Debate (American English) or debating (British English) is a formal method of interactive and position representational argument. Phonology North American English regional phonology In many ways compared to English English, North American English is conservative in its Phonology. British English or UK English ( BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the In Logic, an argument is a Set of one or more Declarative sentences (or "propositions") known as the Premises along Debate is a broader form of argument than logical argument, since it includes persuasion which appeals to the emotional responses of an audience, and rules enabling people to discuss and decide on differences, within a framework defining how they will interact. In Logic, an argument is a Set of one or more Declarative sentences (or "propositions") known as the Premises along Persuasion is a form of Social influence. It is the process of guiding people toward the adoption of an idea attitude or action by rational and symbolic (though not always Brooklyn Book Festival crowd by David Shankbonejpg|thumb|An audience at the Brooklyn Book Festival in New York City.
Informal debate is a common occurrence, but the quality and depth of a debate improves with knowledge and skill of its participants as debaters. Deliberative bodies such as parliaments, legislative assemblies, and meetings of all sorts engage in debates. A deliberative assembly is an Organization, comprising of members that uses Parliamentary procedure for making decisions Debate or discussion in Parliamentary procedure refers to discussion on the merits of a pending question that is whether it should or not be agreed to The outcome of a debate may be decided by audience vote, by judges, or by some combination of the two. Formal debates between candidates for elected office, such as the leaders debates and the U.S. presidential election debates, are common in democracies. In jurisdictions which use the Westminster system of Government or a similar system leaders debates are often held usually during a General election campaign During presidential elections in the United States, it has become customary for the main candidates Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system
Rule-based competitive debate is often encouraged in high schools and colleges. Often, it takes the form of a contest with explicit rules. It may be presided over by one or more judges. A judge, or justice, is an Official who presides over a Court of law Each side seeks to win, by following the rules, and even by using some rules to break other rules, within limits. Each side is either in favor ("for, 'Affirmative' "), or opposed to ("against, 'Negative' "), a statement (proposition or Resolution) which if adopted would change something with the exception of some high school and college debate where moots may hold no outcome ie. In Logic and Philosophy, proposition refers to either (a the content or Meaning of a meaningful Declarative sentence the moot "ignorance is bliss". Some of the rules are broad and must be followed in a general way. For example, those in favor of the proposition are
To further illustrate the importance of rules, those opposed must destroy these arguments, sufficiently to warrant not adopting the proposition, and are not required to propose any alternative solutions.
The major goal of the study of debate as a method or art is to develop one's ability to play from either position with equal ease. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual To inexperienced debaters, some propositions appear easier to defend or to destroy; to experienced debaters, any proposition can be defended or destroyed after the same amount of preparation time, usually quite short. Lawyers argue forcefully on behalf of their client, even if the facts appear against them. A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person A customer is someone who makes use of the paid products of an individual or Organization. However one large misconception about debate is that it is all about argument; it is not.
Competitive Debate is an organized activity with teams competing at the local, national, and international level. It is popular in English-speaking universities and high schools around the world, most notably in South Africa, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Many different styles of debate occur under a variety of organizations and rules.
Parliamentary debate (sometimes referred to as "parli" in the United States) is conducted under rules derived from British parliamentary procedure. Parliamentary Debate is an academic Debate event Most University level institutions in English speaking nations sponsor parliamentary debate teams but the format Parliamentary procedure is the body of Rules Ethics, and Customs governing meetings and other operations of Clubs Organizations It features the competition of individuals in a multi-person setting. It borrows terms such as "government" and "opposition" from the British parliament (although the term "proposition" is used rather than "government" when debating in the United Kingdom).
