|Birth name||Edward Kennedy Ellington|
|Also known as||Duke Ellington|
|Born||April 29, 1899|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Died||May 24, 1974 (aged 75)|
New York, New York, U.S.
|Genre(s)||Swing, Dixieland, Big band, Orchestral jazz|
|Occupation(s)||Bandleader, Pianist, Composer|
|Label(s)||Columbia, Brunswick, Impulse!, Verve, Victor|
Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington (April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974) was an American composer, pianist, and bandleader, recognized during his life as one of the most influential figures in jazz, if not in all American music. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 1218 - The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt. 1276 - Magnus Ladulås is crowned Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other Swing music, also known as swing jazz, is a form of Jazz music that developed in the early 1930s and had solidified as a distinctive style by 1935 in the United Dixieland or Dixie is a name for the southeastern portion of the USA; see Southern United States, Dixie. A big band is a type of Musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late Orchestral jazz is a Jazz genre developed in the United States in the 1920s most significantly by Fletcher Henderson and Duke Ellington. A bandleader is the leader of a band of Musicians The term is most commonly though not exclusively used with a group that plays Popular music as A pianist (/'piənɪst/ is a Musician who plays the Piano. A professional pianist can perform solo pieces play with an ensemble or Orchestra A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers In the Music industry, a record label can be a Brand and a Trademark associated with the Marketing of music recordings and Music Columbia Records is an American Record label founded in 1888 Columbia is the oldest surviving Brand name in pre-recorded sound being the first record company Brunswick Records is a United States based Record label. The label is currently distributed by Koch Entertainment. Impulse! Records was an American based Jazz Record label, originally launched in 1960 by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Verve Records is an American Jazz Record label now owned by the Universal Music Group. Victrola redirects here For other uses see Victrola (disambiguation The Victor Talking Machine Company ( 1901 – 1929 Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1218 - The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt. 1276 - Magnus Ladulås is crowned Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance A pianist (/'piənɪst/ is a Musician who plays the Piano. A professional pianist can perform solo pieces play with an ensemble or Orchestra A bandleader is the leader of a band of Musicians The term is most commonly though not exclusively used with a group that plays Popular music as Jazz royalty is a term that reflects the many great Jazz musicians who have some sort of royal, aristocratic or other honorific title added to their names or Ellington's reputation has increased since his death, including a special award citation from the Pulitzer Prize Board. The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism,
Ellington called his style and sound "American Music" rather than jazz, and liked to describe those who impressed him as "beyond category", including many of the musicians who served with his orchestra, some of whom were themselves considered among the giants of jazz and remained with Ellington's orchestra for decades. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States While many were noteworthy in their own right, it was Ellington that melded them into one of the most well-known orchestral units in the history of jazz. Orchestral jazz is a Jazz genre developed in the United States in the 1920s most significantly by Fletcher Henderson and Duke Ellington. He often composed specifically for the style and skills of these individuals, such as "Jeep's Blues" for Johnny Hodges, "Concerto for Cootie" ("Do Nothing Till You Hear from Me") for Cootie Williams and "The Mooche" for Tricky Sam Nanton. " Do Nothing till You Hear from Me " is a song with music by Duke Ellington and lyrics by Bob Russell. Joe "Tricky Sam" Nanton ( February 1, 1904 - July 20, 1946) was a famous Trombonist with the Duke Ellington He also recorded songs written by his bandsmen, such as Juan Tizol's "Caravan" and "Perdido" which brought the "Spanish Tinge" to big-band jazz. Juan Tizol ( 31 December 1900 &ndash 23 April 1984) was a Puerto Rican trombonist and composer " Caravan " is a Jazz standard composed by Juan Tizol and Duke Ellington, and first performed by Duke Ellington in 1937 For the Key in Florida, see Perdido Key Florida. Perdido is a jazz-song composed by Juan Tizol and was first recorded The phrase Spanish Tinge is a reference to the belief that a Latin American touch offers a reliable method of spicing the more conventional 4/4 rhythms commonly used A big band is a type of Musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late After 1941, he frequently collaborated with composer-arranger Billy Strayhorn, who he called his alter-ego. William Thomas "Billy" Strayhorn ( November 29, 1915 – May 31, 1967) was an American Composer, Pianist
One of the twentieth century's best-known African-American celebrities, Ellington recorded for many American record companies, and appeared in several films. Ellington and his orchestra toured the United States and Europe regularly before and after World War II. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Ellington led his band from 1923 until his death in 1974. His son Mercer Ellington took over the band until his death from cancer in 1996. Mercer K Ellington ( 11 March 1919 &ndash 8 February 1996) was an American Jazz Trumpeter Composer Paul Ellington, Mercer's youngest son, took over the Orchestra from there and after his mother's passing took over the Estate of Duke and Mercer Ellington.
Edward Kennedy Ellington was born on April 29, 1899 to James Edward Ellington and Daisy Kennedy Ellington who lived in the home of his maternal grandparents at 2129 Ward Place, NW in Washington, D.C. James Edward Ellington was born in Lincolnton, North Carolina on April 15, 1879 and moved to Washington, D.C. in 1886 with his parents. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Lincolnton is a city in Lincoln County, North Carolina, United States. Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D  Daisy Kennedy, was born in Washington, D.C. on January 4, 1879, and was the daughter of a former slave. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Events 46 BC - Titus Labienus defeats Julius Caesar in the Battle of Ruspina. Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  J. E. made blueprints for the United States Navy; he was a butler for Dr. Middleton F. Cuthbert, a prominent white physician, and he also worked occasionally as a White House caterer. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence  Daisy and J. E. were both piano players, she playing parlor songs and he operatic airs, and at the age of seven Ellington began taking piano lessons from Mrs. Marietta Clinkscales who lived at 1212 Street NW. The Clinkscales address is often, but erroneously, given as Ellington's childhood home. Daisy surrounded her son with dignified women who reinforced his manners and taught him to live elegantly. From his father, he absorbed self-confidence. Ellington’s childhood friends noticed that "his casual, offhand manner, his easy grace, and his dapper dress gave him the bearing of a young nobleman", and began calling him Duke. Ellington credited his "chum" Edgar McEntree, "a sharp dresser himself," with the nickname. "I think he felt that in order for me to be eligible for his constant companionship, I should have a title. So he called me Duke. "
Though Ellington had been taking piano lessons from the age of eight, he failed to show much interest. At that time he was more concerned with baseball. "President Roosevelt (Teddy) would come by on his horse sometimes, and stop and watch us play," he recalled.  Ellington went to Armstrong High School in Washington, D. C. . He got his first job selling peanuts at Washington Senator’s baseball games where he conquered his stage fright. In the summer of 1914, while working as a soda jerk at the Poodle Dog Café, he wrote his first composition, "Soda Fountain Rag" (also known as the "Poodle Dog Rag"). Ellington created "Soda Fountain Rag" by ear, because he had not yet learned to read and write music. "I would play the 'Soda Fountain Rag' as a one-step, two-step, waltz, tango, and fox trot," Ellington has recalled. "Listeners never knew it was the same piece. I was established as having my own repertory. " In his autobiography, Music is my Mistress, (1973) Ellington comments he missed more lessons than he attended, feeling at the time that playing the piano was not his talent. Over time, this would change. Ellington started sneaking into Frank Holiday's Poolroom at age fourteen. Hearing the poolroom pianists play ignited Ellington's love for the instrument and he began to take his piano studies seriously.
