian writer, who called for the establishment of a local association for atheists, was tried on charges of insulting Islam in four of his books. 
While freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Egyptian constitution, according to Human Rights Watch, "Egyptians are able to convert to Islam generally without difficulty, but Muslims who convert to Christianity face difficulties in getting new identity papers and some have been arrested for allegedly forging such documents. Human Rights Watch is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Human rights.  The Coptic community, however, takes pains to prevent conversions from Christianity to Islam due to the ease with which Christians can often become Muslim.  Public officials, being conservative themselves, intensify the complexity of the legal procedures required to recognize the religion change as required by law. Security agencies will sometimes claim that such conversions from Islam to Christianity (or occasionally vice versa) may stir social unrest, and thereby justify themselves in wrongfully detaining the subjects, insisting that they are simply taking steps to prevent likely social troubles from happening. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings  In 2007, a Cairo administrative court denied 45 citizens the right to obtain identity papers documenting their reversion to Christianity after converting to Islam.  However, in February 2008 the Supreme Administrative Court overturned the decision, allowing 12 citizens who had reverted back to Christianity to re-list their religion on identity cards, but they will specify that they had adopted Islam for a brief period of time. 
Egyptian culture has five thousand years of recorded history. The Culture of Egypt has five thousand years of recorded history Recorded history can be defined as History that has been written down or recorded by the use of Language, whereas History is a more general term referring Ancient Egypt was among the earliest civilizations and for millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly complex and stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, Christianity, and Islamic culture. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Today, many aspects of Egypt's ancient culture exist in interaction with newer elements, including the influence of modern Western culture, itself with roots in ancient Egypt. Western culture (sometimes equated with Western Civilization) are terms which are used to refer to Cultures of European origin
Egypt's capital city, Cairo, is Africa's largest city and has been renowned for centuries as a center of learning, culture and commerce. Egypt has the highest number of Nobel Laureates in Africa and the Arab World. This is a list of Nobel Prize Laureates awarded for their outstanding contributions to Humanitarian causes for Peace, work in Literature Some Egyptian born politicians were or are currently at the helm of major international organizations like Boutros Boutros-Ghali of the United Nations and Mohamed ElBaradei of the IAEA. Boutros Boutros-Ghali ( Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي Coptic: Ⲃⲟⲩⲧⲣⲟⲥ Ⲃⲟⲩⲧⲣⲟⲥ Ⲅⲁⲗⲏ (born November 14, 1922 The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security DrMohamed Mostafa El-Baradei ( Arabic: محمد البرادعي transliteration) (born June 17, 1942, in Cairo, Egypt The International Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its
The work of early nineteenth-century scholar Rifa'a et-Tahtawi gave rise to the Egyptian Renaissance, marking the transition from Medieval to Early Modern Egypt. Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517 Egypt was always a difficult province for the Ottoman Sultans to control The History of modern Egypt conventionally begins with the French expedition led by Napoleon Bonaparte and Mohammed Ali 's subsequent assumption of power in 1801 His work renewed interest in Egyptian antiquity and exposed Egyptian society to Enlightenment principles. