DualDisc is a type of double-sided optical disc product developed by a group of record companies including EMI Music, Universal Music Group, Sony/BMG Music Entertainment, Warner Music Group, and 5. The EMI Group is a British music company comprising the major record company EMI Music – which operates several labels and is based in Kensington in Universal Music Group (UMG is the largest Business group and family of Record labels in the Recording industry. Sony Music Entertainment is a major global Record label controlled by the Sony Corporation of America, being one of the "big four" record companies Warner Music Group (WMG is the third-largest of the "big four" major record labels, the others being Sony BMG, EMI, and Universal 1 Entertainment Group and now under the aegis of the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). It features an audio layer similar to a CD (but not following the Red Book CD Specifications) on one side and a standard DVD layer on the other. A Compact Disc (also known as a CD) is an Optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio Red Book is the standard for audio CDs ( Compact Disc Digital Audio system or CDDA) DVD (also known as " Digital Versatile Disc " or " Digital Video Disc " - see Etymology)is In this respect it is similar to, but distinct from, the DVD Plus invented in Europe by Dieter Dierks and covered by European patents. The DVDplus is a dual-sided disc similar to the DualDisc. It is an Optical disc Storage technology that combines the technology of DVD and
DualDiscs first appeared in the United States in March 2004 as part of a marketing test conducted by the same five record companies who developed the product. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The record industry is the part of the Music industry that sells Sound recordings of Music. The test involved thirteen titles being released to a limited number of retailers in the Boston, Massachusetts, and Seattle, Washington, markets. The test marketing was seen as a success after 82% of respondents to a survey (which was included with the test titles) said that DualDiscs met or exceeded their expectations. In addition, 90% of respondents said that they would recommend DualDisc to a friend.
DualDisc titles received a mass rollout to retailers throughout the United States in February, 2005, though some titles were available as early as November, 2004. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The recording industry had nearly 200 DualDisc titles available by the end of 2005 and over 2,000,000 units had been sold by the middle of that year.
DualDiscs appear to be based on double-sided DVD technology such as DVD-10, DVD-14 and DVD-18 except that DualDisc technology replaces one of the DVD sides with a CD. DVD (also known as " Digital Versatile Disc " or " Digital Video Disc " - see Etymology)is DVD (also known as " Digital Versatile Disc " or " Digital Video Disc " - see Etymology)is DVD (also known as " Digital Versatile Disc " or " Digital Video Disc " - see Etymology)is The discs are made by fusing together a standard 0. 6 mm-thick DVD layer (4. 7-gigabyte storage capacity) to a 0. A gigabyte (derived from the SI prefix Giga-) is a unit of Information or Computer 9 mm-thick CD layer (60-minute or 525-megabyte storage capacity), resulting in a 1. A megabyte is a unit of Information or Computer storage equal to either 106 (1000000 Bytes or 220 (1048576 bytes depending on 5 mm-thick double-sided hybrid disc that contains CD content on one side and DVD content on the other.
The challenge for the designers of DualDisc was to produce a dual-sided disc which was not too thick to play reliably in slot-loading drives, while the CD side was not too thin to be tracked easily by the laser. DVD Plus, though conceptually similar, uses a thicker CD layer and thus is more likely to get stuck in a slot-loading player (although this appears to be almost unknown); DualDisc takes the other course by thinning the CD layer.
Because the 0. 9 mm thickness of the DualDisc CD layer does not conform to Red Book CD Specifications, which call for a layer no less than 1. Red Book is the standard for audio CDs ( Compact Disc Digital Audio system or CDDA) 1 mm thick, some CD players may not be able to play the CD side of a DualDisc due to a phenomenon called spherical aberration. spherical-aberration-diskjpg|thumb|300 px|left|A Point source as imaged by a system with negative (top zero (center and positive (bottom spherical aberration As a result, the laser reading the CD side might get a "blurry" picture of the data on the disc; the equivalent of a human reading a book with glasses of the wrong strength. Engineers have tried to get around this by making the pits in the CD layer larger than on a conventional CD. This makes the CD side easier for the laser to read; equivalent to the book using bigger print to make it easier to see, even if the person's glasses are of the wrong strength. The downside to this, however, is that the playing time for the CD layer of some early DualDiscs decreased, from the standard 74 minutes of a conventional CD, to around 60 minutes, although this early limitation now appears to have been overcome.
