A diploma mill (also known as a degree mill) is an organization that awards academic degrees and diplomas with substandard or no academic study and without recognition by official educational accrediting bodies. A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of Higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing A diploma (from Greek δίπλωµα diploma, meaning "folded paper" is a Certificate or Deed issued by an educational institution Educational accreditation is a type of Quality assurance process under which services and operations of an educational institution or program are evaluated by an external body These degrees are often awarded based on life experience. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary defines a diploma mill as "an institution of higher education operating without supervision of a state or professional agency and granting diplomas which are either fraudulent or, because of the lack of proper standards, worthless. Webster's Dictionary is the name given to a common type of English language dictionary in the United States. Higher education is Education that is provided by universities, vocational universities, Community colleges Liberal arts colleges " Such organizations are unaccredited, although some claim accreditation by non-recognized/unapproved organizations set up for the purposes of providing a veneer of authenticity. Accreditation mill refers to an Educational accreditation organization with low standards and without recognition from government and mainstream Academia. Although diploma mills typically are unaccredited, lack of educational accreditation does not necessarily indicate that an institution is a diploma mill.
Diploma mills are frequently named to sound confusingly similar to those of prestigious, accredited academic institutions. Educational accreditation is a type of Quality assurance process under which services and operations of an educational institution or program are evaluated by an external body Despite the fact that trademark law is intended to prevent this situation, diploma mills continue to employ various methods to avoid legal recourse. A trademark or trade mark, represented by the symbols ™ and ®, or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual A legal recourse is an action that can be taken by an individual or a corporation to attempt to remedy a legal difficulty An example of this is Thomas James Kirk's LaSalle University. For other educational institutions using the name "LaSalle University" see La Salle University. In their marketing and advertising campaigns, the mills will often misleadingly claim to be "accredited" when, in fact, many are found to have been endorsed by "dummy" accreditation boards set up by company affiliates. In an attempt to appear more legitimate to potential students, accreditation mills based in the United States may model their websites after real accrediting agencies overseen by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). Accreditation mill refers to an Educational accreditation organization with low standards and without recognition from government and mainstream Academia. Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA is a United States organization of degree -granting colleges and universities Some may even advertise services for transcript notation and diploma verification in order to seem more legitimate. Another typical ploy is for mills to claim to be internationally recognized by organizations such as UNESCO. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 UNESCO, however, does not possess the mandate to accredit or recognize institutions of higher education or their programs and diplomas. As diploma mills are typically also licensed to do business, it is common practice within the industry to misuse their business license to imply government approval.
Compared to legitimately accredited institutions, diploma mills tend to have drastically lowered requirements for academic coursework, with some even allowing their students to purchase credentials. Coursework is carried out by Students at University or middle / High school that contributes towards their overall Grade, but which Students may be required to purchase textbooks, take tests, and submit homework, but degrees are nonetheless conferred after little or no study.
Buyers often use the diplomas to claim academic credentials for use in securing employment (e. g. , a schoolteacher may buy a degree from a diploma mill in order to advance to superintendent). In Education, a teacher is one who helps Students or pupils often in a School, as well as in a Family, religious or In Education, a superintendent (also known as a chief school administrator in many states is an individual that has executive oversight and administration rights Some diploma mills claim to be based outside the country they market to. This is common with "offshore" jurisdictions.
Diploma mills share a number of characteristics that differentiate them from respected institutions, although some legitimate institutions can also exhibit one or more such characteristics. Some common characteristics are:
Degrees and diplomas issued by diploma mills have been used to obtain employment, raises, or clients. Even if issuing or receiving a diploma mill qualification is legal, passing it off as an accredited one for personal gain is a crime in many jurisdictions. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment In some cases the diploma mill may itself be guilty of an offense, if it knew or ought to have known that the qualifications it issues are used for fraudulent purposes. In law an offence is a violation of the Penal law. An offence can range from a simple Misdemeanor (e Diploma mills could also be guilty of fraud if they mislead customers into believing that the qualifications they issue are accredited or recognized, or make false claims that they will lead to career advancement, and accept money on the basis of these claims. In the broadest sense a fraud is a Deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual
Some unaccredited institutions include disclaimers in respect of accreditation in the small print of their contracts.
