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Ecofeminism is a social and political movement which attempts to unite environmentalism and feminism, with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate The feminist movement (also known as the Women's Movement or Women's Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as Reproductive rights (sometimes Feminist theory is the extension of Feminism into theoretical or philosophical, ground Feminist film theory is theoretical Film criticism derived from Feminist politics and Feminist theory. Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of Economics that applies feminist lenses to economics Feminist Sexology is an offshoot of traditional studies of Sexology that focuses on the Intersectionality of sex and gender in relation to the sexual lives of women Feminist Theology is a movement generally in Christianity, Judaism and New Thought, to reconsider the traditions practices Scriptures Gender equality (also known as gender equity, gender egalitarianism, or sexual equality) is the goal of the Equality of the Genders Antifeminism is opposition to Feminism in some or all of its forms Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of Feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the Feminist movement. Feminist history refers to the re-reading and re-interpretation of history from a female perspective. ---- The history of Feminism is the history of Feminist movements and their efforts to overturn injustices of Gender inequality. First-wave feminism refers to a period of Feminist activity during the nineteenth and early Twentieth century in the United Kingdom and Second-wave feminism refers to a period of Feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s Women's suffrage has been granted at various times in various countries throughout the world Suffragette is a term originally coined by the Daily Mail newspaper as a derogatory label for the more radical and Militant members of the Beginnings Lydia Chapin (Taft (February 2 1712 – November 9 1778 was a forerunner of women's suffrage in Colonial Amazon feminism is dedicated to the image of the female hero in Fiction and in fact as expressed in the Physiques and feats of female athletes martial artists Anarcha-feminism (also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism) combines Anarchism with Feminism. Black feminism argues that Sexism, class oppression and Racism are inextricably bound together Chicana feminism, also called Xicanisma, is a group of social theories that analyze the historical social political and economic roles of Mexican American Christian feminism is an aspect of Feminist theology which seeks to advance and understand the equality of Men and Women morally socially Cultural feminism developed from radical feminism It is an ideology of a "female nature" or "female essence" that attempts to revalidate what cultural feminists consider Difference feminism is a philosophy that stresses that Men and Women are ontologically different versions of the human being Equity feminism and gender feminism are terms coined by conservative libertarian Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism? published in 1992 Equality feminism is a submovement of Feminism. It is fundamentally at odds with Difference feminism and expresses the crucial similarities between the male Fat feminism or fat-positive feminism is a form of Feminism that argues overweight women are economically educationally socially and physically disadvantaged due Equity feminism and gender feminism are terms coined by conservative libertarian Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism? published in 1992 Global Feminism is a feminist theory concerned with the forward movement of Women's rights on a global scale Individualist feminism (sometimes also grouped with libertarian feminism or ifeminism) is a term for feminist ideas which seek to celebrate Islamic feminism is a form of Feminism concerned with the role of women in Islam. Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious legal and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe that questions the position Liberal feminism, also known as "mainstream Feminism," asserts the equality of men and women through political and legal reform Marxist feminism is a sub-type of Feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of Capitalism as a way to liberate women New feminism is a predominantly Catholic philosophy which emphasizes a belief in an integral complementarity of men and women rather than the superiority of men over women or Postcolonial feminism is a form of Feminist Philosophy which criticizes Western forms of Feminism, notably Radical feminism and Postmodern feminism is an approach to Feminist theory that incorporates postmodern and post-structuralist theory. Pro-life feminism is the opposition to Abortion, based on Feminism. Radical feminism is a "current" within Feminism that focuses on the theory of Patriarchy as a system of power that organizes society into a complex Separatist feminism is a form of Feminism that does not support Heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between Men Sex-positive feminism, also known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that began in the early 1980s Socialist feminism is a branch of Feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a woman's life and argues that Liberation can only be achieved Thealogy is a Neologism translating to "study of the Goddess " (based on Greek θεά thea, "goddess" + -λόγία Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Transfeminism as a noun is a category of feminism most often known for the application of Transgender discourses to feminist discourses and of feminist beliefs Feminism in France has its origins in the French Revolution. A few famous figures emerged during the 1871 Paris Commune, including Louise Michel, Russian-born Gerwani (from Gerakan Wanita Indonesia, Indonesian Women's Movement was an organization of communist women active in Indonesia in the 1950s The women in Revolutionary Nicaragua essentially fought a double revolution 1 to secure national freedom and 2 to secure their equality. The Feminist movement in Nepal is primarily concerned with equity and Equality of opportunity. ---- The history of Feminism is the history of Feminist movements and their efforts to overturn injustices of Gender inequality. Feminist history in the United Kingdom covers part of the Feminism movement in the United Kingdom from 1800 to the present day For Women's suffrage see History of women's suffrage in the United States. This is a list of important participants in the development of Feminism, listed by feminist ideology This is a list of important contributions to the literature of Feminism, listed by year of first publication This is a list of topics related to the issue of Feminism, Women's liberation, the Women's movement, and Women's rights: All-female Environmentalism is a broad philosophy and Social movement centered on a concern for the conservation and improvement of the environment. