|Molar mass||134. IUPAC Nomenclature is a system of naming Chemical compounds and of describing the science of Chemistry in general CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for Chemical compounds Polymers biological sequences mixtures and Alloys They are also referred to PubChem is a Database of chemical Molecules The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI a component A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the Atoms that constitute a particular Chemical compound, and how the relationship between those atoms changes Molar mass, symbol M, is the Mass of one mole of a substance ( Chemical element or Chemical compound) 13|
91 °C, 364 K, 196 °F
|Solubility in water||Very soluble|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group in its linear structure. The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. Solubility is the characteristic Physical property referring to the ability of a given substance the Solute, to dissolve in a Solvent. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 Kilopascals exactly A pentose is a Monosaccharide with five Carbon Atoms They either have an Aldehyde Functional group in position 1 ( aldopentoses Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single sacchar: sugar are the most basic unit of Carbohydrates They consist of one sugar and Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 History See also Atomic theory, Atomism The concept that matter is composed of discrete units and cannot be divided into arbitrarily tiny An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a terminal Carbonyl group. In Organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of Atoms within Molecules that are responsible for the characteristic Chemical reactions It is a deoxy sugar derived from the pentose sugar ribose by the replacement of the hydroxyl group at the 2 position with hydrogen, leading to the net loss of an oxygen atom. A pentose is a Monosaccharide with five Carbon Atoms They either have an Aldehyde Functional group in position 1 ( aldopentoses Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Ribose (ɹˈaɪbəʊs ɹˈaɪbəɹʊs primarily seen as D-ribose, is an Aldopentose — a Monosaccharide containing five Carbon Hydroxyl in Chemistry stands for a molecule consisting of an Oxygen atom and a Hydrogen atom connected by a Covalent bond. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Replacement of the hydroxyl group also shifts the conformation of the ring from C3'-endo to C2'-endo. It has a chemical formula of C5H10O4; it was discovered in 1929 by Phoebus Levene. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the Atoms that constitute a particular Chemical compound, and how the relationship between those atoms changes Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Phoebus Aaron Theodore Levene MD ( 25 February, 1869 &mdash 6 September, 1940) was a Russian-American Biochemist who studied the
Ribose forms a five-member ring composed of four carbon atoms and one oxygen. Ribose (ɹˈaɪbəʊs ɹˈaɪbəɹʊs primarily seen as D-ribose, is an Aldopentose — a Monosaccharide containing five Carbon Hydroxyl groups are attached to three of the carbons. Hydroxyl in Chemistry stands for a molecule consisting of an Oxygen atom and a Hydrogen atom connected by a Covalent bond. The other carbon and a hydroxyl group are attached to one of the carbon atoms adjacent to the oxygen. In deoxyribose, the carbon furthest from the attached carbon is stripped of the oxygen atom in what would be a hydroxyl group in ribose. Hydroxyl in Chemistry stands for a molecule consisting of an Oxygen atom and a Hydrogen atom connected by a Covalent bond. Due to the common C3' and C4' stereochemistry of D-ribose and D-arabinose, D-2-deoxyribose is also D-2-deoxyarabinose. Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of Chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of Atoms within Molecules An important branch
Deoxyribofuranose is an alternative name for the ring structure of deoxyribose. This alternative name merely refers to the fact that deoxyribose has a five membered ring consisting of four carbons and an oxygen and is more a structural description than a name.
