De architectura (Latin: "On architecture") is a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect Vitruvius and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus as a guide for building projects. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c 80–70 BC died after c 15 BC was a Roman Writer, Architect and Engineer (possibly praefectus fabrum Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was The work is one of the most important sources of modern knowledge of Roman building methods as well as the planning and design of structures, both large (aqueducts, buildings, baths, harbours) and small (machines, measuring devices, instruments). He is also the prime source of the famous story of Archimedes and his bath-time discovery. Archimedes of Syracuse ( Greek:) ( c. 287 BC – c 212 BC was a Greek mathematician, Physicist, Engineer
Probably written around 15 BC , it is the only contemporary source on classical architecture to have survived. The Vitruvian Man is a world-renowned Drawing with accompanying notes created by Leonardo da Vinci around the year 1487 as recorded in one of his journals Divided into ten sections or "books", it covers almost every aspect of Roman architecture. The books break down as follows:
Roman architects were significantly different from their modern counterparts, acting as engineers, architects, artists, and craftsmen combined. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction A civil engineer is a person who practices Civil engineering, one of the many engineering professions For other kinds of building materials see Hardware, Biology, Star formation. Fanum At the temples Romans prayed and made Ritual Worship Offerings of a small gift or Animal sacrifices to their Roman A classical order is one of the ancient styles of building design in the classical tradition, distinguished by their proportions and their characteristic profiles and details The Architecture of Ancient Rome adopted the external Greek architecture for their own purposes which were so different from Greek buildings as to create a new A Roman villa is a Villa that was built or lived in during the Roman republic and the Roman Empire. A pavement in Architecture is a stone or tile structure the pavement, which can serve as a Floor or an external feature The term plaster can refer to plaster of Paris Lime plaster, or Cement plaster. The ancient Romans constructed numerous aqueducts ( Latin aquaeductūs, sing An aqueduct is an artificial channel that is constructed to convey water from one location to another Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position Measurement is the process of estimating the magnitude of some attribute of an object such as its length or weight relative to some standard ( unit of measurement) such as Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study A sundial is a device that measures time by the position of the Sun. A machine is any device that uses Energy to perform some activity Roman Siege engines were for the most part adapted from Hellenistic Siege Technology. This article is about a type of structure For other locational uses see Milldam. Roman technology is the engineering practice which supported Roman civilization and made the expansion of Roman commerce and Roman military possible over nearly a thousand years A crane is a lifting machine equipped with a Winder, Wire ropes or Chains and sheaves that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to Pneumatics, Pressurized gas to affect mechanical motion Pneumatic power is used in Industry, where it is common to have factory units plumbed for Compressed Vitruvius was very much of this type, a fact reflected in De architectura. He covers a wide variety of subjects which he saw as touching on architecture. This included many aspects which seem irrelevant to modern eyes, ranging from mathematics to astronomy, to meteorology and medicine. In the Roman conception, architecture needed to take into account everything touching on the physical and intellectual life of man and his surroundings.