Throughout the world, parliamentary debate is what most countries know as "debating", and is the primary style practiced in the United Kingdom, Australia, India and most other nations. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The premier event in the world of parliamentary debate, the World Universities Debating Championship, is conducted in the British Parliamentary style. The World Universities Debating Championship (WUDC is the world's largest debating tournament and one of the largest annual international Student events in the world
Even within the United Kingdom, however, 'British Parliamentary' style is not used exclusively; the English-Speaking Union runs the national championships for schools in a unique format, known as the 'Mace' format after the name of the competition, while simultaneously using British Parliamentary format for the national universities championships. The English-Speaking Union is an international educational charity founded by journalist Evelyn Wrench in 1918
In the U. S. the American Parliamentary Debate Association (APDA) is the oldest national parliamentary debating organization, based on the east coast and including all of the Ivy League, although the more recently founded National Parliamentary Debate Association (NPDA) is now the largest collegiate sponsor. The American Parliamentary Debate Association ( APDA) is the oldest intercollegiate parliamentary debating association in the United States and one of two in the nation The East Coast of the United States, also known as the "Eastern Seaboard" or "Atlantic Seaboard" refers to the easternmost coastal states in the central and northern The Ivy League is an Athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States. The National Parliamentary Debate Association (NPDA is one of the two national intercollegiate Parliamentary debate organizations in the United States. The National Parliamentary Debate League (NPDL) is the umbrella organization for all parliamentary debating at the secondary school level in the United States. And in Canada, the Canadian Universities Society for Intercollegiate Debating (CUSID) is the umbrella organization for all university-level debating; at the secondary school level, the Canadian Student Debating Federation (CSDF) has the same function. The Canadian University Society for Intercollegiate Debate ( CUSID generally and SUCDI in French) is the national organization which governs and represents
Topics in parliamentary debate can either be set by the tournament or determined by the debaters as the "Government" side begins. In many forms of the activity rhetoric and style, as well as the more traditional knowledge and research, can play a significant role in determining the victor with marks shared equally between matter and manner. It has been widely labeled as the most democratic form of educational debate.
This style of debate is arguably the most prominent in Britain, with the national schools competition undoubtedly the most prestigious of its kind. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Two teams of two debate an affirmative motion (e. g "This house would give prisoners the right to vote,") which one team will propose and the other will oppose. Each speaker will make a seven minute speech in the order; 1st Proposition, 1st Opposition, 2nd Proposition, 2nd Opposition. After the first minute of each speech, members of the opposing team may request a point of information. A team comprises a group of people or Animals linked in a common purpose If the speaker accepts they are permitted to ask a question. P. O. Is are used to pull the speaker up on a weak point, or to argue against something the speaker has said. However after 6 minutes, no more P. O. Is are permitted. After all four have spoken the debate will be opened to the floor, in which members of the audience will put questions to the teams. A floor is the walking surface of a room or vehicle Floors vary from simple dirt in a cave to many-layered surfaces using modern technology Brooklyn Book Festival crowd by David Shankbonejpg|thumb|An audience at the Brooklyn Book Festival in New York City. After the floor debate, one speaker from each team (traditionally the first speaker), will speak for 4 minutes. The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of In these summary speeches it is typical for the speaker to answer the questions posed by the floor, answer any questions the opposition may have put forward, before summarising his or her own key points. The main purpose of such a simplification is to highlight the major points from the genuine (much longer subject e In the Mace format, emphasis is typically on analytical skills, entertainment, style and strength of argument. See also Entertainment (disambiguation and The Entertainer (disambiguation Entertainment is an activity designed to give people In Logic, an argument is a Set of one or more Declarative sentences (or "propositions") known as the Premises along The winning team will typically have excelled in all of these areas.
Public debate is a style of debate involving two teams of two. for debate among the public see Public sphere Public debate is a formal style of debate Each team is given their topic at the beginning of a round, along with the side they are to take. The teams are given 15 minutes to create an outline before they begin to debate. Because the topic of the debate is unknown to the speakers until before the debate, it requires little planning and instead a wide knowledge of different topics.