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological Philosophy ( Ecosophy) that considers Humankind an integral part of its environment. Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate  Ecofeminists argue that a relationship exists between the oppression of women and the degradation of nature, and explore the intersectionality between sexism, the domination of nature, racism, speciesism, and other characteristics of social inequality. Oppression is the act of using power to empower and/or privilege a group at the expense of disempowering marginalizing silencing and subordinating another group See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and Intersectionality is a theory which seeks to examine the ways in which various socially and culturally constructed categories interact on multiple levels Sexism is the belief or attitude that one Gender or Sex is inferior to or less valuable than the other and can also refer to a Hatred or distrust towards List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Speciesism involves assigning different values or rights to beings on the basis of their Species membership Social inequality refers to a lack of Social equality, where individuals in a society do not have equal Social status. Some current work emphasizes that the capitalist and patriarchal system is based on triple domination of the Global South (people who live in the Third World), women, and nature. The North-South Divide is the socio-economic and political division that exists between the wealthy developed countries, known collectively as "the Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically 
Ecofeminism, or ecological feminism, is a term coined in 1974 by Françoise d'Eaubonne. Françoise d'Eaubonne ( March 12 1920 in Paris - August 3 2005 in Paris) was a French feminist, who It is a philosophy and movement born from the union of feminist and ecological thinking, and the belief that the social mentality that leads to the domination and oppression of women is directly connected to the social mentality that leads to the abuse of the environment. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language It combines eco-anarchism or bioregional democracy with a strong ideal of feminism. Green anarchism is a school of thought within Anarchism which puts an emphasis on Environmental issues. Bioregionalism is a term used to describe a political cultural and environmental system based on naturally-defined areas called bioregions or Ecoregions Bioregions are defined Its advocates often emphasize the importance of interrelationships between humans, non-human others (e. g. , animals and insects), and the earth.
A central tenet in ecofeminism states that male ownership of land has led to a dominator culture (patriarchy), manifesting itself in food export, over-grazing, the tragedy of the commons, exploitation of people, and an abusive land ethic, in which animals and land are valued only as economic resources. Patriarchy is the structuring of Society on the basis of Family units where fathers have primary responsibility for the welfare of hence authority over The Tragedy of the Commons is the title of an influential article written by Garrett Hardin, first published in the journal Science in 1968. Other ecofeminists explain how the degradation of nature contributes to the degradation of women. For example, Thomas-Slayter and Rocheleau detail how in Kenya, the capitalist driven export economy has caused most of the agriculturally productive land to be used for monoculture cash crops. This led to intensification of pesticide use, resource depletion and marginalization of the subsistence farmers, especially women, to the hillsides and less productive land, where their deforestation and cultivation led to soil erosion, furthering the environmental degradation that hurts their own productivity (Thoma-Slayter, B. Deforestation is the conversion of Forested areas to non-forest land for use such as Arable land, Pasture, urban use logged area or wasteland Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind and D. Rocheleau. (1995) Gender, Environment and Development in Kenya: A Grassroots Perspective).
Vandana Shiva makes it clear that one of the missions of ecofeminism is to redefine how societies look at productivity and activity of both women and nature who have mistakenly been deemed passive, allowing for them both to be ill-used. Vandana Shiva ( Hindi: वन्दना शिवा b November 5, 1952, Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand, India) is a Physicist For example, she draws a picture of a stream in a forest. According to her, in our society it is perceived as unproductive if it is simply there, fulfilling the needs for water of women’s families and communities, until engineers come along and tinker with it, perhaps damming it and using it for generating hydropower. Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the Force or Energy of moving water which may The same is true of a forest unless it is planted with a monoculture plantation of a commercial species. A forest may very well be productive, protecting groundwater, creating oxygen, allowing villagers to harvest fruit, fuel, and craft materials, and creating a habitat for animals that are also a valuable resource. However, for many, if it isn't for export or contribution to GDP, without a dollar value attached, it cannot be seen as a productive resource (4 Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development 1988).