The DVD side of a DualDisc completely conforms to the specifications set forth by the DVD Forum and DualDiscs have been cleared to use the DVD logo. The DVD Forum is an international organization composed of hardware software media and content companies that use and develop the DVD and HD DVD formats
Record companies have two main hopes for DualDiscs; the first being that they will eventually replace CDs as the preferred media for purchase at music retailers,piracy by giving consumers more incentive to buy their music through retailers. 'Copyright infringement' (or copyright violation) is the unauthorized use of material that is covered by Copyright law in a manner that violates Some titles such as Devils & Dust by Bruce Springsteen and Straight Outta Lynwood by "Weird Al" Yankovic have been released in the United States on DualDisc only. Devils & Dust is the thirteenth studio album by Bruce Springsteen, and his third folk album (after Nebraska and The Ghost of Tom Joad Straight Outta Lynwood is the twelfth album by "Weird Al" Yankovic. Alfred Matthew "Weird Al" Yankovic (ˈjæŋkəvɪk born October 23 1959 is a Grammy Award winning American singer Musician, actor satiristand the second being that the inclusion of bonus DVD content at a price similar to a conventional CD will help to slow down online music
In the US, the cost of a DualDisc at retail versus that of a conventional CD varies depending on the title but, on average, a DualDisc costs about $1. 50 to $2. 50 USD more than the same title on CD. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Some DualDisc titles such as Mr. A-Z by Jason Mraz and In Your Honor by the Foo Fighters have enhanced packaging which increases the retail cost of the DualDisc version of the albums over their CD counterparts more than the average. Jason Mraz ( IPA: /ˈdʒeɪsʌn mɜrˈæz/ born June 23, 1977) is a Singer-songwriter, born and raised in Mechanicsville Virginia In Your Honor is the fifth Album by the rock band Foo Fighters, released on June 14, 2005. Foo Fighters is an American Alternative rock and Post-grunge band formed by singer/guitarist Dave Grohl in 1995 There are also other factors which go into the additional costs such as production, marketing etc.
What one finds on the DVD side of a DualDisc title will vary. Common content includes:
The CD side of a DualDisc contains standard 16-bit LPCM audio sampled at 44. Linear pulse code modulation ( LPCM) is a method of encoding audio information digitally 1 kHz. On the DVD side, most record companies, with the notable exception of Sony Music, provide the album's music in both high-resolution, 24-bit DVD-Audio (typically at a sample rate of 96 or 192 kHz for stereo and 48 or 96 kHz for surround sound) and lower-resolution, 16-bit Dolby Digital sound (typically sampled at 48 kHz). Sony Music Entertainment is a major global Record label controlled by the Sony Corporation of America, being one of the "big four" record companies DVD-Audio (commonly abbreviated as DVD-A) is a digital format for delivering very High-fidelity audio content on a DVD. Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies developed by Dolby This is done to allow consumers with DVD-Audio players access to very high-resolution stereophonic and/or surround sound versions of the album while also providing the lower-resolution Dolby Digital stereophonic and/or surround sound which is compatible with any DVD player.
Because Sony has a high-resolution audio format, SACD, in the marketplace which directly competes with DVD-Audio (see next section), Sony Music, as a general rule, only provides 16-bit, 48 kHz sampled LPCM stereophonic (and sometimes Dolby Digital Surround) sound on the DVD side of their DualDiscs. Super Audio CD ( SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format that can provide higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the Red The sound is compatible with any DVD player; however, it does not provide the higher fidelity and resolution of 24-bit, high sample-rate DVD-Audio.
The biggest competition to DualDisc is the hybrid Super Audio CD (SACD), which was developed by Sony and Philips Electronics, the same companies that created the CD. Super Audio CD ( SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc format that can provide higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the Red is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world's largest Media conglomerates with Koninklijke Philips Electronics NV ( Royal Philips Electronics Inc. DualDiscs and hybrid SACDs are competing solutions to the problem of providing higher-resolution audio on a disc that can still be played on conventional CD players.
DualDiscs take the approach of using a double-sided disc to provide the necessary backwards compatibility; hybrid SACDs are a one-sided solution that instead use two layers: a conventional CD layer and a high-resolution layer.
