The term “plot structure” or “dramatic structure” refers to the parts into which a short story, a novel, a play, a screenplay, or a narrative poem can be divided. The short story is a literary genre of Fictional Prose Narrative that tends to be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction such A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story A play, or stageplay, is a form of Literature written by a Playwright, almost always consisting of Dialogue between Fictional characters See also Pre-production Screenwriting A screenplay or script is a written plan authored by a Screenwriter, for a Film or Television Narrative poetry is Poetry that tells a story The poems may be short or long and the story it relates to may be simple or complex
Aristotle divided drama into three parts: a beginning, a middle, and an end. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Perhaps equally influential to writers and literary critics alike has been the analysis of dramatic structure of Gustav Freytag, who divides drama into five acts. Gustav Freytag ( July 13, 1816 &ndash April 30, 1895) was a German Dramatist and Novelist.
Freytag is known for his analysis of the structure of ancient Greek and Shakespearean drama. According to Freytag, a drama is divided into five parts, or acts:
Freytag’s analysis of dramatic structure is sometimes represented by means of a visual aid known as Freytag’s Pyramid.
In the exposition, the background information that is needed to understand the story properly is provided. Exposition is a technique by which background information about the characters events or setting is conveyed in a novel play movie or other work of fiction Such information includes the protagonist, the antagonist, the basic conflict, the setting, and so forth.
The exposition ends with the inciting moment, which is the single incident in the story’s action without which there would be no story. The inciting moment sets the remainder of the story in motion beginning with the second act, the rising action.
During rising action, the basic conflict is complicated by the introduction of related secondary conflicts, including various obstacles that frustrate the protagonist’s attempt to reach their goal. In the narrative of a work of fiction rising action is what occurs leading up to the Climax. Secondary conflicts can include adversaries of lesser importance than the story’s antagonist, who may work with the antagonist or separately, by and for themselves.
The third act is that of the climax, or turning point, which marks a change, for the better or the worse, in the protagonist’s affairs. The climax (from the Greek word “κλῖμαξ” ( klimax) meaning “staircase” and “ladder” or turning point of a Narrative If the story is a comedy, things will have gone badly for the protagonist up to this point; now, the tide, so to speak, will turn, and things will begin to go well for him or her. If the story is a tragedy, the opposite state of affairs will ensue, with things going from good to bad for the protagonist.
During the falling action, the conflict between the protagonist and the antagonist unravels, with the protagonist winning or losing against the antagonist. Falling action is the part of a story usually found in tragedies and short stories, following the climax and showing the effects of the climax The falling action might contain a moment of final suspense, during which the final outcome of the conflict is in doubt.
The comedy ends with a dénouement (a conclusion) in which the protagonist is better off than at the story’s outset. In Literature, a dénouement ( IPA:/deˈnuːmɑ̃/ consists of a series of events that follow the climax of a drama or narrative and thus serves as the The tragedy ends with a catastrophe in which the protagonist is worse off than at the beginning of the narrative.
Although Freytag’s analysis of dramatic structure is based on five-act plays, it can be applied (sometimes in a modified manner) to short stories and novels as well.
A specific exposition stage is criticized by Lajos Egri in The Art of Dramatic Writing. Lajos Egri (1888-1967 was born in Eger, Hungary ( Austria-Hungary) He states, “exposition itself is part of the whole play, and not simply a fixture to be used at the beginning and then discarded. ” According to Egri, the actions of a character reveal who they are, and exposition should come about naturally. The beginning of the play should therefore begin with the initial conflict.
Note how in the example above, the exposition stage does begin with an initial conflict.
Contemporary dramas increasingly use the fall to increase the relative height of the climax and dramatic impact (melodrama). The protagonist reaches up but falls and succumbs to his doubts, fears, and limitations. Arguably, the negative climax occurs when he has an epiphany and encounters his greatest fear or loses something important. This loss gives him the courage to take on another obstacle. This confrontation becomes the classic climax.
In fairness to Freytag, it should be remembered that his analysis applies not to modern drama but, rather, to ancient Greek and Shakespearean drama, as he clearly indicates in his work.