Some ecofeminists point to the linguistic links between oppression of women and land, such as the terms, "rape the land", "tame nature," and "reap nature's bounty. " Terms also express nature as feminine (using the pronoun "she" and the term "Mother Nature") and women as "wild" and "untamed" (like nature). Mother Nature is a common Anthropomorphized representation of Nature that focuses on the life-giving and nurturing features of nature by embodying it in the form of Ecofeminists also criticize Western lifestyle choices, such as consuming food that has travelled thousands of miles and playing sports (such as golf and bobsledding) which inherently require ecological destruction. Bobsleigh, bobsled or bobsledge is a Winter sport invented by Englishmen in the late 1860s in which teams make timed runs down narrow twisting banked
Feminist and social ecologist Janet Biehl has criticized ecofeminism as idealist, focusing too much on the idea of a mystical connection with nature and not enough on the actual conditions of women. Social Ecology is a philosophy developed by French geographer and anarchist Élisée Reclus and revived by Murray Bookchin in the 1960s Janet Biehl (1953 -) is one of the premier authors on Social ecology. In Western civilization, Idealism is the philosophy which maintains that the Ultimate nature of reality is ideal or based upon ideas values essences The so-called However, this line of criticism may not apply to many ecofeminists who reject both mysticism and essentialist ideas about the connection between women and nature. Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity In Philosophy, essentialism is the view that for any specific kind of Entity, there is a set of Characteristics or Properties all of which This antiessentialist ecofeminism has become more prominent since the early 1990s  : it has an epistemological analysis of the Enlightenment, places the spirituality in immanent world and then practices modern activism. Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge The materialist ecofeminism discuss economical and political issues and can use metaphorically the link of Great mother earth or Gaia (while the idealistic tendency uses it literally).
Françoise d'Eaubonne proposed a cooperative system in small unities (villages) with autonomization, without alienating technology. Françoise d'Eaubonne ( March 12 1920 in Paris - August 3 2005 in Paris) was a French feminist, who With ecofeminist ideals and pagan practices, these projects are sometimes seen as a form of primitivism. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Primitivism refers to a an artistic movement in particular which originated as a reaction to the Enlightenment, or b the general tendency to idealize any social behavior However, while some ecofeminists see technology as inherently alienating, many see a substantial role for modern technologies in the creation and operation of such villages. A number of ecofeminists advocate the use of technologies such as solar power as a way to stay off 'the grid', which they regard as more important than relying upon poisonous industrial processes or materials. Solar energy is the Light and radiant heat from the Sun that powers Earth 's Climate and Weather and sustains Life The ecological movement is itself split on issues like this. However, it is likely that an intermediate technology, appropriate technology, would be preferred in general if an ecofeminist movement sought to spread into developing nations quickly. Appropriate technology (AT is Technology that is designed with special consideration to the environmental ethical cultural social and economical aspects of the community Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties
There are different relevant schools of feminist thought and activism that relate to the analysis of the environment. Ecofeminism argues that there is a connection between women and nature that comes from their shared history of oppression by a patriarchal society; this connection also comes from the positive identification of women with nature. This relationship can be argued from an essentialist position, attributing it to biological factors, or from a position that explains it as a social construct. Vandana Shiva explains how women's special connection to the environment through her daily interactions with it has been ignored. "Women in subsistence economies, producing and reproducing wealth in partnership with nature, have been experts in their own right of holistic and ecological knowledge of nature’s processes. But these alternative modes of knowing, which are oriented to the social benefits and sustenance needs are not recognised by the [capitalist] reductionist paradigm, because it fails to perceive the interconnectedness of nature, or the connection of women’s lives, work and knowledge with the creation of wealth. ”
Feminist environmentalists study gender interests in natural resources and processes based on their different roles in daily work and responsibilities. Social feminists focus on the role of gender in political economy by analyzing the impact of production and reproduction of men and women’s relation to economic systems. Feminist poststructuralists explain gender’s relation to the environment as a reflection of beliefs of identity and difference such as race, class, gender, age, and ethnicity. In this way it tries to explain the relation of gender and development. Liberal feminist environmentalists treat women as having an active role in environmental protection and conservation programs. This role can become problematic. There is a common symbolism in the idea of ‘man’ pitted against nature while nature is feminized and “woman” is assumed to have profound connections with her environment. This becomes problematic because it places all the responsibility for conserving on her rather than him and doesn’t allow her to be seen as profiting from using the environment as well.
