The draft (or draught) of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel), with the thickness of the hull included; in the case of not being included the draft outline would be obtained. A hull is the body of a Ship or Boat. It is a central concept in floating vessels as it provides the Buoyancy that keeps the vessel from sinking Waterline refers to an imaginary line marking the level at which Ship or Boat floats in the Water. In boats and ships keel can refer to either of two parts a structural element or a hydrodynamic element Draft determines the minimum depth of water a ship or boat can safely navigate. The draft can also be used to determine the weight of the cargo on board by calculating the total displacement of water and then using Archimedes' principle. In Physics, buoyancy ( BrE IPA: /ˈbɔɪənsi/ is the upward Force on an object produced by the surrounding liquid or gas in which it is A table made by the shipyard shows the water displacement for each draft. The density of the water (salt or fresh) and the content of the ship's bunkers has to be taken into account.

## Drafts of a Ship

Draft scale at the bow
Metric bow scale
English system in Roman numeration of the bow scale. Notation in Spanish pulgada=inch, pies = feet
graphical representation of the dimensions used to describe a ship.
• The draft aft (stern) is measured in the perpendicular of the stern. The stern is the rear or aft part of a Ship or Boat, technically defined as the area built up over the Sternpost, extending upwards from the Counter Length between perpendiculars, often abbreviated as p/p, pp, pp or LBP is a term describing the length of a Ship.
• The draft forward (bow (ship)) is measured in the perpendicular of the bow. The bow (pronounced &mdashrhymes with how) is a nautical term that refers to the forward part of the hull of a Ship or Boat,
• The mean draft is obtained by calculating from the averaging of the stern and bow drafts, with correction for water level variation and value of the position of F with respect to the average perpendicular.

### Variations of the draft

The draft of a ship can be affected by multiple factors, not considering the rise and fall of the ship by displacement:

• Draft variation by list
• Draft variation by water level change
• Allowance of fresh water draft variation by passage from fresh to sea water or vice versa
• Heat variation in navigating shallow waters

## The draft scale

The drafts are measured with a 'banded' scale, from bow and to stern, and for some ships, the average perpendicular measurement is also used. Two types of scales are used: one is measured in decimetres, with only even numbers represented; when measuring in feet, both odd and even numbers are represented, are usually marked in roman numerals. Roman numerals are a Numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals.

### Interpretation of the draft scale

The interpretation of the draft scale is achieved by the following: the number in 'feet' indicates the draft, the height of the number being a decimetre or 1/2 a foot (6 inches), according to the particular case; therefore, the positions are obtained in proportion. A decimetre ( American spelling: decimeter, symbol dm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one tenth The foot is an Anatomical structure found in many Animals It is the terminal portion of a limb which bears weight and allows Locomotion. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. In order to relate both scales, the equivalent measurements in feet, inches and centimetres are indicated. A centimetre ( American spelling: centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one hundredth

• 1 foot = 12 inches
• 1 inch = 2. 54 cm
• 1 foot = 30. 48 cm

## The implications of draft

### Large ships

Larger ships try to maintain an average water draft when they are light (without cargo), in order to make a better sea crossing and reduce the effects of the wind ( high centre of velic force). Cargo (or freight) refers to goods or produce transported generally for Commercial gain by ship, aircraft, train, In order to achieve this they use sailing ballasts to stabilize the ship, following the unloading of cargo. Ballast is used in Sailboats to provide moment to resist the lateral forces on the Sail.

The water draft of a large ship has little direct link with its stability, the latter depends solely on the respective positions of the metacenter of the hull and the centre of gravity. The metacentric height (GM is the distance between the center of gravity of a ship and its metacenter It is also true however, that a 'light' ship has quite high stability which can lead to implying too much rolling of the ship (due to memory). A fully laden ship (with a large draft)can have a strong or on the contrary, a weak stability depends upon the manner by which the ship is loaded (height of the centre of gravity).

The draft of ships can be increased when the ship is in motion, a phenomenon known as squat (shipping term) (nautical term for the action of the stern settling deeper when power is applied).

### Pleasure boats

A small draft allows pleasure boats to navigate through the shallower water. A pleasure craft (or pleasure boat) is a Boat used for personal Recreational or sometimes Sporting purposes This makes it possible for these boats to access smaller ports, to travel along rivers and even to 'beach' the boat.

A large draft ensures a good level of stability in strong wind, the centre of gravity is lower (ballast over the keel of the boat). For example: The ballasts placed very low in the keel in a boat such as a dragon boat with a draft of 1. A dragon boat or "dragonboat" is a very long and narrow human-powered Boat now used in the team Paddling sport of dragon boat 20 m for a length of 8. 90 m.

A boat like a catamaran can mitigate the problem by retrieving good stability in a small draft, but the width of the boat increases. A catamaran (From Tamil 'kattumaram' is a type of Multihulled Boat or Ship consisting of two hulls or vakas joined by some