The title of Earl of Desmond has been held historically by lords in Ireland, first as a title outside of the peerage system and later as part of the Peerage of Ireland. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The Peerage of Ireland is the term used for those peers created by British monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland.
The original Earldom of Desmond, based on land holdings in Munster belonged the Anglo-Norman FitzGerald family, which was founded by Maurice FitzGerald, a key supporter of Lord Pembroke ("Strongbow") in his invasion of Ireland. Munster ( Irish: An Mhumhain, ənˈvuːnʲ Cúige Mumhan or Mumha) is the southernmost of the four Provinces of Ireland. The Anglo-Normans were mainly the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066, although Peers of Ireland The FitzGeralds are a Hiberno-Norman Dynasty, and have been Peers of Ireland since at least the 13th century Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan (c1100 - 1 September 1176) was a major figure in the Norman conquest of Ireland. Richard de Clare 2nd Earl of Pembroke Lord of Leinster Justiciar of Ireland (1130 &ndash 20 April 1176) known as Strongbow, was a The title Earl of Desmond was first created for Maurice FitzGerald, 4th Baron Desmond in approximately 1329. Maurice FitzThomas Fitzgerald 1st Earl of Desmond, (d January 25, 1356) was an Irish nobleman in the Peerage of Ireland, Captain of Desmond Over time, according to English sources, the FitzGerald family became highly assimilated to the local Irish culture.
The final Earl of Desmond of this creation was Gerald FitzGerald, the 15th (or, by some counts, the 16th) Earl. Gerald FitzGerald 15th Earl of Desmond (c 1533 &ndash 11 November 1583) was an Irish nobleman and leader of the Desmond Rebellions of 1579 The FitzGeralds had resisted the Reformation of King Henry VIII and, after a series of rebellions, the 15th Earl was defeated and killed on 11 November 1583. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of The Desmond Rebellions occurred in between 1569-1573 and 1579-1583 in Munster in southern Ireland ('Desmond' is the English language name given to the Gaelic 'Deasmumhain' Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare His title, along with the enormous estates of his family, were forfeit to the English Crown. The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during His nephew, James FitzThomas FitzGerald, attempted to regain control of both during the Nine Years War, but he was captured by the English and executed in 1603. The Nine Years War (Cogadh na Naoi mBliana in Ireland took place from 1594 to 1603 and is also known as Tyrone's Rebellion.
The second creation was in 1600 for James FitzGerald, who was also created Baron Inchiquin. James FitzGerald (1570? - 1601 an Irish nobleman was the successor of Gerald FitzGerald 15th Earl of Desmond. These titles became extinct on his death the next year.
The third creation was in 1619 for Richard Preston, 1st Lord Dingwall, who was also created Baron Dunmore. On his death in 1628 the Earldom and Irish Barony became extinct while the Scottish Lordship of Parliament passed to his daughter Elizabeth Preston, who married the 1st Duke of Ormonde. A Lord of Parliament is a member of the lowest rank of Scottish Peerage, ranking below a Viscount. James Butler 1st Duke of Ormonde ( October 19, 1610 &ndash July 21 1688) was an Anglo-Irish statesman and soldier
The fourth creation was in 1628 for George Feilding, 1st Viscount Callan. George Feilding 1st Earl of Desmond (c 1614 - 31 January 1665) was an Irish peer and the second son of William Feilding 1st Earl of Denbigh For information on this creation, see the Earl of Denbigh. Earl of Denbigh (pronounced "Denby" is a title in the Peerage of England.
There are several numbering schemes, depending on whether one includes Nicholas as the 3rd Earl, and how one deals with the dispute over the succession to the 11th Earl.