These views of gender and environment constitute feminist political ecology, which links feminist cultural ecology, political ecology, geographical ecology and feminist political ecology into one concept. Feminist political ecology is a synthesis of the perspectives taken by several different Feminisms specifically those of Ecofeminism, feminist environmentalism socialist It argues that gender is a relevant factor in determining access and control of natural resources as it relates to class, race, culture and ethnicity to transform the environment and to achieve the community’s opportunities of sustainable development.
The ecofeminist approach that best fits the Nariva Swamp issue in Trinidad and Tobago comes from “Reweaving the World: The Emergence of Ecofeminism (1990) in which the editors, Irene Diamond and Gloria Orenstein lay out three strands in ecofeminism (quoted in Mack-Canty, 2004). One strand emphasizes that social justice has to be achieved in concert with the well-being of the Earth since human life is dependent on the Earth. Another strand in ecofeminism is spiritual, emphasizing that the Earth is sacred unto itself. A third strand emphasizes the necessity of sustainability—a need to learn the many ways we can walk the fine line between using the Earth as a resource while respecting the Earth’s needs. MacGregor (2004) writes that a focus on women acting on “survival” or “subsistence” imperatives erases moral choice and practices of making principled decisions to act, or not to act, in particular ways by focussing solely on “the view from below”: the moral insight that comes out of so-called unmediated experiences of survival. MacGregor (2004) states the problems that arise from the lack of acknowledgement that many of the women who ecofeminists romanticize as exhibiting a “subsistence perspective” or “barefoot epistemology” do so in conditions that they did not choose and that “lifestyle” does not necessarily determine human morality.
Other writers (Huggan, 2004; Driver. 2001) seem to mock moral arguments, ignoring the reality that both Christian and non-Christian populations use moral reasoning. Jacques (2006) claims that the environmental skeptic Peter Huber argues that humans have no moral obligation to non-human nature because humanity has the ability to dominate and control nature and this is what Judeo-Christian doctrine dictates (deep anthropocentrism - enlightened anthropocentrism favours saving coral reefs for future medical benefits or for biodiversity reasons and for resources that humans use currently and that may be used for future generations). Even the law in most former British colonies (and probably other countries) is based on Judeo-Christian religion, so how can morality be dismissed as a non-issue? Many of the laws on the books in Trinidad and Tobago have not been changed since their creation under the British colonial system (Tompkins et al. , 2002). Huggan and Driver don’t seem to realize that it is in fact Nature that is the non moral agent.
Siurua (2006) discusses how David Schmidtz divides morality into two parts: a “morality of personal aspiration,”encompassing the ethical convictions and ideals according to which a person orients his or her actions, and a “morality of interpersonal constraint,” which forms the basis of institutional arrangements to regulate social interactions between individuals pursuing their personal goals. Schmidtz argues that strict preservationism (in the sense of a rejection of any instrumental utilization of nature in protected areas, often motivated by nonanthropocentrism) may be acceptable and justified as part of a morality of the first kind, but as long as the costs of actual preservation are to be borne by people who do not share preservationist values, the promotion of preservationism as the foundation of interpersonal morality is doomed to failure and consequently ought not to be undertaken. I would argue that preservationism ought not to be undertaken with people who do not have preservationist values who as I said at the beginning of the Introduction to this book - should have been relocated to a more comfortable environment at State cost.
The push towards quantifying Nature as ‘ecosystem services’, or the economic benefits provided by natural ecosystems is part of a market-oriented mechanism for conservation says McCauley (2006) in a much-discussed article in the journal Nature. The underlying assumption is that if scientists can identify ecosystem services, like the Manzanilla Windbelt, Bush Bush and Bois Neuf islands for birds, other wildlife, and the mud volcanoes and the tourist potential they represent, then they can quantify their economic value, and align conservation with market ideologies. This will then move decision makers away from environmental destruction (McCauley, 2006).
This McCauley claims is akin to saying that civil-rights advocates would have been more effective if they provided economic justifications for racial integration. Nature conservation should be framed as a moral issue and argued as such to policy-makers, says McCauley, since policy makers are just as accustomed to making decisions based on morality as on finances.
