In medicine, dialysis (from Greek "dialusis", meaning dissolution, "dia", meaning through, and "lusis", meaning loosening) is primarily used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function (renal replacement therapy) due to renal failure. Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles Renal replacement therapy is a term used to encompass life-supporting treatments for Renal failure. Renal failure or kidney Dialysis may be used for very sick patients who have suddenly but temporarily, lost their kidney function (acute renal failure) or for quite stable patients who have permanently lost their kidney function (stage 5 chronic kidney disease). Acute renal failure ( ARF) also known as acute kidney failure or acute kidney injury, is a rapid loss of Renal function due to damage to the Chronic kidney disease (CKD also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss of renal function over a period of months or years When healthy, the kidneys maintain the body's internal equilibrium of water and minerals (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfate) and the kidneys remove from the blood the daily metabolic load of fixed hydrogen ions. The kidneys also function as a part of the endocrine system producing erythropoietin and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol). Erythropoietin (ɨˌɹɪθɹoʊˈpɔɪɨtɨn /ɨˌɹɪθɹoʊˈpɔɪtən/ or /ɨˌɹiːθɹoʊ-/ or EPO is a Glycoprotein Hormone that controls Calcitriol ( INN) (ˌkælsɨˈtraɪɒl/ /ˌkælˈsɨtriːɒl or 125-dihydroxycholecalciferol (abbreviated 125-(OH2D3) (also Dialysis treatments imperfectly replace some of these functions through the diffusion (waste removal) and convection (fluid removal). Diffusion is the net movement of particles (typically molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration by uncoordinated random movement Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of molecules within Fluids (i Dialysis is an imperfect treatment to replace kidney function because it does not correct the endocrine functions of the kidney. 
Dialysis works on the principles of the diffusion and osmosis of solutes and fluid across a semi-permeable membrane. Diffusion is the net movement of particles (typically molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration by uncoordinated random movement A semipermeable membrane, also termed a selectively-permeable membrane, a partially-permeable membrane or a differentially-permeable membrane, is a membrane Blood flows by one side of a semi-permeable membrane, and a dialysate or fluid flows by the opposite side. Smaller solutes and fluid pass through the membrane. The blood flows in one direction and the dialysate flows in the opposite. The concentrations of undesired solutes (for example potassium, calcium, and urea) are high in the blood, but low or absent in the dialysis solution and constant replacement of the dialysate ensures that the concentration of undesired solutes is kept low on this side of the membrane. Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39 Calcium (ˈkælsiəm is the Chemical element with the symbol Ca and Atomic number 20 The dialysis solution has levels of minerals like potassium and calcium that are similar to their natural concentration in healthy blood. For another solute, bicarbonate, dialysis solution level is set at a slightly higher level than in normal blood, to encourage diffusion of bicarbonate into the blood, to neutralise the metabolic acidosis that is often present in these patients. In Inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate ( IUPAC -recommended nomenclature hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the Deprotonation In Inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate ( IUPAC -recommended nomenclature hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the Deprotonation In Medicine, metabolic acidosis is a process which if unchecked leads to acidemia (i
There are two primary types of dialysis, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. In Medicine, hemodialysis (also haemodialysis) is a method for removing waste products such as Potassium and Urea, as well as free water Introduction Current treatment options for patients with severe chronic kidney failure are Dialysis and kidney transplantation
In hemodialysis, the patient's blood is pumped through the blood compartment of a dialyzer, exposing it to a semipermeable membrane. In Medicine, hemodialysis (also haemodialysis) is a method for removing waste products such as Potassium and Urea, as well as free water Home hemodialysis (HHD is the provision of Hemodialysis in the home of people with stage 5 chronic kidney disease. The cleansed blood is then returned via the circuit back to the body. Ultrafiltration occurs by increasing the hydrostatic pressure across the dialyzer membrane. This usually is done by applying a negative pressure to the dialysate compartment of the dialyzer. This pressure gradient causes water and dissolved solutes to move from blood to dialysate, and allows removal of several litres of excess fluid during a typical 3 to 5 hour treatment. In the US, hemodialysis treatments are typically given in a dialysis center three times per week (due in the US to Medicare reimbursement rules), however, as of 2007 over 2,000 people in the US are dialyzing at home more frequently for various treatment lengths.  Studies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of dialyzing 5 to 7 times a week, for 6 to 8 hours. These frequent long treatments are often done at home, while sleeping but home dialysis is a flexible modality and schedules can be changed day to day, week to week. In general, studies have shown that both increased treatment length and frequency are clinically beneficial. 
In peritoneal dialysis, a sterile solution containing minerals and glucose is run through a tube into the peritoneal cavity, the abdominal body cavity around the intestine, where the peritoneal membrane acts as a semipermeable membrane. Introduction Current treatment options for patients with severe chronic kidney failure are Dialysis and kidney transplantation In higher Vertebrates the peritoneum is the Serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity &mdash it covers most of the intra-abdominal In Vertebrates such as Mammals the abdomen (belly constitutes the part of the body between the Thorax (chest and Pelvis. In Anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the Stomach to the Anus and in humans and other mammals consists The dialysate is left there for a period of time to absorb waste products, and then it is drained out through the tube and discarded. This cycle or "exchange" is normally repeated 4-5 times during the day, (sometimes more often overnight with an automated system). Ultrafiltration occurs via osmosis; the dialysis solution used contains a high concentration of glucose, and the resulting osmotic pressure causes fluid to move from the blood into the dialysate. Osmosis is the Diffusion of a solvent (frequently water through a semi-permeable membrane, from a solution of low solute concentration (high water potential As a result, more fluid is drained than was instilled. Peritoneal dialysis is less efficient than hemodialysis, but because it is carried out for a longer period of time the net effect in terms of removal of waste products and of salt and water are similar to hemodialysis. Peritoneal dialysis is carried out at home by the patient and it requires motivation. Although support is helpful, it is not essential. It does free patients from the routine of having to go to a dialysis clinic on a fixed schedule multiple times per week, and it can be done while travelling with a minimum of specialized equipment.
Hemofiltration is a similar treatment to hemodialysis, but it makes use of a different principle. In Medicine, hemofiltration, also haemofiltration, is a Renal replacement therapy similar to Hemodialysis which is used almost exclusively in The blood is pumped through a dialyzer or "hemofilter" as in dialysis, but no dialysate is used. A pressure gradient is applied; as a result, water moves across the very permeable membrane rapidly, facilitating the transport of dissolved substances, importantly ones with large molecular weights, which are cleared less well by hemodialysis. Salts and water lost from the blood during this process are replaced with a "substitution fluid" that is infused into the extracorporeal circuit during the treatment. An extracorporeal medical procedure is a Medical procedure which is carried outside the body Hemodiafiltration is a term used to describe several methods of combining hemodialysis and hemofiltration in one process. In Medicine, hemofiltration, also haemofiltration, is a Renal replacement therapy similar to Hemodialysis which is used almost exclusively in
The decision to initiate dialysis or hemofiltration in patients with renal failure can depend on several factors, which can be divided into acute or chronic indications. Renal failure or kidney