Australasia style debates consist of two teams who debate over an issue, more commonly called a topic or proposition. Australia-Asia Debate is a form of academic Debate. In the past few years this style of debating has increased in usage dramatically throughout both Australia and The issue, by convention, is presented in the form of an affirmative statement beginning with "That", for example, "That cats are better than dogs," or "This House", for example, "This House would establish a world government. " The subject of topics varies from region to region. Most topics however, are usually region specific to facilitate interest by both the participants and their audiences.
Each team is comprised of three members, each of whom is named according to their team and speaking position within his/her team. For instance the second speaker of the affirmative team to speak is called the "Second Affirmative Speaker" or "Second Proposition Speaker", depending on the terminology used. Each of the speakers' positions is based around a specific role, the third speaker for example has the opportunity to make a rebuttal towards the opposing teams argument introducing new evidence to add to their position. The last speaker is called the "Team Advisor/Captain". Using this style, the debate is finished with a closing argument by each of the first speakers from each team and new evidence may not be introduced. Each of the six speakers (three affirmative and three negative) speak in succession to each other beginning with the Affirmative Team. The speaking order is as follows: First Affirmative, First Negative, Second Affirmative, Second Negative, Third Affirmative, and finally Third Negative.
The context in which the Australasia style of debate is used varies, but in Australia and New Zealand is mostly used at the Primary and Secondary school level, ranging from small informal one-off intra-school debates to larger more formal inter-school competitions with several rounds and a finals series which occur over a year.
This is the biggest debating tournament in Asia, where teams from the Middle East to Japan come to debate. The Asian Universities Debating Championship (AUDC is an annual debating tournament for teams from universities in Asia. It is traditionally hosted in southeast Asia where participation is usually highest compared to other parts of Asia.
Asian debates are largely an adaptation of the Australasian format. The only difference is that each speaker is given 7 minutes of speech time and there will be points of information (POI) offered by the opposing team between the 2nd to 6th minutes of the speech. This means that the 1st and 7th minute is considered the 'protected' period where no POI's can be offered to the speaker.
The debate will commence with the Prime Minister's speech (first proposition) and will be continued by the first opposition. This alternating speech will go on until the third opposition. Following this, the opposition bench will give the reply speech.
In the reply speech, the opposition goes first and then the proposition. The debate ends when the proposition ends the reply speech. 4 minutes is allocated for the reply speech and no POI's can be offered during this time.
A specifically french format, put in place by Mr Declan McCavana. Two teams of five debate on a given motion. One side is supposed to defend the motion while the other must defeat it. The debate is judged on the quality of the arguments, the strength of the rhetoric, the charisma of the speaker, the quality of the humor, the ability to think on one's feet and, of course, the teamwork.
The first speaker of the Proposition (Prime Minister) opens the debate, followed by the first speaker of the Oppostion (Shadow Prime Minister), then the second speaker of the Proposition and so on.
Every speaker speaks for 6 minutes. After the first minute and before the last minute, debaters from the opposite team may ask Points of Information, which the speaker may accept or reject as he wishes (although he is supposed to accept at least 2).
The French Debating Association organizes its National Debating Championship upon this style.
Policy Debate is a style of debating where two teams of two debaters advocate or oppose a plan derived from a resolution that usually calls for a change in policy by a government. Policy debate is a form of speech competition in which teams of two advocate for and against a resolution that typically calls for policy change by the United States Federal Teams normally alternate, and compete in rounds as either "affirmative" or "negative". In most forms of the activity, there is a fixed topic for an entire year or another set period. In comparison to parliamentary debate, policy debate relies more on researched evidence and tends to have a larger sphere of what is considered legitimate argument, including counterplans, critical theory, and debate about the theoretical standards of the activity itself. A counterplan, is a component of Argumentation theory commonly exploited in the activity of Policy debate. In the Humanities and Social sciences, critical theory is the examination and critique of Society and Literature, drawing from knowledge across While rhetoric is important and reflected in the "speaker points" given to each debater, each round is usually decided based on who has "won" the argument according to the evidence and logic presented. Additionally, in certain segments of the activity, debaters may "spread" (speak very rapidly), in order to present as much evidence and information as possible and counter the other side.