Women's Voices for the Earth, Montana, U. Helena Norberg Hodge (born 1946 is the founder and director of the International Society for Ecology and Culture, a non-profit organisation concerned with the protection of Riane Tennenhaus Eisler is an Austrian born American scholar writer and social activist Maria Mies (born 1931 is a professor of Sociology and Author of several influential Feminist books including Indian Women and Patriarchy (1980 Vandana Shiva ( Hindi: वन्दना शिवा b November 5, 1952, Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand, India) is a Physicist Karen J Warren (born 1947) is an author scholar and Professor of Philosophy at Macalester College. Val Plumwood ( 11 August 1939 – c 28 February 2008) formerly Val Routley, was an Australian ecofeminist intellectual Val Plumwood ( 11 August 1939 – c 28 February 2008) formerly Val Routley, was an Australian ecofeminist intellectual Rosemary Radford Ruether (born 1936 is a controversial Feminist scholar and theologian who is married to the political scientist Herman Ruether. Rosemary Radford Ruether (born 1936 is a controversial Feminist scholar and theologian who is married to the political scientist Herman Ruether. Carol J Adams (born 10 May, 1951) is a vegan and ecofeminist polemicist famous for her first book The Sexual Politics of Meat A Feminist-Vegetarian Terry Tempest Williams (born 1955) is an American Author, naturalist, and environmental Activist. Mary Grey may refer to Mary Grey (theologian Lady Mary Grey, sister of Jane Grey queen of England Carol J Adams (born 10 May, 1951) is a vegan and ecofeminist polemicist famous for her first book The Sexual Politics of Meat A Feminist-Vegetarian Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1962 Rachel Louise Carson (May 27 1907 – April 14 1964 was an American marine biologist and Nature writer whose writings are credited with advancing the global For the dance see Spiral Dance. For the band see Spiral Dance (band. Starhawk (born Miriam Simos) ( June 17, 1951) is an American Writer, Anarchist activist, and self-described Vandana Shiva ( Hindi: वन्दना शिवा b November 5, 1952, Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand, India) is a Physicist Petra Karin Kelly ( November 29, 1947 &ndash October 1, 1992) a politician was instrumental in founding the German Green Party, Vandana Shiva ( Hindi: वन्दना शिवा b November 5, 1952, Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand, India) is a Physicist Susan Griffin is the eco-feminist author of The Book of the Courtesans A Catalogue of Their Virtues (2001 Woman and Nature The Roaring Inside Her (1978 Ecotopian fiction is a subgenre of Utopian fiction where the author posits either a Utopian or Dystopian world revolving around environmental Feminist science fiction is a sub-genre of Science fiction which tends to deal with women's roles in society A Door into Ocean is a 1986 Feminist science fiction novel by Joan Slonczewski. Joan Lyn Slonczewski (b 1956 Hyde Park New York raised in Katonah New York) is a Biologist at Kenyon College and a Feminist science fiction Always Coming Home is a novel by Ursula K Le Guin published in 1985 Ursula Kroeber Le Guin (ˈɝsələ ˈkroʊbɚ ləˈgwɪn (born October 21, 1929) is an American author Ursula Kroeber Le Guin (ˈɝsələ ˈkroʊbɚ ləˈgwɪn (born October 21, 1929) is an American author The Fifth Sacred Thing is a 1993 post-apocalyptic novel written by Starhawk. Starhawk (born Miriam Simos) ( June 17, 1951) is an American Writer, Anarchist activist, and self-described The Gate to Women's Country (ISBN 0-553-28064-3 is an English-language post-apocalyptic novel by Sheri S Sheri Stewart Tepper (born July 16, 1929) is a prolific American Author of Science fiction, horror and mystery Suzy McKee Charnas (born 1939 in New York City) is an American Novelist and Short story writer writing primarily in the genres of Science Suzette Haden Elgin is an American Science fiction Author. She founded the Science Fiction Poetry Association, and is considered an important Octavia Estelle Butler ( June 22, 1947 – February 24, 2006) was an American Science fiction Writer, one Barbara Kingsolver (born April 8, 1955) is an American Writer. Surfacing is the second published Novel by Canadian author Margaret Atwood. Margaret Eleanor Atwood, CC (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian Writer. Sally Miller Gearhart (b April 15, 1931) is an American teacher Science fiction writer and political activist Marge Piercy (born March 31, 1936) is an American Poet, Novelist, and social activist. Dorothy Bryant (born 1930 is an influential American Novelist, Playwright, Essayist and Feminist writer Marian Engel, née Marian Ruth Passmore ( May 24, 1933 – February 16, 1985) was a Canadian Novelist. The Temple of My Familiar is 1989 novel by Alice Walker. It is an ambitious and multi-narrative novel containing the interleaved stories of: Arvedyda a musician Alice Malsenior Walker (born February 9 1944 is an American Author, self-declared Feminist and Womanist - the latter a term she herself S. A.