Ellington began listening to, watching, and imitating ragtime pianists, not only in Washington, D. C. , but also in Philadelphia and Atlantic City, where he vacationed with his mother during the summer months. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Dunbar High School music teacher Henry Lee Grant gave him private lessons in harmony. With the additional guidance of Washington pianist and band leader Oliver "Doc" Perry, Ellington learned to read sheet music, project a professional style, and improve his technique. Sheet music is a hand-written or printed form of Musical notation; like its analogs -- books pamphlets etc Ellington was also inspired by his first encounters with James P. Johnson and Luckey Roberts, early jazz piano giants. James Price Johnson ( February 1 1894 &ndash November 17 1955) was an African-American Pianist and Composer. Charles Luckeyeth Roberts, better known as Luckey Roberts ( 7 August, 1887 – 5 February, 1968) was a Composer and Later in New York he took advice from Will Marion Cook, Fats Waller, and Sidney Bechet. Will Marion Cook (1869&ndash1944 was a composer and violinist from the United States. Fats Waller (born Thomas Wright Waller on May 21, 1904 &mdash December 15, 1943) was an American jazz pianist Sidney Bechet ( May 14, 1897 &ndash May 14, 1959) was an American Jazz saxophonist, Clarinetist and Composer Ellington started to play gigs in cafés and clubs in and around Washington, D. C. and began to realize his deep love for music. His attachment grew to be so strong that he turned down an art scholarship to the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn in 1916 and dropped out of Armstrong Manual Training School where he was studying commercial art just three months shy of graduation. Pratt Institute is a specialized private college in New York City with campuses in Manhattan and Brooklyn, as well as in Utica New York Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City.
From 1917 through 1919, Ellington launched his musical career, painting commercial signs by day and playing piano by night. He also had a messenger job with the U. S. Navy and State Departments. Ellington moved out of his parents' home and into one that he had bought for himself as he quickly became a successful ragtime, jazz, and society pianist. At first, he played in other ensembles, then dove into the music business in late 1917 with the formation of his first group, The Duke’s Serenaders ("Colored Syncopators", his telephone directory advertising proclaimed) to which he was not only a member, but also the booking agent. His first play date was at the True Reformer's Hall where he took home 75 cents. 
Ellington played throughout the Washington, D. C. area and into Virginia for private society balls and embassy parties. The band included: Otto Hardwick, who switched from bass to saxophone; Arthur Whetsel on trumpet; Elmer Snowden on banjo; and Sonny Greer on drums. Otto Hardwicke ( May 31 1904 - August 5 1970) was a saxophone player Although Elmer Snowden, born in Baltimore October 9, 1900, was one of the most talented Banjo players of the jazz age he also played guitar and in the Sonny Greer ( 13 December 1895 &ndash 23 March 1982) was an American jazz drummer, best known for his work with Duke The boys thrived, performing for both African-American and white audiences, a rarity during the racially divided times. With his career taking off he felt secure enough to marry his high school sweetheart, Edna Thompson, on July 2, 1918 when he was 19. Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington (April 29 1899 &ndash May 24 1974 was an American Composer, Pianist, and Bandleader. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Shortly after their marriage, on March 11, 1919 Edna gave birth to their only son, Mercer Kennedy Ellington., who led his own band and took over his father's band after Duke's death. Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Mercer K Ellington ( 11 March 1919 &ndash 8 February 1996) was an American Jazz Trumpeter Composer Mercer was an important archivist of his father's musical life. Mercer played trumpet and was the road manager of his father's band. Ellington's sister, Ruth, ran Tempo Music, the music publishing company he owned. His granddaughter, Mercedes is a dancer who has performed in network television productions. Grandson Paul Ellington is a pianist and composer who leads the Duke Ellington Orchestra.
When their drummer Sonny Greer was invited to join the Wilber Sweatman Orchestra in New York City, Ellington made the fateful decision to leave behind his successful career in Washington, D. Sonny Greer ( 13 December 1895 &ndash 23 March 1982) was an American jazz drummer, best known for his work with Duke Wilbur C Sweatman ( Brunswick Missouri, February 7 1882 - New York City, March 9, 1961) was an African-American C. and aspire to the challenge of Harlem. Harlem is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, long known as a major African American cultural and business center The 'Harlem Renaissance' was in progress. The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925 New dance crazes, like the Charleston, were bred there as well as African-American musical theater, including Eubie Blake's Shuffle Along. The Charleston is a Dance named for the city of Charleston South Carolina. James Hubert Blake ( February 7, 1887 &ndash February 12 1983) was a Composer, Lyricist, and pianist of Ragtime Shuffle Along was the first major African American hit musical. After the young musicians left the Sweatman Orchestra to strike out on their own, they found an emerging jazz scene that was highly competitive and hard to crack. They hustled pool by day and played whatever gig they could find. The young band met Willie "The Lion" Smith who showed them the scene and even gave them spare cash. William Henry Joseph Bonaparte Bertholoff Smith ( 23 November, 1893 &ndash 18 April, 1973) aka "The Lion", was an They played at rent-house parties to get by. After a few months, the young musicians returned to Washington, D. C. feeling discouraged. But in June of 1923, a gig in Atlantic City, New Jersey led to a play date at the prestigious Exclusive Club in Harlem, followed in September 1923 by a move to the Hollywood Club, 49th and Broadway, and a four-year engagement which gave Ellington a solid artistic base. The group was called Elmer Snowden and his Black Sox Orchestra. and had seven members, including James "Bubber" Miley, a trumpeter whose growling style changed the "sweet" dance band sound of the group to one that was edgier and hipper. James Wesley "Bubber" Miley ( April 3, 1903 &ndash May 20, 1932) was an early Jazz Trumpeter and Cornet They renamed themselves "The Washingtonians". When Snowden left the group in early 1924, Ellington took over as bandleader. After a fire, the club was re-opened as the Club Kentucky (often referred to as the "Kentucky Club"), an engagement which set the stage for the biggest opportunities in Ellington's life.