Policy Debate is mostly practiced in the United States (where it is sometimes referred to as Cross-Examination, or CX debate), although it has been attempted in Europe and Japan and has certainly influenced other forms of debate. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Its evolution has been towards what some see as a more esoteric style.
Classical debate is a relatively new debate format, first created and primarily practiced in the state of Minnesota. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers It was formed as an alternative to Policy debating. Certain judges and coaches felt that the development of Policy had led it to become an extremely specialized form of debate with heavy reliance on near-incomprehensible speed in speaking and less emphasis on real-world arguments in favor of "strategic" arguments that often bordered on the near-absurd. With a structure similar to that of Policy, Classical debate emphasizes logic and real-world discussion. For this reason, it is often nicknamed "Policy Lite".
As opposed to Policy, where each Affirmative proposes a new plan, classical debate is simpler: a resolution, decided at the beginning of the season, is the de facto topic for each debate, where the Affirmative affirms and Negative negates it. The emphasis on depth instead of breadth provided by the restriction can make for interesting rounds that often come down to arguments that might otherwise pale in other formats.
Extemporaneous debate is a style involving no planning in advance, and two teams with a first and second speaker. While a majority of judges will allow debaters to cite current events and various statistics (of which opponents may question the credibility) the only research permitted are one or more articles given to the debaters along with the resolution shortly before the debate. It begins with an affirmative first-speaker constructive speech, followed by a negative; then an affirmative and negative second-speaker constructive speech respectively. Each of these speeches are six minutes in length, and are followed by two minutes of cross examination. There is then an affirmative and negative first-speaker rebuttal, and a negative and affirmative second-speaker rebuttal, respectively. These speeches are each four minutes long. No new points can be brought into the debate during the rebuttals.
This style of debate generally centers around three main contentions, although a team can occasionally use two or four. In order for the affirmative side to win, all of the negative contentions must be defeated, and all of the affirmative contentions must be left standing. Most of the information presented in the debate must be tied in to support one of these contentions, or "sign posted". Much of extemporaneous debate is similar to policy debate; one main difference, however, is that extemporaneous debate focuses less on the implementation of the resolution. Policy debate is a form of speech competition in which teams of two advocate for and against a resolution that typically calls for policy change by the United States Federal
Lincoln-Douglas debate, a form of United States high school debate named after the Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858, is a one-on-one event focused mainly on applying philosophical theories to real world issues. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 were a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate and the incumbent Stephen A Debaters normally alternate sides from round to round as either the "affirmative", which upholds the resolution, or "negative", which attacks it. The resolution, which changes bimonthly, asks whether a certain policy or action conforms to a specific value.
Though established as an alternative to policy debate, there has been a strong movement to embrace certain techniques that originated in policy debate (and, correspondingly, a strong backlash movement). Plans, counterplans, critical theory, postmodern theory, debate about the theoretical basis and rules of the activity itself, and kritiks have all reached more than occasional, if not yet universal, usage. Lincoln-Douglas speeches can range from a conversational pace to well over 300 wpm (when trying to maximize the number of arguments and depth of each argument's development). There is also a growing emphasis on carded evidence, though still much less than in policy debate. These trends have created a serious rift within the activity between the debaters, judges, and coaches who advocate or accept these changes, and those who vehemently oppose them.
Policy and Lincoln-Douglas debate tournaments are often held concurrently at the same school.
Karl Popper debate, named after the famed philosopher, is a widely used debate format in Eastern European and Central Asian high schools. Sir Karl Raimund Popper ( July 28 1902  &ndash September 17 1994) was an Austrian and British Philosopher and a professor Originally created by the Open Society Institute as a more flexible team debate format, Karl Popper debate has risen greatly in popularity as the first format that many high school students learn. It focuses on relevant and often deeply divisive propositions, emphasizing the development of critical thinking skills, and tolerance for differing viewpoints. To facilitate these goals, debaters work together in teams of three, and must research both sides of each issue. Constructed similarly to the Lincoln-Douglas debate format, each side is given the opportunity to offer arguments and direct questions to the opposing side. The first speakers of each side have 6 minutes to present their constructive cases, or in the negative's case a rebuttal. The other 4 speakers each have 5 minutes to deliver a speech supporting their team's main arguments. There is also an allotted 3 minutes after each of the first 4 speeches for cross-examination, during which the opposing team has a chance to clarify what was stated in the preceding speech.