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Tahtawi co-founded with education reformer Ali Mubarak a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars, such as Suyuti and Maqrizi, who themselves studied the history, language and antiquities of Egypt. Ali Pasha Mubarak (1823-1893 CE) was an Egyptian Public works and Education minister during the second half of the nineteenth century Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek grc -λογία -logia. علم المصريات مصر شناسی is a major field of Archaeology TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Imam Jalaluddin Al-Suyuti (c Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364 &ndash 1442 Arabic: ar تقى الدين أحمد بن على بن عبد القادر بن محمد The History of Ancient Egypt spans the period from the early predynastic settlements of the northern Nile Valley to the Roman conquest in 30 Egyptian is an Afro-Asiatic language most closely related to the Berber, Semitic, Somali and Beja languages The Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential Civilizations which developed a vast array of diverse structures encompassing Ancient Egyptian  Egypt's renaissance peaked in the late 19th and early 20th centuries through the work of people like Muhammad Abduh, Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, Tawfiq el-Hakim, Louis Awad, Qasim Amin, Salama Moussa, Taha Hussein and Mahmoud Mokhtar. Muhammad Abduh (or Muhammad 'Abduh) (محمد عبده ( Nile Delta, 1849 - Alexandria, July 11 1905,) was an Egyptian Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed ( 15 January, 1872 -1963 was an Egyptian intellectual anti-colonial activist and a former rector of Cairo University. Tawfiq al-Hakim or Tawfik al-Hakim ( October 9, 1898 - July 26, 1987 ( توفيق الحكيم) was a prominent Egyptian Louis Awad (Arلويس عوض ( el-Minya, 1915 - 1990 was an Egyptian intellectual and writer Qasim Amin (1863-1908 was an Egyptian jurist and one of the founders of the Egyptian national movement and Cairo University. Salama Moussa (1887-1958 (Ar سلامه موسى was a notable Egyptian journalist and reformer in the 1920s Taha Hussein ( November 14, 1889 &mdash October 28, 1973) ( طه حسين) (nicknamed "the dean of Arabic literature"was Mahmoud Mokhtar (محمود مختار ( May 10 1891 - March 28 1934) was an Egyptian sculptor. They forged a liberal path for Egypt expressed as a commitment to individual freedom, secularism and faith in science to bring progress. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs 
The Egyptians were one of the first major civilizations to codify design elements in art and architecture. The wall paintings done in the service of the Pharaohs followed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings. Pharaoh is the title given in modern parlance to the ancient Egyptian kings of all periods Egyptian civilization is renowned for its colossal pyramids, colonnades and monumental tombs. In Classical architecture, a colonnade denotes a long sequence of Columns joined by their Entablature, often free-standing as in the famous elliptically Well-known examples are the Pyramid of Djoser designed by ancient architect and engineer Imhotep, the Sphinx, and the temple of Abu Simbel. The Pyramid of Djoser(Zoser, or step pyramid ( kbhw-ntrw in Egyptian) is an archeological remain in the Saqqara necropolis Egypt Imhotep (sometimes spelled Immutef, Im-hotep, or Ii-em-Hotep, circa ( fl A Sphinx is a Zoomorphic mythological figure which is depicted as a recumbent lion with a human head Abu Simbel ( أبو سنبل or ar '''أبو سمبل''' is an Archaeological site comprising two massive rock Temples in southern Egypt Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scene, from the vernacular architecture of Hassan Fathy and Ramses Wissa Wassef, to Mahmoud Mokhtar's famous sculptures, to the distinctive Coptic iconography of Isaac Fanous. Hassan Fathy (1900 &ndash 1989 Arabic: حسن فتحي was a noted Egyptian architect who pioneered Appropriate technology for building in Ramses Wissa Wassef ( November 9 1911 in Cairo, Egypt - 1974 was a famous Egyptian architect and designer and a professor of Mahmoud Mokhtar (محمود مختار ( May 10 1891 - March 28 1934) was an Egyptian sculptor. Coptic art is a term used either for the art of Egypt produced in the early Christian era or for the art produced by the Coptic Christians themselves Isaac Fanous (ايزاك فانوس ( December 19, 1919 &ndash January 14, 2007) was an Egyptian artist and scholar who specialized
