D. Sc. , Sc. D. , S. D. , or Dr. Sc. are common abbreviations for the Latin Scientiae Doctor, meaning Doctor of Science. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
In the United States, the Doctor of Science is a doctoral degree equivalent to the Ph.D.. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. The first North American Sc. D. was inaugurated by Harvard University in 1872 - when graduate studies first began at Harvard and the Ph. D. degree first introduced there . The Doctor of Science degree is earned with the approval of a committee on the basis of original research and publications, and it is awarded predominantly in doctoral-level science programs, such as engineering, information systems, medical and health sciences, and neuro- and health economics.
Although much rarer than the Doctor of Philosophy, the Doctor of Science degree has long been awarded by major institutions, such as Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Tulane University, Washington University in St. Louis. Tulane University is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational Research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana. In effort to standardize doctoral degree conferral at these large research institutions, the Ph. D. has often replaced the Sc. D. For instance, the doctoral degree in biostatistics at Harvard recently changed from Sc. Biostatistics (a Portmanteau word made from biology and statistics sometimes referred to as biometry or biometrics) is the application of Statistics D. to Ph. D. - even though the doctoral-degree structure, requirements, and doctoral academic regalia have remained identical. As well, doctoral programs at Johns Hopkins University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology that offer the Sc. D degree also offer the Ph. D. degree - and requirements for obtaining the two degrees are identical. Currently, doctoral-level research programs that offer the Sc. D. but not the Ph. D. degree include several doctoral programs at Harvard University and Boston University, as well as the engineering programs at the Washington University in St. Louis and The George Washington University. For similarly-named academic institutions see Education in Boston MA. Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and The George Washington University ( GW or GWU) is a private coeducational university located in Washington D
In Ireland and the countries of the Commonwealth, such as the United Kingdom and India, the degree of Doctor of Science is one of the Higher Doctorates, typically having precedence after Divinity, Laws or Civil Law, Medicine, and Letters, and above Music. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement The degree is conferred on a member of the university who has a proven record of internationally recognised scholarship. A candidate for the degree will usually be required to submit a selection of their publications to the board of the appropriate faculty, which will decide if the candidate merits this accolade. The degree will only exceptionally be awarded to a scholar under the age of forty. The status of the degree has declined because it is not widely understood, but in former times the doctorate in science was regarded as a greater distinction than a professorial chair and hence a professor who was also a D. Sc. would be known as Doctor. The Doctor of Science may also be awarded as an honorary degree, that is, given to individuals who have made extensive contributions to a particular field and not for specific academic accomplishments. It is usual to signify this by adding (h. c. ) for honoris causa after D. An honorary degree or a degree honoris causa ( Latin: 'for the sake of the honour' is an Academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding Sc.
In these countries there are some doctoral degrees with very similar names, these are the:
All these doctoral degrees are equivalent to the Ph. The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies D but are considered to be separate degrees and should not be confused with the actual Dr. Sc. . Until German Reunification, universities in East Germany also awarded the Dr. German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung took place twice after 1945 first in 1957 the Saarland was permitted to join the Federal Republic of Germany The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state Sc. . However, the East German Dr. Sc. wasn't equivalent to the Ph. D since it was adopted to replace the German Habilitation and therefore was equivalent to this German qualification. Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by their own pursuit in certain European and Asian countries After reunification the Habilitation was reintroduced at universities in eastern Germany.
In Switzerland, the Dr. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Sc. is a doctoral degree awarded by the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology, only. The Swiss Dr. Sc. , like the D. Sc. in the US, is equivalent to the Ph. D, is earned with the approval of a committee on the basis of original research, publications, and extensive applied professional contributions and is awarded in doctoral level science and technology programs. Since 2004 the Dr. Sc. is the only doctoral degree awarded by the ETH Zurich. In the French-speaking part of Switzerland the Dr. Sc. is called Doctorat ès sciences techniques, abbreviated dr. ès. sc. and awarded by the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne. Despite the somewhat different name it is considered to be the same degree since Dr. Sc. is the formal name of the degree in the German and English languages. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
Most doctorate titles given in Brazil can be classified into two large groups:
1. Doutor em (Doctor in) field studied such as: Doutor em Medicina (Doctor in Medicine), Doutor em Teologia (Doctor in Theology), Doutor em Farmácia (Doctor in Pharmacy).
2. Doctor in Science (D. Sc. ) followed by the concentration area (program field).
Both kinds of doctorate are equivalent and obtained in Graduate School after satisfactory evaluation of knowledge, research accomplishment and thesis defense. This doctorate is comparable to a PhD program found in other countries. In the state of Sao Paulo, the doctorate title is the second highest academic title given by the state's universities (University of Sao Paulo - USP, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP and Sao Paulo State University - UNESP).
In the former Soviet Union and the various post-Soviet states, the status of Doktor nauk literally means "Doctor of Science", but is a post-doctoral degree and has no Western equivalent. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The post-Soviet states, also commonly known as former Soviet republics, are the 15 independent nations that split off from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Doktor nauk (доктор наук literally transtated as " Doctor of Sciences quot is a Higher doctorate degree the second and the highest post-graduate academic