Fake degrees are risky for buyers and consumers, says John Bear, a distance learning and diploma mills expert. John Bjorn Bear PhD (born in 1938 is an American expert on and proponent of Distance education, and a writer of creative Reference works He holds bachelor's Distance education, or distance learning, is a field of education that focuses on the Pedagogy and Andragogy, technology and instructional systems design "It is like putting a time bomb in your resumé. It could go off at any time, with dire consequences. The people who sell fake degrees will probably never suffer at all, but the people who buy them often suffer mightily. And -- particularly if their "degree" is health-related -- their clients may be seriously harmed. "
In Australia it is a criminal offense to call an institution a university, or issue university degrees, without authorization through an act of federal or state parliaments. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
Under the Higher Education Support Act 2003, corporations wishing to use the term "university" require approval from the Minister for Education, Science and Training.
The corporate regulator ASIC places strict controls on corporations wishing to use the term "university" and the name must not imply a connection with an existing university (e. g. University Avenue Newsagent Pty Ltd) and the applicant does not intend to provide education services.
The Corporations Regulations 2001 lists the 39 academic organisations permitted to use the title "university".
The use of higher education terms (such as "degree") is protected in state legislation, e. g. Higher Education (Qld) Act 2003.
Specific penalties are given within the individual acts and more generally are also covered by the "Misleading and Deceptive Conduct" provisions of the Trade Practices Act 1974, permitting fines in excess of $10M AUS.
In 2006 the Canada Border Services Agency reported concerns about "visa mills," fraudulent universities operated for the sole purpose of helping foreign nationals obtain student visas to allow them to enter Canada. The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA (Agence des services frontaliers du Canada - ASFC is the Canadian government agency responsible for Border guard Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page 
In Germany it is a criminal offense to call an institution a university, a Fachhochschule, or issue academic degrees, without authorization through an act of the respective state's Ministry of Education. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A Fachhochschule (plural Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences is a German type of University, sometimes specialized in certain topical areas Germany (Deutschland is a Federal Republic consisting of sixteen States, known in German as Länder (singular A ministry is a specialised organisation responsible for a sector of Government Public administration, sometimes led by a minister, but usually a senior It is also a criminal offense to falsely claim a degree in Germany if it does not meet accredited approval.
Some corporate training programs in Germany use the English term "corporate university". Although such use of the term might be argued to be illegal, in practice it is tolerated since everyone understands that such programs are not actual universities.
It is illegal under Hong Kong law's Chap. 320 Post Secondary Colleges Ordinance Sec. 8 to use the word 'University' unless approved by Chief Executive in Council.
Under HK Laws. Chap 200 Crimes Ordinance, Section 73, anyone who knowingly used false documents with the intention of inducing somebody to accept it as genuine, "is liable for a 14 years imprisonment term". Section 76 outlines that anyone who make or possess machines that creates false documents are also liable for 14 years jail time.
The University Grants Commission states, in section 22 of the University Grants Commission Act of 1956:
"The right of conferring or granting degrees shall be exercised only by a University established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, a Provincial Act or a State Act or an institution deemed to be a University under section 3 or an institution specially empowered by an Act of Parliament to confer or grant degrees. The University Grants Commission of India is a Union government body that provides funds for government-recognised universities and Colleges It "
Legitimate higher education qualifications in Ireland are placed on, or formally aligned, with the National Framework of Qualifications. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. This framework was established by the National Qualifications Authority of Ireland in accordance with the Qualifications (Education and Training) Act (1999). The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland or NQAI ( Údarás Náisiúnta Cáilíochtaí na hÉireann in Irish) was set up under the Qualifications It is illegal under the Universities Act (1997) for any body offering higher education services to use the term "university" without the permission of the Minister for Education and Science. It is likewise illegal under the Institutes of Technologies Acts (1992-2006) to use the term "institute of technology" or "regional technology college" without permission.