Ellington made eight records in 1924, receiving composing credit on three including Choo Choo.  In 1925, Ellington contributed four songs to Chocolate Kiddies, an all-African-American revue which introduced European audiences to African-American styles and performers. "Duke Ellington and his Kentucky Club Orchestra" grew to a ten-piece organization, developing their distinct sound, displaying the non-traditional expression of Ellington’s arrangements, the street rhythms of Harlem, and the exotic-sounding trombone growls and wah-wahs, high-squealing trumpets, and sultry saxophone blues licks of the band members. For a short time, the great soprano saxophonist Sidney Bechet played with the group, imparting his propulsive swing and superior musicianship on the young band members. Sidney Bechet ( May 14, 1897 &ndash May 14, 1959) was an American Jazz saxophonist, Clarinetist and Composer This helped attract to the Washingtonians the attention of some of the biggest names of jazz including Paul Whiteman. Paul Whiteman ( March 28, 1890 &ndash December 29, 1967) was an American orchestral
In 1927, King Oliver turned down a regular booking for his group as the house band at Harlem's Cotton Club; the offer passed to Ellington. Joe "King" Oliver, ( December 19, 1885 &ndash April 10, 1938) was a Jazz Cornet player and Bandleader Harlem is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, long known as a major African American cultural and business center With a weekly radio broadcast and famous clientèle nightly pouring in to see them, the period from 1932 to 1942 gave rise to what many call the "golden age" for the poor boy from Washington D. C. . During these ten years, Ellington added three new members to his orchestra and composed some of his most well-known short works, including "Concerto for Cootie", "Ko-Ko", "Cotton Tail", "In a Sentimental Mood", and "Jump for Joy", his first full-length musical stage revue. " Cotton Tail " is a 1940 composition by Duke Ellington.
Trumpeter Bubber Miley was present for only a short period but had a major influence on Ellington's sound. James Wesley "Bubber" Miley ( April 3, 1903 &ndash May 20, 1932) was an early Jazz Trumpeter and Cornet An early experimenter in jazz trumpet growling, Miley is credited with morphing the band's style from rigid dance instrumentation to a more "New Orleans", or "jungle" style. He also composed most of Black and Tan Fantasy and Creole Love Call. An alcoholic, Miley had to leave the band before they gained wider notoriety, and died in 1930 at the age of twenty-eight. He was an important influence on Cootie Williams, another member of the orchestra (basically his replacement) in the early years and later. Charles Melvin ("Cootie" Williams (b July 24, 1910, Mobile Alabama - d September 15, 1985, New York New York
In 1927 Ellington made a career-advancing agreement with agent-publisher Irving Mills giving Mills a 45% interest in Ellington's future. Irving Mills ( January 16[[ 894]]&ndash April 21[[ 985]] was a Jazz music publisher, also known by the name of "Joe Primrose  The brash, shrewd Mills had an eye for new talent and early on published compositions by Hoagy Carmichael, Dorothy Fields, and Harold Arlen. Hoagland Howard "Hoagy" Carmichael (November 22 1899 – December 27 1981 was an American Composer, Pianist, singer actor and bandleader Dorothy Fields ( July 15, 1905 &ndash March 28, 1974) was an American librettist and lyricist. Harold Arlen ( February 15, 1905 – April 23, 1986) was an American Composer of popular music During the 1930s, Ellington's popularity continued to increase, largely as a result of the promotional skills of Mills, who got more than his fair share of co-composer credits. Mills arranged recording sessions on the Brunswick, Victor, and Columbia labels which gave Ellington popular recognition. Mills took the management burden off of Ellington's shoulders, allowing him to focus on his band's sound and his compositions. Ellington ended his association with Mills in 1937, although he continued to record under Mills' banner through 1940.
At the Cotton Club, they were no longer strictly a dance band. Ellington's group performed all the music for the revues which mixed comedy, dance numbers, vaudeville, burlesque, hot music, and illegal alcohol. The musical numbers were composed by Jimmy McHugh and the lyrics by Dorothy Fields (later Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler), with some Ellington originals mixed in. James Francis McHugh ( July 10 1894 - May 23 1969) was a US Composer. Dorothy Fields ( July 15, 1905 &ndash March 28, 1974) was an American librettist and lyricist. Harold Arlen ( February 15, 1905 – April 23, 1986) was an American Composer of popular music Ted Koehler ( July 14, 1894 – January 17, 1973) was an American Lyricist, born in Washington DC. Weekly radio broadcasts from the club gave Ellington national exposure. In 1929, Ellington appeared in his first movie, a nineteen-minute all-African-American RKO short, Black and Tan, in which he played the hero "Duke". In the same year, The Cotton Club Orchestra appeared on stage for several months in Florenz Ziegfeld's Show Girl, along with vaudeville stars Jimmy Durante, Eddie Foy, Jr., Al Jolson, Ruby Keeler, and with music and lyrics by George Gershwin and Gus Kahn. Florenz Ziegfeld Jr ( March 21, 1869 &ndash July 22, 1932) called Flo Ziegfeld, was an American Broadway Eddie Foy Jr ( February 4, 1905 - July 15, 1983) was an American Character actor. Al Jolson (May 26 1886 October 23 1950 born in Lithuania, Russian Empire, was a highly acclaimed American singer comedian and actor and the first openly Ruby Keeler, born Ethel Hilda Keeler, ( August 25, 1909 – February 28, 1993) was an actress singer and dancer most famous for her George Gershwin (September 26 1898 &ndash July 11 1937 was an American Composer. Gustav Gerson Kahn ( November 6, 1886 – October 8, 1941) was a Musician, Songwriter and Lyricist. That feverish period also included numerous recordings, under the pseudonyms "Whoopee Makers", "The Jungle Band", "Harlem Footwarmers", and the "Ten Black Berries". In 1930, Ellington and his Orchestra connected with a whole different audience in a concert with Maurice Chevalier and they also performed at the Roseland Ballroom, "America's foremost ballroom". Maurice Auguste Chevalier ( September 12, 1888 &ndash January 1, 1972) was a French Actor, Singer, and The Roseland Ballroom (also referred to as Roseland Dance City) is a catering hall/music venue/dance hall in a converted Ice skating rink with a colorful ballroom Noted composer Percy Grainger was also an early admirer and supporter. George Percy Grainger (8 July 1882&ndash20 February 1961 was an Australian born Composer, Pianist and champion of the Saxophone and the
As the Depression deepened, the recording industry took a dive, dropping over 90% by 1933.  Ellington and his orchestra survived the hard times by taking to the road in a series of tours. Radio exposure also helped maintain his popularity. Ivie Anderson was hired as their vocalist (Sonny Greer had been providing occasional vocals). Ivie Anderson (sometimes Ivy) ( July 10, 1905 &ndash December 28, 1949) was an American Jazz Singer Normally, Ellington led the orchestra by conducting from the keyboard using piano cues and visual gestures; very rarely did he conduct using a baton. As a bandleader, Ellington was not a strict disciplinarian but he maintained control of his orchestra for decades to come with a crafty combination of charm, humor, flattery, and astute psychology. A complex, private person he revealed his feelings to only his closest intimates and effectively used his public persona to deflect attention away from himself.
