Diatomaceous earth (pronounced /ˌdaɪətəˈmeɪʃəs ˈɝθ/), also known as DE, TSS, diatomite, diahydro, kieselguhr, kieselgur and celite) is a naturally occurring, soft, chalk-like sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. Chalk (ʧɔːk is a soft white porous Sedimentary rock, a form of Limestone composed of the Mineral Calcite. In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere This powder has an abrasive feel, similar to pumice powder, and is very light, due to its high porosity. An abrasive is a material often a Mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away Pumice is a textural term for a volcanic rock that is a solidified frothy lava composed of highly microvesicular glass Pyroclastic with very thin translucent Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material and is measured as a fraction between 0–1 or as a Percentage between 0–100% The typical chemical composition of diatomaceous earth is 86% silica, 5% sodium, 3% magnesium and 2% iron. The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22 Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26
Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms, a type of hard-shelled algae. Diatoms ( Greek: (dia = "through" + (temnein = "to cut" i Algae ( sing. alga are a large and diverse group of simple typically Autotrophic organisms ranging from Unicellular to Multicellular forms It is used as a filtration aid, as a mild abrasive, as a mechanical insecticide, as an absorbent for liquids, as cat litter, as an activator in blood clotting studies, and as a component of dynamite. Filtration is a mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases by interposing a medium to fluid flow through which the fluid An insecticide is a Pesticide used against Insects in all developmental forms Cat litter (often called kitty litter) is one of any of a number of materials used in Litter boxes to absorb moisture from Cat Feces and Coagulation is a complex process by which Blood forms Clots It is an important part of Hemostasis (the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel whereby Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of Nitroglycerin, initially using Diatomaceous earth (kieselgur US Spelling kieselguhr As it is also heat-resistant, it can be used as a thermal insulator. The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of Heat transfer, or the methods and processes used to reduce heat transfer
In 1866, Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in diatomite. Year 1866 ( MDCCCLXVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common (21 October 1833 Stockholm, Sweden – 10 December 1896 Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist engineer innovator armaments manufacturer Nitroglycerin ( NG) ( US spelling also known as nitroglycerine, ( UK Spelling trinitroglycerin, trinitroglycerine This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. He patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867, and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite. Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of Nitroglycerin, initially using Diatomaceous earth (kieselgur US Spelling kieselguhr Year 1867 ( MDCCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting
The most common use (68%) of diatomaceous earth is as a filter medium, especially for swimming pools. In Chemistry and common usage a filter is a device (usually a membrane or layer that is designed A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or simply a pool, is an artificially enclosed Body of water intended for Swimming or It has a high porosity, because it is composed of microscopically-small, coffin-like, hollow particles. A coffin (also known as a casket in North American English) is a funerary Box used in the display and containment of deceased remains – either for It is used in chemistry under the name Celite as a filtration aid, to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass through or clog filter paper. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Filter paper is a semi-permeable Paper barrier placed Perpendicular to a liquid flow It is also used to filter water, particularly in the drinking water treatment process and in fish tanks, and other liquids, such as beer and wine. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used for drinking or not An aquarium (plural aquariums or aquaria) is a Vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which Water -dwelling Plants Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice It can also filter syrups and sugar. Other industries such as paper, paints, ceramics, soap and detergents use it as a fulling material.
The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive and, for this purpose, it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes, as well as in some facial scrubs. Toothpaste is a Paste or Gel Dentifrice used to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of Teeth. Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by using rubbing or a chemical action leaving a surface with significant Specular reflection and minimal
Diatomite is also used as an insecticide, due to its physico-sorptive properties. An insecticide is a Pesticide used against Insects in all developmental forms John Philip (1957 described sorptivity as a measure of the capacity of the medium to absorb or desorb liquid by Capillarity. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the cuticle, the waxy outer layer of insects' exoskeletons, causing them to dehydrate. An exoskeleton is an external Skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body in contrast to the internal Endoskeleton of for example a Human. An exoskeleton is an external Skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body in contrast to the internal Endoskeleton of for example a Human. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency, based on Fick's law of diffusion. Arthropods are Animals belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, " Joint " Fick's laws of diffusion describe Diffusion and can be used to solve for the diffusion coefficient D. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. The class Gastropoda or the gastropods, also previously known as gasteropods, or univalves, and more commonly known as Snails Slug is a common non-scientific word which is often applied to any Gastropod mollusk whatsoever that has a very reduced shell a small internal shell However, since slugs inhabit humid environments, efficacy is very low. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to increase its effectiveness. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-worm both animals and humans. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid, and can be used to help control and eventually eliminate a cockroach infestation. Boric acid, also called boracic acid or orthoboric acid or Acidum Boricum, is a mild Acid often used as an Antiseptic, Insecticide Cockroaches (or simply "roaches" are Insects of the order Blattaria. This material has wide application in control of insects of grain storage.