In July 2007, the Secretariat of Public Education (SEP) of Mexico issued an alert listing eleven institutions that are unaccredited in Mexico: Atlantic International University, Pacific Western University, Endicott College, Alliant International University, United States International University, Newport University, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Westbridge University, West Coast University, Bircham International University, and Vision International University. The Secretariat of Public Education ( Secretaría de Educación Pública) of Mexico is the governmental department responsible for education and culture The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. California Miramar University ( CMU) is an unaccredited proprietary institution of Higher education located in San Diego, California Endicott College is a private, co-educational college located on a campus in Beverly, Massachusetts, on the North Shore of Massachusetts History Alliant International University is an independent not-for-profit university formed in July 2001 as a result of a merger between California School of Professional History Alliant International University is an independent not-for-profit university formed in July 2001 as a result of a merger between California School of Professional The University of Wales Newport (Welsh Prifysgol Cymru Casnewydd) is a University in the city of Newport, Wales in the United Kingdom The Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED, is the public Spanish Open University Bircham International University describes itself as an international Distance education university Vision International University is an unaccredited institution in Ramona California offering Academic degree programs designed to prepare men and women
Some of them were alleged to be committing academic fraud, through the issuance of degrees for a price after short durations (between seven and 60 days). Academic dishonesty or academic misconduct is any type of Cheating that occurs in relation to a formal Academic exercise
The Secretariat announced a public relations campaign to warn employers, students and parents of prospective students against this form of fraud. In future, Mexican private universities would be required to include official government registration information, including numbers and dates, in all publicity materials.
The New Zealand Education Act prohibits use of the terms "degree" and "university" by institutions other than the country's eight accredited universities. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island In 2004 authorities announced their intention to take action against unaccredited schools using the words "degree" and "university," including the University of Newlands, an unaccredited distance-learning provider based in the Wellington suburb of Newlands. Wellington (ˈwælɪŋtən is the Capital of New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area, the Suburb Other unaccredited New Zealand institutions reported to be using the word "university" included the New Zealand University of Golf in Auckland, the online Tawa-Linden and Tauranga Universities of the Third Age, and the Southern University of New Zealand. Newlands owner Rochelle M. Forrester said she would consider removing the word "university" from the name of her institution in order to comply with the law. 
Section five of the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines criminalizes the act of "Falsification of medical certificates, certificates of merit or services and the like. The Revised Penal Code contains the general penal laws of the Philippines. " Despite this, news and magazine articles appear from time to time reporting businesses operating along Recto Street in Manila which offer fake documents for sale. The City of Manila 
There is a long-lasting reputation of lower teaching standards and easier entrance requirements in many public polytechnic, and especially private institutions, which may seem rather relaxed. Institute of technology, and polytechnic, are designations employed in a wide range of learning institutions awarding different types of degrees and operating often at variable A number of scandals, suspicions and affairs involving private higher education institutions (for example, major private universities like Universidade Moderna (1998), Universidade Independente (2007) and Universidade Internacional (2007), among others), and a general perception of many of those institutions as having a tendentially relaxed teaching style with less rigorous criteria, have contributed to their poor reputation which originated a state-run inspection of private higher education institutions in 2007. Unlike Public universities, private universities generally do not receive direct operational funding from national or subnational governments and thus rely on private Moderna University ( Universidade Moderna) was a Portuguese Private university headquartered in Lisbon, with departments in Setúbal Independente University (in Portuguese Universidade Independente or UnI for short was a Private university, headquartered in Internacional University (Universidade Internacional or UI for short is a Portuguese Private university with facilities in Lisbon and  Many private and polytechnic institutions did not provide degree programs of academic integrity comparable to those of Portuguese state-run traditional universities. In the late 1990s and 2000s, there was a growing effort to define nonaccredited universities and other less reputable institutions as diploma mills, in order to raise awareness about the problem. Since 2007, the State has adopted more stringent rules for private degree-conferring institutions.
It is illegal to falsely claim a degree in South Korea if it does not meet accredited approval. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː For example, in March 2006 prosecutors in Seoul were reported to have "broken up a crime ring selling bogus music diplomas from Russia, which helped many land university jobs and seats in orchestras. Seoul ( soʊl is the Capital and largest City of South Korea. " People who falsely used these degrees were criminally charged.
Early 2007, Shin, Jung Ah (native 신정아) has been criminally charged for forging and misusing a degree from Yale University. This led to domino reactions due to her career status as a Professor in Dong-kuk University along with a curator position at an art gallery known to have many ties with both economical and political figures.