While their United States audience remained mainly African-American in this period, the Cotton Club had a near exclusive white clientèle and the band had a huge following overseas, demonstrated both in a trip to England in 1933 and a 1934 visit to the European mainland. The English visit saw Ellington win praise from members of the "serious" music community, including composer Constant Lambert, which gave a boost to his aspirations to compose longer "serious" pieces. Leonard Constant Lambert ( August 23, 1905 &ndash August 21, 1951) was a British composer and conductor. And for agent Mills, it was a publicity triumph, as Ellington was now "internationally famous". On their tour through the segregated South in 1934, they avoided some of the traveling difficulties of African-American musicians by touring in private railcars, which provided easy accommodations, dining, and storage for equipment, while avoiding the indignities of segregated facilities.
The death of Ellington's mother in 1935 led to a temporary slump in his career. Competition was also intensifying, as African-American and white "Swing Bands" began to rocket to popular attention, including those of Benny Goodman, Tommy Dorsey, Jimmy Dorsey, Jimmie Lunceford, Benny Carter, Earl Hines, Chick Webb, and Count Basie. Tommy Dorsey ( November 19 1905 &ndash November 26 1956) was an American Jazz Trombonist, Trumpeter James "Jimmy" Dorsey ( February 29, 1904 &ndash June 12, 1957) was a prominent American Jazz Clarinetist James Melvin "Jimmie" Lunceford ( June 6, 1902 &ndash July 12, 1947) was an American Jazz alto Saxophonist Bennett Lester Carter (born August 8, 1907 in Harlem New York; died July 12, 2003 in Los Angeles California) was Earl Kenneth Hines, universally known as Earl "Fatha" Hines, ( 28 December, 1903 Duquesne Pennsylvania &ndash 22 April William Henry Webb, usually known as Chick Webb ( February 10, 1905 – June 16, 1939) was a Jazz and Swing music William "Count" Basie ( August 21, 1904 &ndash April 26, 1984) was an American jazz pianist, Organist Swing dancing became a youth phenomenon, particularly with white college audiences, and "dancability" drove record sales and bookings. Jukeboxes proliferated nationwide spreading the gospel of "swing". jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device usually a Coin -operated machine that can play specially selected songs from self-contained media Ellington band could certainly "swing" with the best of them, but Ellington's strength was mood and nuance, and richness of composition, hence his statement "jazz is music; swing is business".  The challenge for Ellington at that time was to create a workable balance between his ceaseless artistic exploration and the popular requirements of that era. Ellington countered with two innovations. He made recordings for smaller groups (sextets, octets, and nonets) drawn from his then 15-man orchestra and he composed pieces that were concerto-like and focused on a specific instrumentalist, as with Jeep's Blues for Johnny Hodges and Yearning for Love with Lawrence Brown. John Cornelius "Johnny" Hodges ( 25 July, 1906 in Cambridge, Massachusetts – 11 May, 1970) was an American Lawrence Brown ( August 3 1907 - September 5, 1988) was a Jazz Trombonist from Kansas.
In 1937, Ellington returned to the Cotton Club which had relocated to the mid-town theater district. In the summer of that year, his father died, and due to many expenses Ellington's financial condition was tight. Things improved in 1938 and he met and moved in with Cotton Club employee Beatrice "Evie" Ellis. After splitting with agent Irving Mills, he signed on with William Morris. William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896 was an English Architect, Furniture and Textile designer artist writer and socialist associated The 1930's ended with a very successful European tour just as World War II loomed.
Ellington delivered some huge hits during the 1930s, which greatly helped to build his overall reputation Mood Indigo in 1930, It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing) in 1932, Sophisticated Lady in 1933, In a Sentimental Mood in 1935, Caravan in 1937, I Let A Song Go Out Of My Heart in 1938. " Mood Indigo " is a Jazz composition and Song, with music by Duke Ellington and Barney Bigard with lyrics by " It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing " is a 1931 composition by Duke Ellington with lyrics by Irving Mills, now accepted as a " Sophisticated Lady " is a Jazz standard, composed as an Instrumental in 1932 by Duke Ellington and Irving Mills, to which " In a Sentimental Mood " is a Jazz composition by Duke Ellington which is also performed as a Song. " Caravan " is a Jazz standard composed by Juan Tizol and Duke Ellington, and first performed by Duke Ellington in 1937 Following shortly were Do Nothing Till You Hear from Me in 1940 and Take the "A" Train (written by Billy Strayhorn) in 1941. " Do Nothing till You Hear from Me " is a song with music by Duke Ellington and lyrics by Bob Russell. " Take the 'A' Train " is a Jazz standard by Billy Strayhorn that was the Signature tune of the Duke Ellington orchestra William Thomas "Billy" Strayhorn ( November 29, 1915 – May 31, 1967) was an American Composer, Pianist
The most important event of Ellington’s “golden age” was the arrival of Billy Strayhorn. Hired as a lyricist, Strayhorn , nicknamed "Swee' Pea" for his mild manner, eventually became a vital member of the Ellington Organization and as Ellington described him, "my right arm, my left arm, all the eyes in the back of my head, my brain waves in his head, and his in mine".  Strayhorn, with his Classical music training, applied that knowledge to arrange and polish future Ellington works. Ellington came to rely on Strayhorn's harmonic judgment, discipline, and taste.
