An aerial view of the fourth lighthouse. (The stub of the third lighthouse can be seen in the background. )
|Location:||Devon, England (offshore)|
|Year first lit:||1698 / 1705 / 1759 / 1882|
|Deactivated:||1703 / 1755 / 1877 / -|
|Construction:||wood / wood / masonry / masonry|
|Tower shape:||octagonal / conical / conical / conical|
|Height:||? / ? / 18 metres / 49 metres|
|Range:||22 nautical miles (41 kilometres)|
|Characteristic:||white light flashes twice every 10 seconds|
The Eddystone Lighthouse is situated on the treacherous Eddystone Rocks, some 9 statute miles (14 kilometres) south west of Rame Head, United Kingdom. Devon is a large county in the South West of England. The county is also referred to as Devonshire, but that is an entirely unofficial name England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of Length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of Latitude along any meridian. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand See also Lighthouse Pilotage Isophase light Flashing light Occulting light A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand See Rame Head Victoria for that place in Australia (named after Rame Head Cornwall Whilst Rame Head is in Cornwall, the rocks are within the city limits of Plymouth in the county of Devon. Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar Plymouth ( is a city and unitary authority area on the coast of Devon, England about south west of London. Devon is a large county in the South West of England. The county is also referred to as Devonshire, but that is an entirely unofficial name 
The current structure is the fourth lighthouse to be built on the site. The first and second lighthouses were both destroyed in accidents. The third lighthouse, also known as Smeaton's Tower, is perhaps the best known of the four, because of its influence on modern lighthouse design and its importance in the development of concrete as a building material. Smeatons Tower is the third and most notable Eddystone Lighthouse. Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag Its upper portions have been re-erected in Plymouth as a monument. 
The first lighthouse to be erected on the Eddystone Rocks was an octagonal wooden structure built by Henry Winstanley. Henry Winstanley ( March 31, 1644 &ndash November 27, 1703) was an English Engineer who constructed the first Eddystone
Construction started in 1696 and the light was first lit on 14 November 1698. Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca During the construction period, the lighthouse first made news when a French privateer took Winstanley prisoner, causing Louis XIV to order his release with the words "France is at war with England, not with humanity". This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. A privateer was a private Warship authorized by a country's Government by Letters of marque to attack foreign shipping Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent 
The lighthouse survived its first winter but was found to be badly in need of repair. In doing this, the top of the structure was removed and replaced, a fact which causes some sources to state that there have been five lighthouses on the Eddystone Rock. Winstanley's tower then lasted in its modified state until the Great Storm of 1703 erased almost all trace of it on 27 November. The Great Storm of 1703 is arguably the most severe storm or Natural disaster ever recorded in the southern part of Britain. Events 1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont Winstanley was on the lighthouse at the time, completing some additions to the structure. No trace was ever found of him. 
The cost of construction and 5 years' maintenance of the lighthouse totalled £7,814 7s. 6d. during which time dues totalling £4,721 19s. 3d. had been collected, at a rate of 1d per ton, from passing vessels.
Following the destruction of the first lighthouse, a Captain Lovett acquired the lease of the rock, and by an Act of Parliament was allowed to charge all passing ships a toll of 1d per ton, both inward and outward. An Act of Parliament is a Law enacted as Primary legislation by a national or sub-national Parliament. He commissioned John Rudyard (or Rudyerd) to design the new lighthouse, which was built as a conical wooden structure around a core of brick and concrete and was first lit in 1709. John Rudyerd (sometimes seen as Rudyard) was the man chosen to build the second Eddystone Lighthouse, following the destruction of the original building in the This design proved much more durable than its predecessor, surviving for nearly 50 years. 