The Cairo Opera House serves as the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital. This article refers to the Cairo Opera House built in 1988 For its predecessor see Khedivial Opera House The Cairo Opera House ( Arabic Egypt's media and arts industry has flourished since the late nineteenth century, today with more than thirty satellite channels and over one hundred motion pictures produced each year. Cairo has long been known as the "Hollywood of the Middle East;" its annual film festival, the Cairo International Film Festival, has been rated as one of 11 festivals with a top class rating worldwide by the International Federation of Film Producers' Associations. The Cairo International Film Festival is an annual Film festival held in Cairo, Egypt.  To bolster its media industry further, especially with the keen competition from the Persian Gulf Arab States and Lebanon, a large media city was built. The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are made of the kingdoms of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, the Sultanate of Oman, the States Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Some Egyptian-born actors, like Omar Sharif, have achieved worldwide fame. Omar Sharif ( عمر الشريف; born April 10, 1932) is a two-time Academy Award -nominated and Golden Globe -winning Egyptian
Literature constitutes an important cultural element in the life of Egypt. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Egyptian novelists and poets were among the first to experiment with modern styles of Arabic literature, and the forms they developed have been widely imitated throughout the Middle East. Arabic literature ( Arabic: الأدب العربي Al-Adab Al-Arabi) is the writing produced both Prose and Poetry, by speakers The first modern Egyptian novel Zaynab by Muhammad Husayn Haykal was published in 1913 in the Egyptian vernacular. Husayn Haykal 's Zaynab is the first modern Egyptian novel published in 1913 Muhammad Husayn Haykal ( Arabic: ar محمد حسين هيكل ( August 20, 1888 – 1956 was an Egyptian writer journalist politician  Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz was the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Naguib Mahfouz (نجيب محفوظ Nagīb Maḥfūẓ ( December 11, 1911 – August 30, 2006) was an Egyptian Novelist The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred Egyptian women writers include Nawal El Saadawi, well known for her feminist activism, and Alifa Rifaat who also writes about women and tradition. Nawal El Saadawi (نوال السعداوى (born October 27, 1931) is an Egyptian Feminist writer activist and physician Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change Alifa Rifaat ( June 5, 1930 - 1996 was a controversial Egyptian author whose short stories reflect on the life of traditional Muslim Vernacular poetry is perhaps the most popular literary genre amongst Egyptians, represented by the works of Ahmed Fouad Negm (Fagumi), Salah Jaheen and Abdel Rahman el-Abnudi. A literary genre is a category of literary composition Genres may be determined by Literary technique, tone, Content, or even (as in the case of fiction Ahmed Fouad Negm (احمد فؤاد نجم popularly known as el-Fagoumi الفاجومي is an Egyptian Vernacular poet. Mohammad Salah eddin Bahgat Helmy, known as " Salah Jaheen " or "Salah Jahin" ( sˤɑɫɑːħ ʒahiːn ( December 25 1930 &ndash Abdel Rahman el-Abnudi (عبد الرحمن الأبنودى (born 1938 is a popular Egyptian poet and more recently a children's books writer
Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous, Mediterranean, African and Western elements. Egyptian music has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since ancient times In antiquity, Egyptians were playing harps and flutes, including two indigenous instruments: the ney and the oud. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The ney ( Persian: نی; Arabic: ناي; also nai, nye, nay, The oud ( عود ʿūd, plural أعواد, a‘wād; kaban; Persian: بربط barbat; ud Percussion and vocal music also became an important part of the local music tradition ever since. Contemporary Egyptian music traces its beginnings to the creative work of people such as Abdu-l Hamuli, Almaz and Mahmud Osman, who influenced the later work of Egyptian music giants such as Sayed Darwish, Umm Kulthum, Mohammed Abdel Wahab and Abdel Halim Hafez. Sayed Darwish ( Arabic: سيد درويش; March 17, 1892 – September 15, 1923) was an Egyptian singer and Umm Kulthum ( Arabic: أم كلثوم, born أم كلثوم إبراهيم البلتاجي; see Kunya; Egyptian Arabic: Om Kalsoum Mohammed Abdel Wahab ( Arabic: محمد عبد الوهاب) also transliterated Mohammed Abd el-Wahaab ( 1907 - May 3, Abdel Halim Ismail Shabana ( Arabic: عبدالحليم إسماعيل شبانة) commonly known as Abdel Halim Hafez ( عبد الحليم حافظ These prominent artists were followed later by Amr Diab. Amr Abdel Basset Abdel Azeez Diab (عمرو دياب (born October 11, 1961) is an Egyptian singer and composer of Jeel music He is seen by many as the new age "Musical Legend", whose fan base stretches all over the Middle East and Europe. From the 1970s onwards, Egyptian pop music has become increasingly important in Egyptian culture, while Egyptian folk music continues to be played during weddings and other festivities.