The band reached a creative peak in the early 1940s, when Ellington wrote for an orchestra of distinctive voices and displayed tremendous creativity. In November of 1943 Ellington debuted Black, Brown and Beige in Carnegie Hall which told the struggle of African-Americans in America and began a series of concerts ideally suited to displaying Ellington's longer works. Carnegie Hall (generally ˌkɑrnɨgi ˈhɔːl is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east While some jazz musicians had played at Carnegie Hall before, few had performed anything as elaborate as Ellington’s work. Some of the musicians created a sensation in their own right. The short-lived Jimmy Blanton transformed the use of double bass in jazz, allowing it to function as a solo rather than a rhythm instrument alone. Jimmy Blanton ( October 5 1918 &ndash July 30 1942) was an influential American Jazz Double bassist Blanton originated The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra. Ben Webster too, the Orchestra's first regular tenor saxophonist, started a rivalry with Johnny Hodges as the Orchestra's foremost voice in the sax section. Benjamin Francis Webster ( March 27 1909 &ndash September 20 1973) aka " The Brute " or " Frog," was an Ray Nance joined in, replacing Cootie Williams who had "defected", contemporary wags claimed, to Benny Goodman. Ray Willis Nance ( December 10, 1913 Chicago - January 28 1976 in New York City) was a Jazz Trumpeter Charles Melvin ("Cootie" Williams (b July 24, 1910, Mobile Alabama - d September 15, 1985, New York New York Nance, however, added violin to the instrumental colors Ellington had at his disposal. A privately made recording of Nance's first concert date, at Fargo, North Dakota, in November 1940, is probably the most effective display of the band at the peak of its powers during this period. Fargo is a city in Cass County, North Dakota in the United States. This recording is one of the first of innumerable live performances which survive, made by enthusiasts or broadcasters, significantly expanding the Ducal discography as a result.
Three-minute masterpieces flowed from the minds of Ellington, Billy Strayhorn (from 1939), Ellington's son Mercer Ellington, and members of the Orchestra. William Thomas "Billy" Strayhorn ( November 29, 1915 – May 31, 1967) was an American Composer, Pianist Mercer K Ellington ( 11 March 1919 &ndash 8 February 1996) was an American Jazz Trumpeter Composer "Cotton Tail", "Mainstem", "Harlem Airshaft", "Streets of New York" and dozens of others date from this period. " Cotton Tail " is a 1940 composition by Duke Ellington.
Ellington's long-term aim became to extend the jazz form from the three-minute limit of the 78 rpm record side, of which he was an acknowledged master. A gramophone He had composed and recorded Creole Rhapsody as early as 1931, and his tribute to his mother, "Reminiscing in Tempo," had filled 4 record sides in 1938; however, it was not until the 1940s that this became a regular feature of Ellington's work. In this, he was helped by Strayhorn, who had enjoyed a more thorough training in the forms associated with classical music than Ellington. Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music The first of these, "Black, Brown, and Beige" (1943), was dedicated to telling the story of African-Americans, the place of slavery, and the church in their history. Black Brown and Beige is a Jazz Suite written by Duke Ellington for a concert at the Carnegie Hall in 1943 African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Unfortunately, starting a regular pattern, Ellington's longer works were generally not well-received; Jump for Joy, an earlier musical, closed after only six performances in 1941.
The first recording ban of 1942-3 had a serious effect on all the big bands because of the increase in royalty payments to musicians its resolution necessitated; the financial viability of Ellington's operation was under threat, though Ellington's income as a songwriter ultimately subsidized the Orchestra. On August 1, 1942, the American Federation of Musicians, at the instigation of union president James Petrillo, started a strike against the major American Ellington always spent lavishly and although he drew a respectable income from the Orchestra's operations, the band's income often just covered expenses. 
Meanwhile, the development of modern jazz, or bebop, the music industry's shift to solo vocalists such as the young Frank Sinatra as the Big Band age died out, and the diminishing popularity of ballroom and nightclub entertainment in the early television era all undermined Ellington's popularity and status as a trendsetter. Bebop or bop is a form of Jazz characterized by fast Tempos and Improvisation based on Harmonic structure rather than Melody Francis Albert "Frank" Sinatra (December 12 1915 &ndash May 14 1998 was an American singer and actor Bebop rebelled against commercial jazz, dance jazz, and strict forms to become the music of jazz aficionados. Furthermore, by 1950 the emerging African-American popular music style known as Rhythm and Blues drew away the young African-American audience and soon Rock & Roll followed. Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African In the face of these major social shifts, Ellington continued on his own course, but major defections soon roiled his Orchestra and he started to retire earlier works composed for now departed members. For a time though Ellington continued to turn out major works, such as the Kay Davis vocal feature Transblucency and major extended compositions such as Harlem (1950), whose score he presented to music-loving President Harry Truman. Katherine Elizabeth "Kay" Davis (b December 5, 1920) was an American Jazz singer best known for her time with the Duke Ellington Orchestra
In 1951, Ellington suffered a major loss of personnel, with Sonny Greer, Lawrence Brown, and most significantly, Johnny Hodges leaving to pursue other ventures. John Cornelius "Johnny" Hodges ( 25 July, 1906 in Cambridge, Massachusetts – 11 May, 1970) was an American Lacking overseas opportunities and motion picture appearances, Ellington Orchestra survived on "one-nighters" and whatever else came their way, even six weeks in the summer of 1955 as the band for the Aquacade in Flushing, New York. Flushing, founded in 1645 is a neighborhood in the north central part of the City of New York borough of Queens, ten miles (16 km east of Manhattan Even though he made many television appearances, Ellington's hope that television would provide a significant new venue for his type of jazz did not pan out. The introduction of the 33 1/3 rpm LP record and hi-fi phonograph did give new life to older compositions. However by 1955, after ten years of recording for Capitol, Ellington no longer had a regular recording affiliation. Capitol Records is a major United States -based Record label owned by EMI and located in Hollywood California and New York City as