Each year, the International Debate Education Association hosts an annual Youth Forum, during which the Karl Popper World Championships are held. The International Debate Education Association ( IDEA) is an association that develops organizes and promotes Debate and debate-related activities Nations from all around the world attend this Forum for the tournament, as well as the 2 week debate training camp.
High school debate events such as Student Congress, Model United Nations, European Youth Parliament, Junior State of America and the American Legion's Boys State and Girls State events are activities which are based on the premise of simulating a mock legislature environment. Student Congress (also known as Congressional Debate) is a form of High school Debate in the United States. Model United Nations (informally abbreviated as Model UN or MUN) is an academic simulation of the United Nations that aims to educate participants The European Youth Parliament ( EYP; in French, Parlement Européen des Jeunes, PEJ) is a non-profit, non political organisation which The Junior State of America (formerly Junior Statesmen of America) (“JSA” is an American Non-partisan student-run Youth organization For other uses of American Legion see American Legion (disambiguation The American Legion was chartered by the U Boys State and Girls State are summer leadership and citizenship programs sponsored by The American Legion and the American Legion Auxiliary for High Boys State and Girls State are summer leadership and citizenship programs sponsored by The American Legion and the American Legion Auxiliary for High
Impromptu debate is a relatively informal style of debate, when compared to other highly structured formats. Impromptu debate is a type of formalized academic Debate. Representative of comedic debate, Impromptu debating is practiced at High schools generally in The topic for the debate is given to the participants between fifteen and twenty minutes before the debate starts. The debate format is relatively simple; each team member of each side speaks for five minutes, alternating sides. A ten-minute discussion period, similar to other formats' "open cross-examination" time follows, and then a five-minute break (comparable to other formats' preparation time). Following the break, each team gives a 4-minute rebuttal.
Moot court (simulating appellate advocacy) and Mock trial (usually simulating criminal trials) competitions for law school, undergraduate, and (in some regions) high school students are held throughout North America and Australia. Moot court is an Extracurricular activity at many Law schools in which participants take part in simulated court proceedings usually to include drafting briefs A mock trial is a contrived or imitation trial. It is similar to Moot court, but mock trials deal with trials while moot court deals with Appellate court In the United Kingdom the national mooting championships are run by the English-Speaking Union. The English-Speaking Union is an international educational charity founded by journalist Evelyn Wrench in 1918
Public forum debate was established in 2002 by the National Forensic League. Public forum debate, also known as crossfire debate, Po-Fo, PF, or puf (or sometimes called by its former names controversy debates Public forum debate, also known as crossfire debate, Po-Fo, PF, or puf (or sometimes called by its former names controversy debates The National Forensic League is one of three major US national Organizations which direct high school competitive speech events It is designed to teach students to debate in a manner that is accessible to ordinary people, rather than other debaters. Public Forum combines aspects of both Policy debate and Lincoln-Douglas debate, with shorter speech lengths and more frequent changes in resolution that serve to emphasize brevity and eloquence over exhaustive research and technical debating. Policy debate is a form of speech competition in which teams of two advocate for and against a resolution that typically calls for policy change by the United States Federal
With the increasing popularity and availability of the Internet, differing opinions arise frequently. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks Though they are often expressed via flaming and other forms of argumentation, which consist primarily of assertions, there do exist formalized debating websites, typically in the form of online forums or bulletin boards. Flaming is the hostile and insulting interaction between Internet users The debate style is interesting, as research and well thought out points and counterpoints are possible because of the obvious lack of time restraints (although practical time restraints usually are in effect, e. g. , no more than 5 days between posts, etc. ). Many people use this to strengthen their points, or drop their weaker opinions on things, many times for debate in formal debates (such as the ones listed above) or for fun arguments with friends. The ease-of-use and friendly environments make new debaters welcome to share their opinions in many communities.