Lasers in conventional CD players have a different wavelength (typically around 780 nm) than those in SACD players (650 nm). In Physics wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a propagating Wave of a given Frequency. Hybrid SACDs possess a special high density layer that is transparent to the conventional CD player's laser but is partially reflected by the SACD player's laser. When a hybrid SACD is placed into a conventional CD player, the laser beam passes through the high-resolution layer and is reflected by the conventional layer at the regular 1. 2 mm distance. The result is that the hybrid disc plays as normal.
When a hybrid disc is placed into an SACD player, the laser is partially reflected by the high-resolution layer (at 0. 6 mm distance) before it can reach the conventional layer. If a conventional CD is placed into an SACD player, the laser will read the disc without incident since there is no high-resolution layer to reflect. Because of the difference between the working distances of CDs and SACDs, the aperture of the lens in the SACD player must be adjusted to obtain the correct focal length. The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly it converges (focuses or diverges (diffuses Light.
Hybrid SACDs claim a higher compatibility rate with conventional CD players than DualDisc, because hybrid SACDs conform to Red Book standards. Red Book is the standard for audio CDs ( Compact Disc Digital Audio system or CDDA) However, a SACD or SACD-capable DVD player is required to take advantage of the enhanced SACD layer. With a DualDisc, consumers can use their existing DVD player to hear surround mixes. (DVD-Audio capable players are required for higher-resolution audio, if present. ) It is currently estimated that 75% of households in the United States have at least one DVD player.
In addition, several SonyBMG titles whose regular editions include copy protection programs (such as XCP and SunnComm) do not feature the software on the DualDisc versions. XCP redirects here For other uses see XCP (disambiguation. Extended Copy Protection (XCP is a software package SunnComm International Inc was the company that developed and owned the MediaMax technology software package which was sold as a form of Copy protection for
There are numerous criticisms about DualDiscs, ranging from size to DualDiscs being more fragile than conventional CDs.
In addition to the possible inability for some CD players to read a DualDisc properly, other consumer criticisms of DualDisc include:
A number of electronics companies such as Lexicon, Marantz, Mark Levinson, Onkyo, Panasonic, Pioneer, and Sony (both its Computer Entertainment and Electronics divisions) issued statements warning consumers about possible problems with playing DualDisc titles on their equipment. Ripping is the process of copying audio or video content to a Hard disk, typically from Removable media or media streams. Lexicon is an audio equipment manufacturing company founded in 1971 Marantz is a company that develops and sells upper-mid range to High-end audio products The company Mark Levinson, now owned by Madrigal Audio Laboratories (part of the Harman International Industries group specializes in high-end digital audio Jyutping: on1 kiu4) ( is a Japanese consumer Electronics manufacturer specializing in Home cinema and Audio equipment ( is a Multinational Corporation that specializes in digital entertainment products based in Tokyo, Japan. is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world's largest Media conglomerates with ( SCEI) is a Japanese Video game company specializing in a variety of areas in the video game industry mostly in Video game consoles and is a full
These warnings ranged in severity from DualDiscs just not working with the equipment to actual damage to the disc and/or equipment. Meridian Audio, Ltd., on the other hand, issued a statement that "no harm or damage whatsoever" would be caused to the player or the disc if DualDiscs were used on their equipment, but noted that their players with DVD drives would not reliably play the CD layer. Boothroyd Stuart Meridian is a British manufacturer of high-performance High-fidelity audio and video components and systems
There has been some controversy surrounding the DualDisc format, as Dieter Dierks, the inventor of the DVDplus specification, claims that DualDisc technology is in violation of his European patents. Dieter Dierks (born in Stommeln near Cologne) is a German Record producer and mostly known for his collaboration with the Rock band Scorpions The DVDplus is a dual-sided disc similar to the DualDisc. It is an Optical disc Storage technology that combines the technology of DVD and This delayed the release of DualDisc titles in Europe, with them eventually hitting European shores in September 2005. The first British artist to announce a DualDisc release of his album was Sony/BMG recording artist Will Young. William Robert Young (born 20 January 1979. Young's second album Friday's Child, was released in December 2003
For a list of current and planned DualDisc releases, see List of DualDisc releases. Since its mass rollout some of 2004 and 2005 's most popular albums have been released on DualDisc in the hopes that the extra exposure will help the new technology
Below is a list of the thirteen initial DualDisc titles released as part of the test marketing. Some of these DualDisc titles are now out of print.