Earthworks are engineering works created through the moving of massive quantities of soil or unformed rock. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere Engineers need to concern themselves with issues of geotechnical engineering (such as soil fluidity and friction) and with quantity estimation to ensure that soil volumes in the cuts match those of the fills, while minimizing the distance of movement. Geotechnical engineering is the branch of Civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials In the past, such calculations were done by hand using a slide rule and with methods such as Simpson's rule; now they can be performed simply with a computer and specialized software. The slide rule, also known as a slipstick, is a mechanical Analog computer. In Numerical analysis, Simpson's rule is a method for Numerical integration, the numerical approximation of Definite integrals Specifically it is the following A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions.
Due to the massive amounts of material to be moved — millions of cubic yards in the case of large dams — earthwork engineering was revolutionised by the development of the (Fresno) scraper and other earth-moving machines such as the loader, production trucks, the grader, the bulldozer, the backhoe and the dragline excavator. The Fresno Scraper was invented in 1883 by the Scottish Immigrant and entrepreneur James Porteous who having worked with farmers in Fresno California In Civil engineering, a wheel tractor-scraper is a piece of Heavy equipment used for earthmoving. Engineering vehicles, known by the other terms construction Equipment, earth movers heavy equipment or just plain equipment are machines specifically designed to execute A loader is a type of construction equipment (engineering vehicle machinery that is primarily used to "load" material (asphalt demolition debris A dump truck or production truck is a Truck used for transporting loose material (such as Sand, Gravel, or dirt) for Construction A grader, also commonly referred to as a road grader, a blade, a maintainer or a motor grader, is an Engineering vehicle with a large ----A bulldozer is a crawler ( Caterpillar tracked Tractor) equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade) used to push large quantities A backhoe, also called a rear actor or back actor, is a piece of excavating equipment consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm Dragline excavation systems are Heavy equipment used in Civil engineering and surface Mining.
Typical earthworks include roads, dams, dikes, canal, bunding and berms ("noise mounds"). A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water while other structures such as Floodgates, Levees LeveeEmbankmentDitch A dike (or dyke) levee, levée, embankment, floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial Canals are artificial channels for water There are two types of canals water conveyance canals which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water and Waterways Bunding, also called a bund wall, is the area within a structure designed to prevent Inundation or breaches of various types A berm is a level space shelf or raised barrier separating two areas
In military engineering, earthworks are, more specifically, types of fortifications constructed from soil. A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive defensive and logistical structures for Warfare Other duties include the Fortifications are Military Constructions and Buildings designed for defense in Warfare Humans have constructed defensive works for Although soil is not very strong, it is cheap enough that huge quantities can be used, generating formidable structures. Examples of older earthwork fortifications include moats, sod walls, motte-and-bailey castles and hill forts. A moat is deep broad Trench, usually filled with Water, that surrounds a structure installation or town normally to provide it with a preliminary line of Sod or turf is grass and the part of the Soil beneath it held together by the Roots or a piece of this material See also List of cities with defensive walls A defensive wall is a Fortification used to defend a city or settlement from potential aggressors nA motte-and-bailey is a form of Castle. Many were built in Britain, Ireland and France in the 11th and 12th centuries favored as a relatively A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement Modern examples include trenches and berms. Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static A berm is a level space shelf or raised barrier separating two areas