In June 2007 the Swedish Minister for Employment, Sven-Otto Littorin, was discovered to have an MBA degree from Fairfax University. Sven Otto Julius Littorin (born 1966 is a Swedish Moderate Party politician Minister of Employment in the cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt, and former Secretary Not to be confused with University of Fairfax or George Mason University, both in Fairfax Virginia, USA Aware that claiming an MBA from this diploma mill would be illegal in many states in the USA, Littorin tried to convince the Swedish media and people that the MBA was granted to him in good order. Probably due to the fact that he did not let anyone peer review his thesis, he was eventually forced to remove the reference from his official CV, but he remained in office. 
In federal law, qualifications from federal Institutes of Technology (ETH Zurich, EPF Lausanne) and those from Fachhochschule-institutions are protected and it is a criminal offense, under unfair competition legislation, to use any unfounded academic or occupational qualifications. A Fachhochschule (plural Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences is a German type of University, sometimes specialized in certain topical areas The mere keeping of such a title, however, is legal. Thus, one can call oneself a LL.M., but must not use when competing for clients. The Master of Laws is an advanced Academic degree, or research degree and is commonly abbreviated LL
There are three notable diploma mills in Switzerland: Freie Universität Teufen, Freie Universität Herisau and Freie Universität Zug.
In the UK it is illegal to offer something that may be mistaken to be a UK degree unless the awarding body is on a list maintained by the Department for Education and Skills. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Department for Education and Skills (DfES was a United Kingdom government department between 2001 and 2007 This is difficult to enforce on the Internet, where a site may be based abroad. However, UK Trading Standards officers have had notable success in countering a large diploma mill group based abroad that was using British place-names for its "universities". 
The United States does not have a federal law that would unambiguously prohibit diploma mills, and the term "university" is not legally protected. As a result, the United States is a diploma mill haven from a global viewpoint. The United States Department of Education lacks direct plenary authority to regulate schools and, consequently, the quality of an institution's degree. The United States Department of Education (also referred to as ED, for Education Department is a Cabinet -level department of the United States A plenary power or plenary authority is the complete power of a governing body Under the terms of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, the U.S. Secretary of Education is required by law to publish a list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies that the Secretary determines to be reliable authorities on the quality of education or training provided by the institutions of higher education that they accredit. The Higher Education Act of 1965 (Pub L No 89-329 (the "HSA" was legislation signed into United States law on November 8, 1965 as part of The United States Secretary of Education is the head of the Department of Education.
Diploma mills are mainly found in the U.S. jurisdictions which have not adopted tough laws to prohibit them. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Also, some degree mills have taken advantage of the U.S. Constitution's protection of religion by representing themselves as Bible colleges, since in many jurisdictions religious institutions can legally offer degrees in religious subjects without government regulation. The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment refers to the first of several pronouncements in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, stating that " A Bible college is an institution of Higher education that specializes in Biblical studies. Nevertheless, some religious colleges and seminaries have been fined for issuing degrees without meeting educational requirements. A seminary, theological college, or divinity school is a specialized and often live-in Higher education institution for the purpose of instructing students In fact it has been noted that:
|“||Fraudulent educational institutions continue to proliferate. These diploma mills survive by operating in states with lax law governing schools, such as California, Utah, Hawaii and Louisiana. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America They assume identities of well-known schools or as "religious" organizations. Because of constitutional safeguards in the United States guarantee separation of church and state, most states have been reluctant to pass any laws restricting the activities of churches, including their right to grant degrees. John Bear has asked, "What about a school that requires a five-page dissertation before awarding the Doctorate? Nobody seems to want the government stepping in to evaluate doctoral dissertations before permitting schools to grant degrees. John Bjorn Bear PhD (born in 1938 is an American expert on and proponent of Distance education, and a writer of creative Reference works He holds bachelor's "||”|
