E85 is an alcohol fuel mixture that typically contains a mixture of up to 85% denatured fuel ethanol and gasoline or other hydrocarbon by volume. Although Fossil fuels have become the dominant Energy resource for the modern world Alcohol has been used as a fuel throughout history Denatured alcohol is Ethanol which has been rendered toxic or otherwise undrinkable and in some cases dyed Ethanol fuel is Ethanol (ethyl alcohol the same type of Alcohol found in Alcoholic beverages. The volume of any solid plasma vacuum or theoretical object is how much three- Dimensional space it occupies often quantified numerically On an undenatured basis, the ethanol component ranges from 70% to 83%. E85 as a fuel is widely used in Brazil and Sweden and is becoming increasingly common in the United States, mainly in the Midwest where corn is a major crop and is the primary source material for ethanol fuel production; however as yet, there are about 1500 filling stations selling E85 to the public in the US, and, until recently, only three in Canada. Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy Sweden has achieved the largest E85 Flexible-fuel vehicle fleet in Europe, with a sharp growth from 717 vehicles in 2001 to 116695 by July 2008 See also Biofuel in the United States, Ethanol fuel Current interest in ethanol fuel in the United States mainly lies in bio-ethanol produced from corn but Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture See also E85 Availability All data March 2008 from the Department of Energy and E85refueling 
E-85 ethanol is used in engines modified to accept higher concentrations of ethanol. Such flexible-fuel vehicles (FFV) are designed to run on any mixture of gasoline or ethanol with up to 85% ethanol by volume. A flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV or dual-fuel vehicle ( Colloquially called a flex-fuel vehicle) is an alternative fuel Automobile or There are a few major differences between FFVs and non-FFVs. One is the elimination of bare magnesium, aluminum, and rubber parts in the fuel system. Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 WikipediaNaming Another is that fuel pumps must be capable of operating with electrically conductive ethanol instead of non-conducting dielectric gasoline fuel. Fuel injection control systems have a wider range of pulse widths to inject approximately 40% more fuel. Stainless steel fuel lines, sometimes lined with plastic, and stainless steel fuel tanks in place of terne fuel tanks are used. In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 Terne is an Alloy coating of Lead and Tin used to cover Steel, in the ratio of 20% tin and 80% lead In some cases, FFVs use acid-neutralizing motor oil. For vehicles with fuel-tank mounted fuel pumps, additional differences to prevent arcing, as well as flame arrestors positioned in the tank's fill pipe, are also sometimes used. An electric arc is an Electrical breakdown of a gas which produces an ongoing plasma discharge, resulting from a current flowing through normally nonconductive A flame arrester (also spelled arrestor) deflagration arrester,or flame trap is a piece of equipment installed in an industrial process to stop the propagation
Depending on composition and source, E85 has an octane rating of 100 - 105 compared to regular gasoline's typical rating of 87 - 93. This allows it to be used in higher compression engines which tend to produce more power per unit of displacement than their gasoline counterparts. Since the reciprocating mass of the engine increases in proportion to the displacement of the engine E85 has a higher potential efficiency for an engine of equal power. One complication is that use of gasoline in an engine with a high enough compression ratio to use E85 efficiently would likely result in catastrophic failure due to engine detonation, as the octane rating of gasoline is not high enough to withstand the greater compression ratios in use in an engine specifically designed to run on E85. Use of E85 in an engine designed specifically for gasoline would result in a loss of the potential efficiency that it is possible to gain with this fuel. Using E85 in a gasoline engine has the drawback of achieving lower fuel economy as more fuel is needed per unit air (stoichiometric fuel ratio) to run the engine in comparison with gasoline. E85 also has a lower heating value (units of energy per unit mass) than gasoline leading to a reduction in power output in a gasoline engine. E85 consumes more fuel in flex fuel type vehicles when the vehicle uses the same fuel/air mixture and compression for both E85 and gasoline because of its lower stoichiometric fuel ratio and lower heating value. European car maker Saab currently produces a flex fuel version of their 9-5 sedan which consumes the same amount of fuel whether running e85 or gasoline, though it is not available in the United States. Saab Automobile AB, better known as Saab, is a Swedish car manufacturer and currently a wholly-owned Subsidiary of General Motors. The Saab 9-5 is an Executive car produced by the Swedish automobile maker Saab. So in order to save money at the pump with current flex fuel vehicles available in the United States the price of E85 must be much lower than gasoline. Currently E85 is about 5-10% less expensive in most areas.  More than 20 fueling stations across the Midwest are selling E85 25%-40% cheaper than gasoline.  E85 also gets less MPG, at least in flex fuel vehicles. In one test, a Chevy Tahoe flex-fuel vehicle averaged 18 MPG [U. S. gallons] for gasoline, and 13 MPG for E85, or 28% fewer MPG than gasoline. In that test, the cost of gas averaged $3. 42, while the cost for E85 averaged $3. 09, or 90% the cost of gasoline. 
