A decoy is usually a person, device or event meant as a distraction to conceal what an individual or a group might be looking for. A broader definition of a tool is an entity used to interface between two or more domains that facilitates more effective action of one domain upon the other Decoys have been used for centuries most notably in game hunting, but also in wartime and in the committing or resolving of crimes. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment
The decoy in war may for example be a wooden fake tank, designed to be mistaken by bomber plane crews to be real, or a device that fools an automatic system such as a guided missile, by simulating some physical properties of a real target. A tank is a tracked, Armoured fighting vehicle designed for Front-line combat which combines Operational mobility and tactical A bomber is a Military aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets primarily by dropping Bombs on them Guided Missile is a London based Independent record label set up by Paul Kearney in 1994.
For a defence system, decoys and chaff for ICBMs would mainly work in midcourse: during the boost phase they would be inside the rocket, because separate rockets for each of many decoys would not be practical, while at reentry light decoys and chaff considerably slow down and/or are destroyed in the atmosphere. Defence Chaff, originally called Window by the British, and Düppel by the World War II era German Luftwaffe, is a A rocket or rocket vehicle is a Missile, Aircraft or other Vehicle which obtains Thrust by the reaction of the Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five
A decoy was originally a small pond with a long cone-shaped wickerwork tunnel, used to catch wild ducks. Wicker is hard woven Fiber formed into a useful object Wicker is usually used for Baskets or Furniture. For duck as a food see Duck (food; for other meanings see Duck (disambiguation. After the ducks settled, a small trained dog would herd the ducks into the tunnel. The catch was formerly sent to market for food, but now these are only used to catch ducks to be ringed and released: see ornithology. Bird ringing (also known as bird Banding) is an aid to studying wild Birds by attaching a small individually numbered metal or plastic ring to their legs Ornithology (from Greek ὄρνις ὄρνιθος ornis, ornithos, "bird" and λόγος logos, "knowledge" is the branch of The word came from Dutch eende(n)kooi = "duck cage". Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname As the above meaning of a person or device supplanted the original meaning as the most common, the latter acquired the retronym "decoy pool". A retronym is a type of Neologism coined for an old object or concept whose original name has come to be used for something else is no longer unique or is otherwise inappropriate List of Duck Decoys
Wildfowl decoys (primarily ducks, geese, shorebirds, and crows, but including some other species) are considered a form of folk art. Folk art describes a wide range of objects that reflect the Craft traditions and traditional social values of various social groups Collecting decoys has become a significant hobby both for folk art collectors and hunters. The world record was set in January 2007 when a red-breasted merganser hen (circa 1875) by Lothrop Holmes of Kingston, MA sold for $856,000(US). January 2007 is the first month of that year It began on a Monday and 31 days later ended on a Wednesday. The Red-breasted Merganser ( Mergus serrator) is a diving Duck. Kingston is a coastal town in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States. 
In biochemistry, there are decoy receptors, decoy substrates and decoy RNA. In Biochemistry, a receptor is a Protein molecule embedded in either the Plasma membrane or Cytoplasm of a cell to which a mobile signaling Ribonucleic acid ( RNA) is a Nucleic acid that consists of a long chain of Nucleotide units In addition, digital decoys are used in protein folding simulations. Protein folding is the physical process by which a Polypeptide folds into its characteristic and functional three-dimensional structure.
A decoy receptor, or sink receptor , is a receptor that binds a ligand, inhibiting it from binding to its normal receptor. In Chemistry, a ligand is either an Atom, Ion, or Molecule (see also Functional group) that bonds to a central metal generally For instance, the receptor VEGFR-1 can prevent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from binding to the VEGFR-2
A decoy substrate or pseudosubstrate is a protein that has similar structure to the substrate of an enzyme, in order to make the enzyme bind to itself rather than to the real substrate, thus blocking the activity of the enzyme. Fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor receptor, also known as FLT1, is a human Gene. Vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) a sub-family of Growth factors, more specifically of Platelet-derived growth factor family of cystine-knot growth Kinase insert domain receptor (a type III receptor tyrosine kinase is a VEGF receptor. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins These proteins are therefore enzyme inhibitors. Enzyme inhibitors are Molecules that bind to Enzymes and decrease their activity.