Although the DipScam operation in the 1980s led to a decline in diploma mill activity across the United States, the lack of further action by law enforcement, uneven state laws, and the rise of the Internet have combined to reverse many of the gains made in previous years. Operation DIPSCAM ( Operation Diploma Scam) was a series of investigations carried out by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the General Accounting Office The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks
A 2002 Seattle Times article noted that some believed Wyoming had "become a haven for diploma mills. The Seattle Times, one of two daily Newspapers serving Seattle Washington, United States, is the largest daily newspaper in the state of The State of Wyoming ( is a sparsely populated state in the western region of the United States. " Conversely, "Oregon, New Jersey, and North Dakota have adopted tough laws that include fines and jail time for using fake degrees to gain employment. Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. North Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern and Western regions of the United States of America. "
In 2004, a housecat named Colby Nolan was awarded an "Executive MBA" by Texas-based Trinity Southern University. WikipediaManual of Style (spelling, articles should conform to one overall spelling style of English typically the one most linked to the article topic (if it is geographic Colby Nolan is a Housecat who was awarded an MBA degree in 2004 by Trinity Southern University, a Dallas Texas -based Diploma Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Colby Nolan is a Housecat who was awarded an MBA degree in 2004 by Trinity Southern University, a Dallas Texas -based Diploma The cat belonged to a deputy attorney general looking into allegations of fraud by the school. The cat's application was originally for a Bachelor of Business Administration, but due to the cat's "qualifications" (including work experience in fast-food and as a paperboy) the school offered to upgrade the degree to an Executive MBA for an additional $100. As a result of this incident, the Pennsylvania attorney general has filed suit against the school. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern
In February 2005, the US Department of Education launched www.ope.ed.gov/accreditation to combat the spread of fraudulent degrees. The United States Department of Education (also referred to as ED, for Education Department is a Cabinet -level department of the United States 
The state of Washington passed a bill in March 2006 "prohibiting false or misleading college degrees. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. " The law was approved and introduced penalties of five years in prison and a $10,000 fine for knowingly granting or promoting an unaccredited award. In Tennessee, a law that took effect in July 2004 made diploma mill degrees illegal, but the state does not have an agency or authority to investigate. Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States.  Florida enacted a state law making it a criminal offense to claim a degree from an unaccredited college, but in 2003 it was reported that Hillsborough County, Florida, authorities had been advised that the statute was unconstitutional. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the Hillsborough County is a County located in the US state of Florida.  Wyoming passed a law requiring a post-secondary institution granting degrees to Wyoming citizens to be accredited, or to be a candidate for accreditation. The State of Wyoming ( is a sparsely populated state in the western region of the United States. (There is an exemption for religious schools. ) 
U. S. jurisdictions where the use of higher education credentials from diploma mills and unaccredited schools is explicitly illegal or legally restricted include Oregon , Michigan, Maine, North DakotaNew Jersey, Washington, Nevada, Illinois, Indiana, and Texas. Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. The State of Maine ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean North Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern and Western regions of the United States of America. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Nevada ( is a state located in the western region of the United States of America. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. .  Many other states are also considering restrictions on unaccredited degree use in order to help prevent fraud. 
In June 2006 it was reported that the National Collegiate Athletic Association had been "scrutinizing the standards of nontraditional high schools to identify 'diploma mills'. The National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA, often pronounced "N-C-Double-A" is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions conferences organizations " Reportedly this started when "The New York Times exposed University High in Miami. " Currently, there are 22 schools that are under review to make sure they meet NCAA requirements. 