There are about 1500 public E85 fueling stations available in the United States (out of 176,000 worldwide), at prices over 30% less than regular gasoline (when discounting the reduced fuel economy of E85), primarily in the corn-growing Midwest, where corn is grown and the homegrown fuel is produced. See also E85 Availability All data March 2008 from the Department of Energy and E85refueling The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The number of gas stations offering E85 is expected to double over the next year as service stations are being offered incentives from government and ethanol industry grants up to $30,000 for the costs of retro-fitting pumps and tanks for E85 fuel. Unfortunately, this does little to offset the cost to install pumps and tanks for E85—a hefty $200,000 per station.  Although ethanol contains about 65% by volume of the energy that gasoline does, the per gallon cost of E85 is 75% the price of regular unleaded gasoline. The overall consumer cost of E85 is close to E10, and any short term price advantage is usually lost because vehicles usually burn E85 quicker than regular fuel.
A recent development in the expansion of E85 filling stations is Wal-Mart's announcement that it will possibly sell E85 at its 385 gas stations countrywide. Wal-Mart Stores Inc (or Walmart as written in its new logo is an American public corporation that runs a chain of large discount department stores Wal-Mart along with its popular division, Sam's Club has a partnership with Murphy Oil Corp. which operates more than 900 gas stations in Wal-Mart parking lots. Should they decide to follow through with plans, Wal-mart has the potential to be the single largest retailer of E85 in the nation.  Grocery retailers in Texas are also beginning to sell E85 at some fuel stations. 
Business leaders like Richard Branson, Paul Allen, Steve Case, Vinod Khosla, John Doerr, and Bill Gates have become ethanol advocates and are investing heavily in ethanol. Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950 is an English Business magnate, best known for his Virgin brand of over 360 companies Paul Gardner Allen (born January 21 1953 is an American computer programmer and entrepreneur who co-founded Microsoft with Bill Gates. Steve Case (born August 21, 1958) is a businessman best known as the co-founder and former Chief executive officer and Chairman of Vinod Khosla (born January 28, 1955 in Pune, India) is an Indian-American Venture capitalist. L John Doerr (born June 29, 1951 in St Louis Missouri) is an American Venture capitalist at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers If you would like to experiment with Wikipedia please copy Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen is investing in a Seattle firm that wants to use canola oil, which comes from rapeseed, to create ethanol fuel. Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer Paul Gardner Allen (born January 21 1953 is an American computer programmer and entrepreneur who co-founded Microsoft with Bill Gates. Rapeseed ( Brassica napus) also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rapaseed and (in the case of one particular group of Ethanol fuel is Ethanol (ethyl alcohol the same type of Alcohol found in Alcoholic beverages. And Vinod Khosla, the Kleiner Perkins partner and Sun Microsystems co-founder, has investments in two cellulosic ethanol companies. Vinod Khosla (born January 28, 1955 in Pune, India) is an Indian-American Venture capitalist. Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers (KPCB is a Venture capital firm located on Sand Hill Road in Silicon Valley. Sun Microsystems Inc ( is a multinational vendor of Computers computer components Computer software, and Information technology services Microsoft's Bill Gates, has bought 25% of Pacific Ethanol, a Fresno, California company that is planning to build dozens of ethanol refineries in the U. S. In July 2006 Goldman Sachs invested $27 million into a Canadian company called Iogen, which wants to produce ethanol from switchgrass, a perennial grass that is inexpensive to grow. The Goldman Sachs Group Inc, or simply Goldman Sachs ( is a large global Bank holding company that engages in Investment banking securities Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a warm season Grass and is one of the dominant Species of the central North American Iogen, a non-publicly traded company, is building the world's first full-scale commercial cellulose-to-ethanol plant by 2010. Another reason for ethanol's popularity is its contribution toward providing economic revitalization in rural communities across the country.
When made from corn, E85 changes lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, which include the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol, by 15-20% as compared to gasoline; however, this is negated because it burns 25% to 30% less efficiently than traditional gasoline in most vehicles. E85 made from cellulose can reduce emissions by around 70 percent as compared to gasoline.
EPA's stringent Tier II vehicle emission standards require that FFVs achieve the same low emissions level regardless of whether E85 or gasoline is used. However, E85 can further reduce emissions of certain pollutants as compared to conventional gasoline or lower volume ethanol blends. For example, E85 is less volatile than gasoline or low volume ethanol blends, which results in fewer evaporative emissions. Using E85 also reduces carbon monoxide emissions and provides significant reductions in emissions of many harmful toxics, including benzene, a known human carcinogen. However, E85 also increases emissions of acetaldehyde--a toxic pollutant. EPA is conducting additional analysis to expand our understanding of the emissions impacts of E85.
Handbook for Handling Storing and Dispensing E85 National Rewnewable Energy Laboratory, April 2006
Flex-Fuel Bait and Switch - See how many flex-fuel cars are on the road and how many stations offer E85. Butanol or butyl alcohol (sometimes also called biobutanol when produced biologically is a Primary alcohol with a 4 Carbon structure and the Molecular Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five See also E85 Availability All data March 2008 from the Department of Energy and E85refueling Experimental E85 has an Octane rating of 105 which is higher than typical commercial gasoline mixtures (octane ratings of 85 to 98 however it does not burn as efficiently Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an Internal combustion engine. An oxygen sensor, or lambda sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of Oxygen (O2 in the gas or liquid being analyzed Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a warm season Grass and is one of the dominant Species of the central North American Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry is the Calculation of Quantitative (measurable Ethanol, an Alcohol fuel, is an important fuel for the operation of Internal combustion engines that are used in cars trucks and other kinds of machinery