Examples include 3KL produced by vaccinia virus, which prevents the immune system of phosphorylating the substrate eIF-2 by having a similar structure to eIF-2. Vaccinia virus ( VACV or VV) is a large complex enveloped Virus belonging to the Poxvirus family An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within an Organism that protects against Disease by identifying and killing Pathogens and Tumor Thus, the vaccinia virus avoids the immune system.
In protein folding simulations, a decoy is a computer-generated protein structure which is designed so to compete with the real structure of the protein. Protein folding is the physical process by which a Polypeptide folds into its characteristic and functional three-dimensional structure. Decoys are used to test the validity of a protein model; the model is considered correct only if is able to identify the native state configuration of the protein among the decoys.
Decoys are generally used to overcome a main problem in protein folding simulations: the enormity of the conformational space. Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary Science that deals with the Chemical synthesis and chemical properties of For very detailed protein models, it can be practically impossible to explore all the possible configurations to find the native state. Protein folding is the physical process by which a Polypeptide folds into its characteristic and functional three-dimensional structure. To deal with this problem, one can make use of decoys. The idea behind this, is that the native configuration has not to be blindly searched through all possible conformations; the search can be limited to a relevant sub-set of structures. To start with, all non-compact configurations can be excluded. A typical decoy set will include globular conformations of various shapes, some having no secondary structures, some having helices and sheets in different proportions. Protein folding is the physical process by which a Polypeptide folds into its characteristic and functional three-dimensional structure. The computer model being tested will be used to calculate the free energy of the protein in the decoy configurations. In Thermodynamics, the term thermodynamic free energy refers to the amount of work that can be extracted from a System, and is helpful in Engineering The minimum requirement for the model to be correct is that it identifies the native state as the minimum free energy state (see Anfinsen's dogma). Anfinsen's dogma (also known as the thermodynamic hypothesis) is a postulate in Molecular biology championed by the Nobel prize laureate Christian
Main article Waterfowl decoy collecting
Ever since Joel Barber, the first known decoy collector, started in 1918, decoys have become increasingly viewed as an important form of North American folk art. History Ever since Joel Barber, the first known Joel Barber was an early 20th century architect from New York who is best known as an early collector and promoter of duck decoys as Folk art. Folk art describes a wide range of objects that reflect the Craft traditions and traditional social values of various social groups Barber's book Wild Fowl Decoys, was the first book on decoys as collectible objects. Wild Fowl Decoys is an art Reference book by American collector Joel Barber, first published in 1934 by The Derrydale Press It was followed in 1965 by folk art dealer Adele Earnest's "The Art of the Decoy" and "American Bird Decoys" by collector Wm. F. Mackey.
By that time a milestone in collecting had already occurred with the publication of "Decoy Collectors Guide", a small magazine created by hobbyists Hal & Barbara Sorenson of Burlington, Iowa. The 'Guide' helped foster a sense of community and provided a forum for collectors to share their research.
By the 1970s decoys were becoming big business, at least by previous standards. The death of Wm. F. Mackey brought his decoys to market in a series of auctions in 1973 and 1974, with the star of his collection, a Long-billed Curlew by Wm. 'Bill' Bowman selling for a record US$10,500.
Since the 1960s numerous collectors organizations have been created, specialist books and magazines published, with specialist dealers, and special interest shows around the US and Canada.
The largest collectors organization is the Midwest Decoy Collectors Association (MDCA)which despite its name is the de facto international group. MDCA is a non-profit, [[] 501(c)(3)]] organization which sponsors the biggest show of the year. There are numerous state and regional groups as well.
The current World Record price for an antique duck decoy: Red Breasted Merganser Hen by Lothrop Holmes for $856,000. Guyette & Schmidt and Christie's New York. Christie's is a leading art business and a fine arts Auction house January 2007. 
A new record was set when two decoys (Canadian goose and a preening pintail drake) by A. Elmer Crowell of East Harwich, MA were perportadly sold for $1. 13 million dollars each in September, 2007 although this is unclear as they were part of a sale of over 30 decoys for $3. 7 million. 
Fish decoy collecting is also quite popular. Especially ice fishing decoys. See also fishing lures. In terms of Recreational fishing, a lure is an object attached to the end of the Fishing line and designed to resemble and move like an item of Fish Prey