Ribose and 2-deoxyribose derivatives have an important role in biology. Among the most important derivatives are those with phosphate groups attached at the 5 position. Mono-, di-, and triphosphate forms are important, as well as 3-5 cyclic monophosphates. There are also important diphosphate dimers called coenzymes that purines and pyrimidines form an important class of compounds with ribose and deoxyribose. Purine ( 1) is a heterocyclic Aromatic Organic compound, consisting of a Pyrimidine ring fused to an Imidazole ring Pyrimidine is a Heterocyclic Aromatic Organic compound similar to Benzene and Pyridine, containing two Nitrogen Atoms When these purine and pyrimidine derivatives are coupled to a ribose sugar, they are called nucleosides. See also Adenosine triphosphate (ATP In these compounds, the convention is to put a ′ (pronounced "prime") after the carbon numbers of the sugar, so that in nucleoside derivatives a name might include, for instance, the term "5′-monophosphate", meaning that the phosphate group is attached to the fifth carbon of the sugar, and not to the base. The bases are attached to the 1′ ribose carbon in the common nucleosides. Phosphorylated nucleosides are called nucleotides. Nucleotides are Organic compounds that consist of three joined structures a nitrogenous base a Sugar, and a Phosphate group
One of the common bases is adenine (a purine derivative); coupled to ribose it is called adenosine; coupled to deoxyribose it is called deoxyadenosine. Adenine is a Purine with a variety of roles in Biochemistry including Cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich Adenosine Adenosine is a Nucleoside composed of a Molecule of Adenine attached to a Ribose sugar molecule ( Ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9- Deoxyadenosine is Deoxyribonucleoside and is considered a derivative of the Nucleoside Adenosine, differing from the latter by the replacement The 5′-triphosphate derivative of adenosine, commonly called ATP, for adenosine triphosphate, is an important energy transport molecule in cells. Adenosine-5'-triphosphate ( ATP) is a multifunctional Nucleotide that is most important as a " molecular currency" of intracellular Energy
See Nucleic acid nomenclature for a diagram showing the numbered positions in a 5′-monophosphate nucleotide. Molecular biologists use several shorthand terms when referring to Nucleic acid molecules such as DNA and RNA, collectively referred to as nucleic
2-Deoxyribose and ribose nucleotides are often found in unbranched 5′-3′ polymers. A polymer is a large Molecule ( Macromolecule) composed of repeating Structural units typically connected by Covalent Chemical bonds In these structures, the 3′carbon of one monomer unit is linked to a phosphate that is attached to the 5′carbon of the next unit, and so on. A monomer (from Greek mono "one" and meros "part" is a small Molecule that may become chemically bonded to other These polymer chains often contain many millions of monomer units. Since long polymers have physical properties distinctly different from those of small molecules, they are called macromolecules. The term macromolecule by definition implies "large Molecule " The sugar-phosphate-sugar chain is called the backbone of the polymer. One end of the backbone has a free 5′phosphate, and the other end has a free 3′OH group. The backbone structure is independent of which particular bases are attached to the individual sugars.
Genetic material in earthly life often contains poly 5′-3′, 2′-deoxyribose nucleotides, in structures called chromosomes, where each monomer is one of the nucleotides deoxy- adenine, thymine, guanine or cytosine. A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and Protein that is found in cells. Adenine is a Purine with a variety of roles in Biochemistry including Cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich Adenosine Thymine is one of the four bases in the Nucleic acid of DNA that make up the letters ATGC Guanine is one of the five main Nucleobases found in the Nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being Adenine, Cytosine, Cytosine is one of the five main bases found in DNA and RNA. It is a Pyrimidine derivative with a Heterocyclic Aromatic ring This material is commonly called deoxyribonucleic acid, or simply DNA for short. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known
DNA in chromosomes forms very long helical structures containing two molecules with the backbones running in opposite directions on the outside of the helix and held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotide bases lying between the helical backbones. The lack of the 2′ hydroxyl group in DNA appears to allow the backbone the flexibility to assume the full conformation of the long double-helix, which involves not only the basic helix, but additional coiling necessary to fit these very long molecules into the very small volume of a cell nucleus.
In contrast, very similar molecules, containing ribose instead of deoxyribose, and known generically as RNA, are known to form only relatively short double-helical complementary base paired structures. Ribonucleic acid ( RNA) is a Nucleic acid that consists of a long chain of Nucleotide units These are well known, for instance, in ribosomal RNA molecules and in transfer RNA (tRNA), where so-called hairpin structures from palindromic sequences within one molecule. Ribosomes ( from ribo nucleic acid and "Greek soma ( meaning body") are complexes of RNA and Protein that Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA) is a small RNA (usually about 74-95 nucleotides that transfers a specific Amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at A palindrome is a word phrase number or other sequence of units that can be read the same way in either direction (the adjustment of punctuation and spaces between words Hi