Since the 1976 general election, debates between presidential candidates have been a part of U. During presidential elections in the United States, it has become customary for the main candidates The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M During presidential elections in the United States, it has become customary for the main candidates S. presidential campaigns. Unlike debates sponsored at the high school or collegiate level, the participants, format, and rules are not independently defined. Nevertheless, in a campaign season heavily dominated by television advertisements, talk radio, sound bites, and spin, they still offer a rare opportunity for citizens to see and hear the major candidates side-by-side. A television advertisement or television commercial (often just commercial or advert (US or ad (UK is a span of television programming produced Talk radio is a Radio format containing discussion about topical issues A sound bite is an audiolinguistic and social communications phenomenon whose nature was recognized in the late 20th century helped by people such as Marshall McLuhan. In Public relations, spin is a usually Pejorative term signifying a heavily biased portrayal in one's own favor of an event or situation it is a Euphemism The format of the presidential debates, though defined differently in every election, is typically more restrictive than many traditional formats, forbidding participants to ask each other questions and restricting discussion of particular topics to short time frames.
The presidential debates were initially moderated in 1976, 1980, 1984 by the League of Women Voters, but The Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD) was established in 1987 by the Republicans and Democrats to "ensure that debates, as a permanent part of every general election, provide the best possible information to viewers and listeners. The League of Female Voters is an American political Organization founded in 1920 by Carrie Chapman Catt during the last meeting of the National The Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD was established in 1987 by the Democratic and Republican parties to establish the way that Debates are run between " Its primary purpose is to sponsor and produce debates for the United States presidential and vice presidential candidates and to undertake research and educational activities relating to the debates. The organisation, which is a nonprofit, nonpartisan corporation, sponsored all the presidential debates in 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000 and 2004. However, in announcing its withdrawal from sponsoring the debates, the League of Women Voters stated that it was withdrawing "because the demands of the two campaign organizations would perpetrate a fraud on the American voter. " In 2004, the Citizens' Debate Commission was formed in the hope of establishing an independent sponsor for presidential debates, with a more voter-centric role in the definition of the participants, format, and rules. The Citizens' Debate Commission ( CDC) is a nonpartisan American organization formed in 2004 that was established to sponsor future general election presidential
With the growing popularity of debate among the general public, comedy debates have developed as a form of entertainment with an often educational twist. In jurisdictions which use the Westminster system of Government or a similar system leaders debates are often held usually during a General election campaign Comedy debate is an organized academic Debate event held purely for the entertainment of the audience as opposed to more formal styles Comedy debate is an organized academic Debate event held purely for the entertainment of the audience as opposed to more formal styles While comedy debates are not generally mainstream events, they have gained significant popular support at occasions such as the Melbourne International Comedy Festival, and are often popular fixtures among experienced debaters. The Melbourne International Comedy Festival (MICF is held each April in a number of venues across Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
All forms of debate, whether consciously or not, make certain assumptions about argumentation theory. Argumentation theory, or argumentation, embraces the arts and sciences of civil debate Dialogue, conversation and persuasion studying rules of Inference The core concept of argumentation theory is the notion of advocacy. Advocacy Advocacy is the pursuit of influencing outcomes –including public-policy and resource allocation decisions within political economic and social systems In most cases, at least one side in a debate needs to maintain the truth of some proposition or advocate some sort of personal or political change or action. The meaning of the word truth extends from Honesty, Good faith, and Sincerity in general to agreement with Fact or Reality A debate could also potentially be between two or more competing propositions or actions. Or debate could also be a purely performative exercise of charisma and emotion with no assumption of fixed advocacy, but it would possibly lose much of its coherence.