Ellington's appearance at the Newport Jazz Festival on July 7, 1956 returned him to wider prominence and exposed him to new audiences. The Newport Jazz Festival is a music festival held every August in Newport Rhode Island, USA. Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The feature "Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue", with saxophonist Paul Gonsalves's six-minute saxophone solo, had been in the band's book since 1937, but on this occasion it nearly created a riot. " Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue " is a Big band Jazz composition written in 1937 by Duke Ellington. Paul Gonsalves, ( -) was an American Jazz tenor saxophonist. Gonsalves made his name at the 1956 Newport Jazz Festival with an arresting 27-chorus The revived attention should not have surprised anyone — Hodges had returned to the fold the previous year, and Ellington's collaboration with Strayhorn had been renewed around the same time, under terms amenable to the younger man. Such Sweet Thunder (1957), based on Shakespeare's plays and characters, and The Queen's Suite the following year (dedicated to Queen Elizabeth II), were products of the renewed impetus which the Newport appearance had helped to create. William Shakespeare ( baptised For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II
A new record contract with Columbia produced Ellington's best-selling LP Ellington at Newport and yielded six years of recording stability under producer Irving Townsend, who coaxed both commercial and artistic productions from Ellington. In 1957, CBS (Columbia's parent corporation) aired a live television production of A Drum Is a Woman, an allegorical suite which received mixed reviews. Other festivals at Monterey and elsewhere provided new venues for live exposure, and a European tour in 1958 was wildly received. After a 25-year gap, Ellington and Strayhorn again wrote film scores, this time for Anatomy of a Murder and Paris Blues. Anatomy of a Murder is an American Trial court Drama film directed by Otto Preminger and written by Wendell Mayes based Paris Blues is a 1961 American feature film It stars Sidney Poitier as expatriate jazz musician Eddie Cook and Paul Newman as trombone-playing Ram Bowen Despite some personnel turnover, in 1960 Ellington still possessed a seasoned corps with Carney, Hodges, Williams, Brown, Nance, Hamilton, Procope, Anderson, and Gonsalves. Ellington and Strayhorn, always looking for new musical territory, produced adaptations of John Steinbeck's novel Sweet Thursday, Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite and Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt. John Steinbeck III (February 27 1902—December 20 1968 was one of the best-known and most widely read American writers of the 20th century The late 1950s also saw Ella Fitzgerald record her Duke Ellington Songbook with Ellington and his orchestra—a recognition that Ellington's songs had now become part of the cultural canon known as the "Great American Songbook". Ella Jane Fitzgerald (April 25 1917 &ndash June 15 1996 also known as " Lady Ella " and the "First Lady of Song" is considered one of the most influential Ella Fitzgerald Sings the Duke Ellington Songbook is a 1957 album (see 1957 in music) by Ella Fitzgerald, accompanied by the Duke Ellington Great American Songbook (sometimes abbreviated as "GAS" is a term referring to the interrelated music of Broadway musical theater
In the early 1960s, Ellington was between recording contracts, which allowed him to record with a variety of artists mostly not previously associated with him. The Ellington and Count Basie orchestras recorded together and he made a record with Coleman Hawkins, plus some work for Frank Sinatra's new Reprise label. William "Count" Basie ( August 21, 1904 &ndash April 26, 1984) was an American jazz pianist, Organist Coleman Randolph Hawkins ( November 21 1904 - May 19 1969) Nicknamed "Hawk" and sometimes "Bean" was a prominent Francis Albert "Frank" Sinatra (December 12 1915 &ndash May 14 1998 was an American singer and actor In 1962, he participated in a session which produced the "Money Jungle" (United Artists) album with Charles Mingus and Max Roach, and also recorded with John Coltrane for Impulse. The album Money Jungle is a 1962 Jazz trio session by Duke Ellington with Drummer Max Roach and Bassist United Artists Records was a Record label founded by Max E Youngstein of United Artists in 1958 initially to distribute Soundtracks Charles Mingus ( 22 April 1922 &ndash 5 January 1979) was an American Jazz Bassist, Composer, Maxwell Lemuel Roach ( January 10, 1924 &ndash August 16, 2007) was an American Jazz Percussionist, Drummer Impulse! Records was an American based Jazz Record label, originally launched in 1960 by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Musicians who had previously worked with Ellington returned to the Orchestra as members: Lawrence Brown in 1960 and Cootie Williams two years later. Charles Melvin ("Cootie" Williams (b July 24, 1910, Mobile Alabama - d September 15, 1985, New York New York Ellington was by now performing all over the world, a significant portion of each year was now spent making overseas tours, and he formed notable new working relationships, among which included the Swedish vocalist Alice Babs, and South African musicians Dollar Brand and Sathima Bea Benjamin (A Morning in Paris, 1963/2007). Alice Babs (born Hildur Alice Nilsson in January 26, 1924) is a Singer and Actor from Kalmar in Sweden. Abdullah Ibrahim (born 9 October 1934 in Cape Town, South Africa) formerly known as Adolph Johannes Brand, and as Dollar Brand Sathima Bea Benjamin (born 17 October 1936, Johannesburg, South Africa) is a South African vocalist and composer born in Johannesburg raised His earlier hits were now established standards, earning Ellington impressive royalties. "The writing and playing of music is a matter of intent. . . . You can't just throw a paint brush against the wall and call whatever happens art. My music fits the tonal personality of the player. I think too strongly in terms of altering my music to fit the performer to be impressed by accidental music. You can't take doodling seriously. "
Ellington was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize in 1965, but was turned down. The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism,  His reaction at 67 years old: "Fate is being kind to me. Fate doesn't want me to be famous too young. " He performed his first Concert of Sacred Music, an attempt at fusing Christian liturgy with jazz, in September of the same year, and even though it received so-so reviews, Ellington was enormously proud of the composition and performed it dozens of times. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions This concert was followed by two others of the same type in 1968 and 1973, called the Second and Third Sacred Concerts, respectively. This caused enormous controversy in what was already a tumultuous time in the United States. Many saw the Sacred Music suites as an attempt to reinforce commercial support for organized religion, though Ellington simply said it was, "the most important thing I've done. "
Though his later work is overshadowed by his music of the early 1940s, Ellington continued to make vital and innovative recordings, including The Far East Suite (1966), "The New Orleans Suite" (1970), and "The Afro-Eurasian Eclipse" (1971), much of it inspired by his world tours. The Far East Suite is an Album by Duke Ellington and his orchestra recorded in New York City on 19 December to 21 December It was during this time that Ellington recorded his only album with Frank Sinatra, entitled Francis A. & Edward K.. Francis Albert "Frank" Sinatra (December 12 1915 &ndash May 14 1998 was an American singer and actor Francis A & Edward K is a 1968 album by Frank Sinatra featuring Duke Ellington and his Big band.