On the night of December 2, 1755, the top of the lantern caught fire, probably through a spark from one of the candles used to illuminate the light. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1755 ( MDCCLV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or The three lighthouse keepers did their best to put out the fire by throwing water upwards from a bucket, but were gradually driven out onto the rock as the tower burnt down from above them. Fortunately the fire was noticed from the shore, and the keepers were rescued by boat. Henry Hall, who was one of the keepers and either 84 or 94 years old at the time of the fire, subsequently died from lead poisoning because of the quantity of molten lead (from the lantern roof) he had ingested whilst fighting the fire. Henry Hall (1661 – 1755 was a Lighthouse keeper who worked on the Eddystone Lighthouse, some 9 statute miles (14 kilometres southwest of Rame Head Lead poisoning (also known as saturnism, plumbism, or painter's colic) is a medical condition caused by increased levels of the metal Lead in Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly  A report on this case of lead poisoning was submitted to the Royal Society by the physician Dr Edmund Spry, and the piece of lead is now in the collections of the National Museums of Scotland. Lead poisoning (also known as saturnism, plumbism, or painter's colic) is a medical condition caused by increased levels of the metal Lead in The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 National Museums Scotland is the family of several National museums in Scotland. 
The third lighthouse marked a major step forward in the design of such structures.
Recommended to the task by the Royal Society, civil engineer John Smeaton modelled the shape of the lighthouse on that of an oak tree, albeit an oak tree built of substantial granite blocks. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 A civil engineer is a person who practices Civil engineering, one of the many engineering professions This article is about the 18th century civil engineer For the baggage handler involved in the 2007 Glasgow International Airport attack, see John Smeaton (baggage The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. He pioneered the use of 'hydraulic lime' (a form of concrete that will set under water) and developed a technique of securing the granite blocks together using dovetail joints and marble dowels. Hydraulic lime is a variety of Slaked lime used to make Lime mortar. Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag A dovetail joint or simply dovetail is a joint technique most commonly used in woodworking joinery. Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of A dowel is a solid cylindrical rod, usually made of Wood, Plastic or Metal. Construction started in 1756 at Millbay and the light was first lit on 16 October 1759. Millbay, also known as Millbay Docks, is an area of dockland in Plymouth, Devon, England Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western Year 1759 ( MDCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year 
While in use, Smeaton's lighthouse was 59 feet (18 metres) in height, and had a diameter at the base of 26 feet (8 metres) and at the top of 17 feet (5 metres). A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International It remained in use until 1877 when it was discovered that the rocks upon which it stood were becoming eroded—each time a large wave hit the lighthouse it would shake from side to side. Year 1877 ( MDCCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Smeaton's lighthouse was largely dismantled and rebuilt on Plymouth Hoe, in the city of Plymouth, as a memorial. Plymouth Hoe, referred to locally as the Hoe, is a large south facing open public space in the English coastal city of Plymouth. Plymouth ( is a city and unitary authority area on the coast of Devon, England about south west of London.
The foundations and stub of the old tower remain on the Eddystone Rocks, situated close to the new (and more solid) foundations of the current lighthouse - the foundations proved too strong to be dismantled so the Victorians left them where they stood.
The current, fourth, lighthouse was designed by James Douglass, using Robert Stevenson's developments of Smeaton's original techniques. For other men of a similar name see James Douglas. Sir James Nicholas Douglass, FRS, ( October 16, 1826 – Robert Stevenson (8 June 1772&ndash12 July 1850 was a Scottish Civil engineer and famed designer and builder of Lighthouses Early life The light was first lit in 1882, and is still in use. It is operated by Trinity House. The Corporation of Trinity House is the official General Lighthouse Authority for England Wales and other British Territorial waters (with the exception of Scotland It was automated in 1982, and was the first Trinity House lighthouse to be so converted. In recent years the outline of the tower has been markedly changed by the construction of a helipad above the lantern, to allow maintenance crews to gain access by helicopter. The word helipad is a portmanteau meaning helicopter landing pad, a landing area for Helicopters Though helicopters can usually land anywhere flat a fabricated History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. 
The tower is 49 metres(161 feet) high, and it carries a white light which flashes twice every 10 seconds. The light is visible out to a range of 22 nautical miles (41 kilometres), and is supplemented by a fog signal of 3 blasts every 60 seconds. A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of Length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of Latitude along any meridian. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand For other meanings see Foghorn (disambiguation. A foghorn or fog signal is a device that uses sound to warn vehicles of hazards (or of the