Egypt is famous for its many festivals and religious carnivals, also known as mulid. They are usually associated with a particular Coptic or Sufi saint, but are often celebrated by all Egyptians irrespective of creed or religion. Ramadan has a special flavor in Egypt, celebrated with sounds, lights (local lanterns known as fawanees) and much flare that many Muslim tourists from the region flock to Egypt during Ramadan to witness the spectacle. Ramadan or Ramazan ( Arabic: رمضان Ramaḍān) is a Muslim religious observance that takes place during the ninth month of the Islamic The ancient spring festival of Sham en Nisim (Coptic: Ϭⲱⲙ‘ⲛⲛⲓⲥⲓⲙ shom en nisim) has been celebrated by Egyptians for thousands of years, typically between the Egyptian months of Paremoude (April) and Pashons (May), following Easter Sunday. Sham el-Nessim ( Coptic: shom en nisim) (شم النسيم literally "sniffing the air" or "breathing the air" is an Egyptian holiday which Coptic or Coptic Egyptian ( MetRemenkīmi) is the final stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each plus 5 extra days (epagomenes Greek ἐπαγόμεναι Paremoude also known as Barmouda is the eighth month of the Coptic calendar. Pashons also known as Bashans ( Coptic:) is the ninth month of the Coptic calendar. Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year.
Football (soccer) is the de facto national sport of Egypt. Cairo International Stadium (ستاد القاهرة الدولي or "Stad El-Qahira El-Dawly" is an Olympic-standard multi-use Stadium with an all-seated Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered A national sport is a Sport or Game that is considered to be a intrinsic part of the culture of a Nation. Egyptian Soccer clubs El Ahly and El Zamalek are the two most popular teams and enjoy the reputation of long-time regional champions. Zamalek Sporting Club (نادي الزمالك is one of Egypt's and Africa's preeminent Sports clubs The club was established in 1911 under the name of "Kasr El-Nil" The great rivalries keep the streets of Egypt energized as people fill the streets when their favorite team wins. Egypt is rich in soccer history as soccer has been around for over 100 years. The country is home to many African championships such as the Africa Cup of Nations. The Africa Cup of Nations, also referred to as the African Nations Cup (ANC is the main international Association football competition in Africa. While, Egypt's national team has not qualified for the FIFA World Cup since 1990, the Egyptian team won the Africa Cup Of Nations an unprecedented six times, including two times in a row in 1957 and 1959 and again in 2006 and 2008, setting a world record. The FIFA World Cup, occasionally called the Football World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international Association football
Squash and tennis are other popular sports in Egypt. Squash is a racquet sport that was formerly called squash racquets, a reference to the "squashable" soft ball used in the game (compared with the Tennis is a sport played between two players ( singles) or between two teams of two players each ( doubles) The Egyptian squash team has been known for its fierce competition in international championships since the 1930s. Amr Shabana is Egypt's best player and the winner of the world open three times and the best player of 2006. Career overview The talented left-hander from Cairo first showed his promise when he was runner-up (to compatriot Ahmed Faizy) in the British Under-14 Open
The Egyptian Handball team also holds another record; throughout the 34 times the African Handball Nations Championship was held, Egypt won first place five times (including 2008), five times second place, four times third place, and came in fourth place twice. The African Handball Nations Championship is the official competition for senior men's national handball teams of Africa, and The team won 6th and 7th places in 1995, 1997 at the World Men's Handball Championship, and twice won 6th place at the 1996 and 2000 Olympics.
Egypt has a long history of participation at the Summer Olympics since 1912. Egypt first participated at the Olympic Games in 1912, and has sent athletes to compete in most editions of the Summer Olympic Games
The Egyptian Armed forces have a combined troop strength of around 450,000 active personnel. The Egyptian Army is the largest service branch within the Egyptian military establishment.  According to the Israeli chair of the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, Yuval Steinitz, the Egyptian Air Force has roughly the same number of modern warplanes as the Israeli Air Force and far more Western tanks, artillery, anti-aircraft batteries and warships than the IDF. Dr Yuval Steinitz (יובל שטייניץ born 10 April 1958) is an Israeli philosopher academic and parliamentarian who has been a Knesset The Egyptian Air Force, or EAF (القوات الجوية المصرية) is the aviation branch of the Egyptian armed forces. The Israeli Air Force ( IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm" commonly known as חיל The Israel Defense Forces ( IDF) (צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit  The Egyptian military has recently undergone massive military modernization mostly in their Air Force. Other than Israel, Egypt is speculated by Israel to be the first country in the region with a spy satellite, EgyptSat 1, and is planning to launch 3 more satellites (DesertSat1, EgyptSat2, DesertSat2) over the next two years. A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or Communications satellite deployed for EgyptSat-1 is Egypt 's first Earth remote-sounding Satellite.