Disadvantages of using diatomaceous earth for pest control include the health risk to humans (see below), and the harm it does to many beneficial insects, including predatory beetles and bugs and many detritivores. Beneficial insects are any of a number of species of insects that perform valued services like Pollination and pest control Beetles are the group of Insects with the largest number of known Species. Detritivores, also known as detritus feeders or saprophages, are Heterotrophs that obtain Nutrients by consuming Detritus (decomposing
Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U. S. Center for Disease Control recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (or CDC) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services based in unincorporated Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism
It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. The type of silica used in cat litter comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans.
Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes.
Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens. Hydroponics (from the Greek words hydro (water and ponos (labour is a method of growing Plants using mineral Nutrient solutions without
It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants, particularly as bonsai soil. Bonsai (盆栽 literally "potted plant" is the art of Aesthetic miniaturization of Trees by growing them in containers Bonsai enthusiasts use it as a soil additive, or pot a bonsai tree in 100% Diatomaceous earth. Bonsai (盆栽 literally "potted plant" is the art of Aesthetic miniaturization of Trees by growing them in containers Bonsai (盆栽 literally "potted plant" is the art of Aesthetic miniaturization of Trees by growing them in containers Like perlite, vermiculite, and expanded clay, it retains water and nutrients while draining fast and freely allowing high oxygen circulation within the growing medium. Perlite is an Amorphous Volcanic Glass that has a relatively high Water content typically formed by the hydration of Obsidian Vermiculite is a natural Mineral that expands with the application of Heat. Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and
Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of highly concentrated chaotropic agents such as Sodium Iodide, guanidinium hydrochloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. An iodide Ion is an iodine atom with a &minus1 charge. Compounds with iodine in formal Oxidation state &minus1 are called iodides Guanidine is a Crystalline compound of strong Alkalinity formed by the Oxidation of Guanine. Guanidinium thiocyanate (GITC is a Chemical compound that can be used to deactivate a Virus, such as the influenza virus that caused the 1918 " As with other silicates, the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. The DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers, including water, at neutral to slightly alkaline pH. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as 5M HCl. Hydrochloric acid is the Solution of Hydrogen chloride ( H[[Chlorine Cl]] in water Calcination can further improve consistency of the material, while mild caustic treatment may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs. Calcination (also referred to as calcining) is a thermal treatment process applied to ores and other solid materials in order to bring about a Thermal decomposition
Because diatomite forms from the remains of water-borne diatoms, it is found close to either current or former bodies of water. Diatoms ( Greek: (dia = "through" + (temnein = "to cut" i It is generally divided into two categories based upon source: freshwater and saltwater. Freshwater is a word that refers to bodies of water such as Ponds lakes rivers and streams containing low concentrations of dissolved Salts and other Total dissolved Seawater is Water from a Sea or Ocean. On average seawater in the world's oceans has a Salinity of about 3 Freshwater diatomite is mined from dry lakebeds and is characteristically low in crystalline silica content. In Materials science, a crystal is a Solid in which the constituent Atoms Molecules or Ions are packed in a regularly ordered repeating Saltwater diatomite contains a high crystalline silica content, making it a useful material for filters, due to the sieve-like features of the crystals.
The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere, so locating major sources of atmospheric dust is important for climatology. Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of Dust is a general name for minute Solid particles with Diameters less than 500 micrometers. An atmosphere (from Greek ατμός - atmos, " Vapor " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere " Climatology (from Greek grc κλίμα klima, "region zone" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of Climate, scientifically Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play an important role. For instance, the largest single atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in Chad, where storms push diatomite gravel over dunes, generating dust by abrasion. The Bodélé Depression (also Bodele) located at the southern edge of the Sahara Desert in north central Africa, is the lowest point in Chad Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. In physical Geography, a dune is a Hill of Sand built by Aeolian processes. Abrasion is mechanical scraping of a rock surface by Friction between rocks and moving particles during their transport in Wind, Glacier, Waves 
The absorbent qualities of diatomite can result in a significant drying of the hands, if handled without gloves. The saltwater (industrial) form contains a highly crystalline form of silica, resulting in sharp edges. The sharpness of this version of the material makes it dangerous to breathe and a dust mask is recommended when working with it. Dust is a general name for minute Solid particles with Diameters less than 500 micrometers.
The type of hazard posed by inhalation depends on the form of the silica. Crystalline silica poses a serious inhalation hazard because it can cause silicosis. Silicosis (also known as Grinder's disease and Potter's rot) is a form of Occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline Silica Amorphous silica can cause dusty lungs, but does not carry the same degree of risk as crystalline silica. Food-grade diatomite generally contains very low percentages of crystalline silica. Diatomite produced for pool filters is treated with heat, causing the formerly amorphous silicon dioxide to assume its crystalline form.
In the United States, the crystalline silica content in the dusts is regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and there are guidelines for the maximum amounts allowable in the product and in the air near the breathing zone of workers. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the