Ellington was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1966. The Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award is awarded by the Recording Academy to "performers who during their lifetimes have made creative contributions of outstanding He was later awarded several other prizes, the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969, and the Legion of Honor by France in 1973, the highest civilian honors in each country. The Presidential Medal of Freedom is a decoration bestowed by the President of the United States and is along with the equivalent Congressional Gold Medal bestowed This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. He died of lung cancer and pneumonia on May 24, 1974, a month after his 75th birthday, and was interred in the Woodlawn Cemetery, The Bronx, New York City. Lung cancer is a Disease of uncontrolled Cell growth in tissues of the Lung. Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the Lung. Frequently it is described as lung Parenchyma / alveolar inflammation and abnormal This article refers to the Woodlawn Cemetery in the New York City borough of The Bronx The City of New York At his funeral attended by over 12,000 people at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, Ella Fitzgerald summed up the occasion, "It's a very sad day. Ella Jane Fitzgerald (April 25 1917 &ndash June 15 1996 also known as " Lady Ella " and the "First Lady of Song" is considered one of the most influential A genius has passed. " Mercer Ellington picked up the reins of the orchestra immediately after Duke's death.
Ellington's film work began in 1929 with the short film Black and Tan Fantasy. Short subject is a format description originally coined in the North American Film industry in the early period of cinema. Black and Tan Fantasy ( 1929) also known as Black and Tan, is a Short film directed and written by Dudley Murphy and features His Symphony In Black, which introduced Billie Holiday, was performed on film in 1935, winning an Academy Award as the best musical short subject. Billie Holiday (born Eleanora Fagan; April 7 1915 – July 17 1959 was an American Jazz singer and songwriter "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. He also appeared in the 1930 Amos 'n' Andy film Check and Double Check. Amos 'n' Andy was a situation comedy based on Stereotypes of African-Americans and popular in the United States from the 1920s through the 1950s Check and Double Check is a 1930 Motion picture made and released by RKO based on the then-popular Amos 'n' Andy radio He and his Orchestra continued to appear in films throughout the 1930s and 1940s, both in short films and in features such as Murder at the Vanities, and Belle Of The Nineties, (1934), and Cabin In The Sky (1943). Murder at the Vanities ( 1934) is a Musical film, made in the Pre-Code era and released by Paramount Pictures. Belle of the Nineties was Mae West 's fourth motion picture It was released by Paramount Pictures in 1934 and directed by Leo McCarey Cabin in the Sky is an American Broadway musical which opened in 1940 In the late 1950s, his work in films took the shape of scoring for soundtracks, notably Anatomy of a Murder (1959), with James Stewart, in which he appeared fronting a roadhouse combo, and Paris Blues, (1961), which featured Paul Newman and Sidney Poitier as jazz musicians. A film score is a broad term referring to the music in a film which is generally categorically separated from songs used within a film Anatomy of a Murder is an American Trial court Drama film directed by Otto Preminger and written by Wendell Mayes based James Maitland Stewart (20 May 1908 – 2 July 1997 popularly known as Jimmy Stewart, was an American Film and stage Actor Paris Blues is a 1961 American feature film It stars Sidney Poitier as expatriate jazz musician Eddie Cook and Paul Newman as trombone-playing Ram Bowen Paul Leonard Newman (January 26 1925 &ndash September 26 2008 was an Academy Award Sir Sidney Poitier, KBE (ˈpwɑːtie born February 20, 1927) is an Oscar - Golden Globe - BAFTA - and Grammy
He wrote an original score for Shakespeare's Timon of Athens that was first used in the Stratford Festival production that opened July 29, 1963 for director Michael Langham, who has used it for several subsequent productions, most recently in an adaptation by Stanley Silverman that expands on the score with some of Ellington's best-known works. The Life of Timon of Athens is a play by William Shakespeare about the legendary Athenian misanthrope Timon (and probably influenced The Stratford Shakespeare Festival (formerly known as the Stratford Festival of Canada is an annual celebration of Theatre running from April to November in the Canadian Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Michael Langham (born August 22, 1919 in Bridgwater, England) is a a British actor and director who has spent much of his career living
Ellington composed the score for the musical "Jump For Joy," which was performed in Los Angeles in 1941. Ellington's sole book musical, Beggar's Holiday, was staged on Broadway in 1946. Beggar's Holiday is a musical with a book and lyrics by John La Touche and music by Duke Ellington. Sophisticated Ladies, an award-winning 1981 musical revue, incorporated many of the tunes he made famous. Sophisticated Ladies is a musical Revue based on the Music of Duke Ellington.
In December of 1936 he was given the keys to the city of Los Angeles. Then, in 1966 Lyndon B. Johnson presented Ellington with the Presidents Gold Medal. Just three years later he was recognized by Richard M. Nixon with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Along with politically natured awards, he received high honors from the music community. Ellington has been honored with thirteen Grammy awards which span from 1959 to 2000, nine of which he lived to receive. In addition to a variety of awards, numerous memorials have been dedicated to Duke Ellington. A statue of Ellington at a piano is featured at UCLA's Schoenberg Hall.
Gunther Schuller said "Ellington composed incessantly to the very last days of his life. Gunther Schuller (born November 22 1925) is an American Composer and horn player Music was indeed his mistress; it was his total life and his commitment to it was incomparable and unalterable. In jazz he was a giant among giants. And in twentieth century music, he may yet one day be recognized as one of the half-dozen greatest masters or our time. "
Martin Williams said "Duke Ellington lived long enough to hear himself named among our best composers. Martin T Williams (1924–1992 was born in Richmond Virginia. And since his death in 1974, it has become not at all uncommon to see him named, along with Charles Ives, as the greatest composer we have produced, regardless of category. Charles Edward Ives (October 20 1874 – May 19 1954 was an American Composer of modernist Classical music. "
In Ellington's birthplace of Washington, D. C. , there stands a school dedicated to his honor and memory as well as a majestic bridge. The Duke Ellington School of the Arts educates talented students, who are considering careers in the arts, by providing intensive arts instruction and strong academic programs that prepare students for post-secondary education and professional careers. The Duke Ellington School of the Arts is a High school located in Washington D The massive Duke Ellington Bridge, built in 1935, carries Calvert Street over the ravine of Rock Creek Park, connecting Woodley Park to Adams Morgan. The Duke Ellington Bridge named after Duke Ellington, carries Calvert Street N Rock Creek Park is a large urban natural area with Public park facilities that bisects Washington D Adams Morgan is a culturally diverse Neighborhood in Northwest Washington D Ellington lived for years in a townhouse on the corner of Manhattan's Riverside Drive and West 106th Street. A number of cities around the world have a Riverside Drive. In the United States: Riverside Drive (Anderson California Riverside After his death, West 106th Street was officially renamed Duke Ellington Boulevard. A large memorial to Ellington, created by sculptor Robert Graham, was dedicated in 1997 in New York's Central Park, near Fifth Avenue and 110th Street, an intersection named Duke Ellington Circle. Robert Graham (born August 19, 1938, in Mexico City) is a Sculptor based in the state of California in the Central Park is a large public Urban park in New York City, with about twenty-five million visitors annually Although he made two more stage appearances before his death, Ellington performed what is considered his final "full" concert in a ballroom at Northern Illinois University on March 20, 1974. Northern Illinois University (NIU is a Public university located in DeKalb Illinois. Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. The hall was renamed the Duke Ellington Ballroom in 1980.