In 2004, Laura Callahan resigned from the United States Department Of Homeland Security after it was learned that she had received her doctorate from the unaccredited Hamilton University (not to be confused with the fully accredited Hamilton College in Clinton, New York). Laura Callahan is a former senior director at the United States Department of Homeland Security who was forced to resign after an investigation revealed that she and This institution is not to be confused with the fully accredited Hamilton College in Clinton, New York. Hamilton College is a private independent liberal arts college located in Clinton, New York. Clinton is the name of several places in New York State Clinton Clinton County New York Clinton Dutchess County New York Callahan had previously been a senior director at the DHS and held supervisory positions at the United States Department of Labor and within the Bill Clinton White House. The United States Department of Labor is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for occupational safety wage and hour standards William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States According to an article in Reason magazine, “The (Callahan) scandal raises serious doubts about the government's ability to vet the qualifications of public employees on whom the nation's security depends. Reason is a libertarian monthly magazine from the Reason Foundation. ”
The Callahan scandal caused a public outcry that stimulated an 11-month congressional investigation into fraudulent use of and reimbursement for non-qualifying academic degrees by government workers, the first such major inquiry since Operation Dipscam. Operation DIPSCAM ( Operation Diploma Scam) was a series of investigations carried out by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the General Accounting Office A 2004 report released by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) detailed a pattern of widespread and ongoing abuse by numerous federal employees, based on information provided by three unaccredited schools that cooperated with the initial probe. The Government Accountability Office ( GAO) is the Audit, Evaluation, and investigative arm of the United States Congress. The institutions, California Coast University, Kennedy-Western University, and California Miramar University, represented a small fraction of the dozens of suspected diploma mills in existence nationwide. California Coast University ( CCU) is an accredited distance learning Private university that was established in 1973 and is located in Santa Ana Warren National University is a post-secondary, distance learning, unaccredited Private university offering undergraduate and California Miramar University ( CMU) is an unaccredited proprietary institution of Higher education located in San Diego, California The particular concern addressed was that the regulations allowing Federal funding of degrees mandate that the program must be accredited. Note that California Coast University has since gained national accreditation and is fully accredited by the DETC, which has Department of Education approval to accredit degree programs. California Coast University ( CCU) is an accredited distance learning Private university that was established in 1973 and is located in Santa Ana
463 federal employees were discovered to have been enrolled in the three schools at the time of the inquiry. The Department of Defense had the highest number of enrollees, with 257 employees registered. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government The GAO also found that the government itself had paid at least $170,000 for questionable "coursework" by federal employees at California Coast and Kennedy-Western alone, and believed that even this amount had been significantly understated by the institutions involved.
The GAO report revealed that at least 28 senior-level employees had obtained their degrees from diploma mills or unaccredited universities, while cautioning that "this number is believed to be an understatement. " The implicated officials included three unnamed National Nuclear Security Administration managers with emergency operations responsibility and top "Q level" security clearance allowing access to sensitive nuclear weapons information. The United States National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA is part of the United States Department of Energy. For use by the United Nations, see Security Clearance (UN A security clearance is a status granted to individuals allowing them access to Classified A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. In May of 2004, NNSA spokesman Brian Wilkes told reporters that "the [managers'] conditions of employment did not rest on the education that they were claiming," and that the revelations would not affect their job status. 
Many of the federal officials implicated in the scandal were never publicly named, and their status remains unclear. Charles Abell, the principal Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, was identified by the press as having obtained his master's degree from Columbus University of New Orleans, an unaccredited distance learning school. Not to be confused with Columbus University in Panama Columbus State University in the U Daniel P. Matthews, Chief Information Officer for the Department of Transportation (which oversees the Transportation Security Administration) was reported to have received his $3,500 bachelor of science degree from Kent College, a diploma mill in Mandeville, Louisiana. The United States Department of Transportation ( DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with Transportation The Transportation Security Administration ( TSA) is a US government agency that was created as part of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act Mandeville is a City in St Tammany Parish, Louisiana, United States. In spite of these revelations, both remained in their positions and continued to hold security clearances.  Abell continued in his Defense Department job until August 2005, when he joined the staff of the United States Senate Committee on Armed Services, where he remained until 2007. The Committee on Armed Services is a Committee of the United States Senate empowered with legislative oversight of the nation's military, including the 
On December 15, 2005, CNN aired a report on diploma mills and terrorism. Events 533 - Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Cable News Network, usually referred to by its Initialism CNN, is a major English language Television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner The report explained that "H-1B visas can be issued to anyone who is highly skilled and can get a job in the U. The H-1B is a non-immigrant visa in the United States under the Immigration & Nationality Act section 101(a(15(H S. McDevitt is concerned a phony advanced degree could be the first step for someone in a terrorist sleeper cell. "
The report explained, the Secret Service "bought their own degree for a perfect terrorist candidate, although theirs was fictional. " The person was Mohammed Syed with no formal education, but training in chemical engineering with the Syrian army. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية "The Secret Service even added to Syed's application that he needed a degree quickly, so he could find employment and obtain an H-1B visa, allowing him to stay in the US. " Furthermore, "In less than a month, the imaginary Syrian army expert was notified, James Monroe University was awarding him three advanced degrees in engineering and chemistry, all for $1,277. The subject of this article should not be confused with Regis University of Denver, Colorado. "