For the similarly named Macedonian ruler, see Demetrius II of Macedon. For the similarly named Seleucid ruler see Demetrius II Nicator. For the Macedonian prince, see Demetrius the Fair. For the similarly named Macedonian ruler see Demetrius II of Macedon.
Demetrius II (d. 125 BC), called Nicator (Victor), ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was the middle son of Demetrius I Soter. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i Demetrius I (r 162 BC - 150 BC surnamed Soter, was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. As a young boy, he fled to Crete after the death of his father, his mother and his older brother, when Alexander Balas usurped the Seleucid throne. Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the Alexander Balas ( Greek) ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom 150-146 BC was a native of Smyrna of humble origin but gave himself The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i About 147 BC he returned to Syria, and with the help of Ptolemy VI Philometor, king of Egypt, regained his father's throne. Ptolemy VI Philometor ( Greek: grc Πτολεμαῖος Φιλομήτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philomḗtōr, ca The Egyptian king also divorced his daughter Cleopatra Thea from Balas and remarried her to Demetrius. Cleopatra Thea (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Θεά which means "Cleopatra the Goddess" (ca Alexander fled to the Nabateans who, anxious to stay on good terms with Egypt, cut off his head.
However, Demetrius was not a popular king. The people of Syria had little respect for the young boy, who had come to power with the help of Egypt and Cretan mercenaries led by the ruthless condottiere Lasthenes. The Antiochenians offered the Seleucid throne to Ptolemy VI, who had already conquered most of southern Syria for his own interest. However, he insisted Demetrius would become king, knowing that Rome would never tolerate a unified Hellenistic state, and the year after Ptolemy VI was killed when Alexander Balas made a last desperate attempt to regain his throne. The Egyptian troops marched home, leaderless and disillusioned, and with Balas dead as well Demetrius became sole master of the Seleucid kingdom.
But new troubles soon arose. The pillaging of the Cretan soldiers caused the Antiochenians to rise in rebellion, and only after terrible massacres could order be restored. Soon after, the general Diodotus conquered Antioch and had his protegé Antiochus VI Dionysus, the infant son of Alexander Balas, proclaimed king. Diodotus Tryphon was king of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom. Antiochus VI Dionysus (ca 148&ndash138 BC king of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, was the son of Alexander Balas and Cleopatra Thea Demetrius proved unable to retake the capital, instead establishing himself in Seleucia. Diodotus had Antiochus VI deposed a few years later, and made himself King as Tryphon, but the division of the kingdom between the legitimate Seleucid heir and the usurper in Antioch persisted.
In 139 BCE Parthian activity forced Demetrius to take action. He marched against Mithradates I, king of Parthia and was initially successful, but was defeated in the Iranian mountains and taken prisoner the following year. Mithridates I (B 195 BC? D 138 BC was the "Great King" of Parthia from ca Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran The Babylonian province of the Seleucid empire became Parthian, but in Syria was the dynasty's grip was reassured under Antiochus VII Sidetes, the younger brother of Demetrius, who also married Cleopatra Thea. Antiochus VII Euergetes, nicknamed Sidetes (from Sidon) ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 138 to 129 BC
King Mithradates had kept Demetrius II alive and even married him to a Parthian princess named Rhodogune, with whom he had children. Rhodogune was the daughter of Mithridates I (king of Parthia, c However, Demetrius was restless and twice tried to escape from his exile on the shores of the Caspian sea, once with the help of his friend Kallimander, who had gone to great lengths to rescue the king: he had travelled incognito through Babylonia and Parthia. When the two friends were captured, the Parthian king did not punish Kallimander but rewarded him for his fidelity to Demetrius. The second time Demetrius was captured when he tried to escape, Mithradates humiliated him by giving him a golden set of dice, thus hinting that Demetrius II was a restless child who needed toys. It was however for political reasons that the Parthians treated Demetrius II kindly.
In 130 BCE Antiochus Sidetes felt secure enough to march against Parthia, and scored massive initial successes. Now Phraates II made what he thought was a powerful move: he released Demetrius, hoping that the two brothers would start a civil war. Phraates II of Parthia son of Mithridates I of Parthia (171&ndash128 BC the conqueror of Babylon, ruled the Parthian Empire from 138 BC to 128 However, Sidetes was defeated soon after his brother's release and never met him. Phraates II set people to pursue Demetrius, but he managed to safely return home to Syria and regained his throne and his queen as well.
However, the Seleucid kingdom was now but a shadow of its former glory, and Demetrius had a hard time ruling even in Syria. Recollections of his cruelties and vices - along with his humiliating defeat - caused him to be greatly detested. The Egyptian queen Cleopatra II set up an army for Demetrius, hoping to engage him in her civil wars against her brother king Ptolemy VIII, but this only added to his grief. Cleopatra II (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα &mdash c 185&ndash116 BC was a queen (and briefly sole ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt, daughter of Ptolemy Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II ( Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs) (c The troops soon deserted, and king Ptolemy VIII reacted by setting up yet another usurper, a man named Alexander II Zabinas against Demetrius. Alexander II Zabinas ( Greek) ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was a counter-king who emerged in the chaos following the Seleucidian
In 126 BCE Demetrius was defeated in a battle at Damascus, and killed on a ship near Tyre, after his wife Cleopatra Thea had deserted him. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. Tyre ( Arabic صور Ṣūr, Phoenician Phoenician wawsvg|12px|ו]] Ṣur, Hebrew Cleopatra Thea (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Θεά which means "Cleopatra the Goddess" (ca His miserable death - he was captured and possibly tortured - was a fitting epitaph to the many shortcomings of his reign. Demetrius II was certainly incapable of handling the developing threats to the Seleucid empire, but his reputation for cruelty was probably undeserved. He was only around fourteen at his coronation, and the real power was in the hands of others.
He was succeeded by his queen Cleopatra Thea and then by two of their sons, Seleucus V Philometor and Antiochus VIII Grypus. The Seleucid king Seleucus V Philometor ( 126 - 125 BC) ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, was the eldest son of Demetrius Antiochus VIII Epiphanes/Callinicus/Philometor, nicknamed Grypus (hook-nose ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was son of Demetrius II Nicator
Demetrius II NicatorBorn: Unknown Died: 125 BC
with Antiochus VI Dionysus (145–142 BC)
Diodotus Tryphon (142–139 BC)
Antiochus VII Sidetes
Antiochus VII Sidetes
with Alexander II Zabinas (129–123 BC)
The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i Alexander Balas ( Greek) ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom 150-146 BC was a native of Smyrna of humble origin but gave himself The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i Antiochus VI Dionysus (ca 148&ndash138 BC king of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, was the son of Alexander Balas and Cleopatra Thea Diodotus Tryphon was king of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom. Antiochus VII Euergetes, nicknamed Sidetes (from Sidon) ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 138 to 129 BC Alexander II Zabinas ( Greek) ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was a counter-king who emerged in the chaos following the Seleucidian Cleopatra Thea (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Θεά which means "Cleopatra the Goddess" (ca