|Duke Ellington Grammy Award History|
|1999||Historical Album||The Duke Ellington Centennial Edition|
RCA Victor Recordings (1927-1973)
|1979||Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Big Band||Duke Ellington At Fargo, 1940 Live||Jazz||Winner|
|1976||Best Jazz Performance By A Big Band||The Ellington Suites||Jazz||Winner|
|1972||Best Jazz Performance By A Big Band||Toga Brava Suite||Jazz||Winner|
|1971||Best Jazz Performance By A Big Band||New Orleans Suite||Jazz||Winner|
|1968||Best Instrumental Jazz Performance - Large Group|
Or Soloist With Large Group
|...And His Mother Called Him Bill||Jazz||Winner|
|1967||Best Instrumental Jazz Performance, Large Group|
Or Soloist With Large Group
|Far East Suite||Jazz||Winner|
|1966||Best Original Jazz Composition||In The Beginning God||Jazz||Winner|
|1965||Best Instrumental Jazz Performance -|
Large Group Or Soloist With Large Group
|New Orleans Suite||Jazz||Winner|
|1959||Best Performance By A Dance Band||Anatomy Of A Murder||Pop||Winner|
|1959||Best Musical Composition First Recorded|
And Released In 1959
(More Than 5 Minutes Duration)
|Anatomy Of A Murder||Composing||Winner|
|1959||Best Sound Track Album - Background Score|
From A Motion Picture Or Television
|Anatomy Of A Murder||Composing||Winner|
Recordings of Duke Ellington were inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, which is a special Grammy award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least twenty-five years old, and that have "qualitative or historical significance. The Grammy Awards (originally called the Gramophone Awards)—or Grammys —are presented annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences The Far East Suite is an Album by Duke Ellington and his orchestra recorded in New York City on 19 December to 21 December The Grammy Hall of Fame Award is a special Grammy award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least twenty-five years old and that have "qualitative "
|Duke Ellington: Grammy Hall of Fame Award|
|Year Recorded||Title||Genre||Label||Year Inducted|
|1932||It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing)||Jazz (Single)||Brunswick||2008|
|1934||Cocktails For Two||Jazz (Single)||Victor||2007|
|1957||Ellington at Newport||Jazz (Album)||Columbia||2004|
|1956||Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue||Jazz (Single)||Columbia||1999|
|1967||Far East Suite||Jazz (Album)||RCA||1999|
|1944||Black, Brown and Beige||Jazz (Single)||RCA Victor||1990|
|1928||Black and Tan Fantasy||Jazz (Single)||Victor||1981|
|1941||Take the "A" Train||Jazz (Single)||Victor||1976|
|1931||Mood Indigo||Jazz (Single)||Brunswick||1975|
|2008||Gennett Records Walk of Fame|
|2004||Nesuhi Ertegün Jazz Hall of Fame|
at Jazz at Lincoln Center
|1999||Pulitzer Prize||Special Citation|
|1978||Big Band and Jazz Hall of Fame|
|1973||French Legion of Honor||July 6, 1973|
|1973||Honorary Degree in Music from Columbia University||May 16, 1973|
|1971||Songwriters Hall of Fame|
|1969||Presidential Medal of Freedom|
|1956||Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame inductee|
|1968||Grammy Trustees Award||Special Merit Award|
|1966||Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award|
|1959||NAACP Spingarn Medal|
U. The Grammy Hall of Fame Award is a special Grammy award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least twenty-five years old and that have "qualitative " It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing " is a 1931 composition by Duke Ellington with lyrics by Irving Mills, now accepted as a Ellington at Newport is a 1956 Jazz live Album by Duke Ellington and his band recording their historic 1956 concert at the Newport Jazz " Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue " is a Big band Jazz composition written in 1937 by Duke Ellington. The Far East Suite is an Album by Duke Ellington and his orchestra recorded in New York City on 19 December to 21 December Black Brown and Beige is a Jazz Suite written by Duke Ellington for a concert at the Carnegie Hall in 1943 " Take the 'A' Train " is a Jazz standard by Billy Strayhorn that was the Signature tune of the Duke Ellington orchestra " Mood Indigo " is a Jazz composition and Song, with music by Duke Ellington and Barney Bigard with lyrics by Gennett (pronounced with a soft G) was a United States based Record label which flourished in the 1920s. Jazz at Lincoln Center 2 by David Shankbonejpg|thumb|Peter Jay Sharp arcade]] Jazz at Lincoln Center (JLC is a constituent of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts Inc The Pulitzer Prizes for 1999 were announced on April 12, 1999. Dates of induction to the "Songwriters Hall of Fame" are given alongside the names A Adams Lee (1989 Adamson Harold This is a list of well-known recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, grouped by the aspect of life in which they are/were renowned Down Beat is an American Magazine devoted to "jazz blues and beyond" to indicate its expansion beyond the jazz realm which it covered exclusively The Grammy Trustees Award is awarded by the Recording Academy to "individuals who during their careers in music have made significant contributions other than The Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award is awarded by the Recording Academy to "performers who during their lifetimes have made creative contributions of outstanding The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP for outstanding achievement by a African American. S. Postage Stamp
|1986||22 cents Commemorative stamp||U.S. Postage Stamps||Photo (Scott #2211)|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Ellington, Edward Kennedy, The Duke|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Bandleader, composer, pianist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 29, 1899|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Washington, D.C., U.S.|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 24, 1974|
|PLACE OF DEATH||New York, New York, U.S.|