Vitruvius thus deals with many theoretical issues concerning architecture. For instance, in Book 2 of De architectura, he advises architects working with bricks to familiarise themselves with pre-Socratic theories of matter so as to understand how their materials will behave. A brick is a block of Ceramic material used in Masonry construction laid using mortar. Book 9 relates the abstract geometry of Plato to the everyday work of the surveyor, while the mathematics. Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional space Position of points and the distances and angles between Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Astrology is cited for its insights into the organisation of human life, while astronomy is required for the understanding of sundials. Astrology (from Greek grc ἄστρον astron, "constellation star" and grc -λογία -logia) is a group of Systems Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study A sundial is a device that measures time by the position of the Sun. Similarly, Vitruvius cites Ctesibius of Alexandria and Archimedes for their inventions, Aristoxenus (Aristotle's apprentice) for music, Agatharchus for theatre, and Varro for architecture. Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius ( Greek Κτησίβιος ( fl Archimedes of Syracuse ( Greek:) ( c. 287 BC – c 212 BC was a Greek mathematician, Physicist, Engineer For the 1st century physician of Asia Minor see Aristoxenus (physician. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. For the ancient historian who was sometimes called Agatharchus see Agatharchides. Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC &ndash 27 BC also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman
He sought to address the ethos of architecture, declaring that quality depends on the social relevance of the artist's work, not on the form or workmanship of the work itself. The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of Activities to do with creating Art, practicing the Arts and/or demonstrating Perhaps the most famous declaration from De architectura is one still quoted by architects: "Well building hath three conditions: firmness, commodity, and delight. " This quote is taken from Sir Henry Wotton's version of 1624, and is a plain and accurate translation of the passage in Vitruvius (I.iii.2): but English has changed since then, especially in regard to the word "commodity", and the tag is usually misunderstood. Henry Wotton may also refer to Lord Henry Wotton, a fictional character Sir Henry Wotton (1568 - December 1639 was an English Author
Vitruvius also studied human proportions (Book 3) and his canones were later encoded in a very famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci (Homo Vitruvianus, "Vitruvian Man"). Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer The Vitruvian Man is a world-renowned Drawing with accompanying notes created by Leonardo da Vinci around the year 1487 as recorded in one of his journals
The work is important for its descriptions of many different machines used for engineering structures such as hoists, cranes and pulleys, as well as war machines such as catapaults, ballistae, and siege engines. A pulley (also called a sheave or block) is a Wheel with a groove between two Flanges around its Circumference A catapult is any one of a number of non-handheld mechanical devices used to throw a Projectile a great distance without the aid of an explosive substance—particularly various The ballista ( Latin, from Greek βαλλίστρα - ballistra, from - βάλλω ballō, "to throw" plural ballistae A siege engine is a device that is designed to Break or circumvent City walls and other Fortifications in Siege warfare. He also describes the construction of sundials and water clocks. A sundial is a device that measures time by the position of the Sun. A water clock or clepsydra ( Greek kleptein to steal; hydro water) is any timekeeper operated by means of a regulated flow of liquid into (inflow
Books 8, 9 and 10 form the basis of much of what we know about Roman technology, now augmented by archaeological studies of extant remains, such as the Pont du Gard in southern France. The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct in the South of France constructed by the Roman Empire, and located in Vers-Pont-du-Gard near Remoulins The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct in the South of France constructed by the Roman Empire, and located in Vers-Pont-du-Gard near Remoulins Numerous such massive structures occur across the Empire, and have almost become a symbol of the power of Roman engineering. Origins The Romans are generally famous for their advanced Engineering accomplishments although some of their own inventions were improvements on older ideas concepts His description of aqueduct construction is short, but does mention key details especially for the way they were surveyed, and the careful choice of materials needed. An aqueduct is an artificial channel that is constructed to convey water from one location to another His book would have been of assistance to Frontinus, a general who was appointed in the late first century AD to administer the many aqueducts of Rome. Sextus Julius Frontinus (ca 40-103 AD was one of the most distinguished Roman aristocrats of the late first century AD but is best known to the post-Classical world as an The ancient Romans constructed numerous aqueducts ( Latin aquaeductūs, sing He discovered a discrepancy between the intake and supply of water caused by illegal pipes inserted into the channels to divert the water. They went far in exploiting water power, as the set of no less than 16 water mills at Barbegal in France demonstrates. This article is about a type of structure For other locational uses see Milldam. The Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman Watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, near the town of Arles, in This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The mills ground grain in a very efficient operation, and many other mills are now known.
Vitruvius describes many different construction materials used for a wide variety of different structures, as well as such details as stucco painting. Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water Cement, concrete and lime receive in-depth descriptions, the longevity of many Roman structures being mute testimony to their skill in building materials and design. In the most general sense of the word a cement is a binder a substance which sets and hardens independently and can bind other materials together Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag
It is worth noting that Vitruvius advises that lead should not be used to conduct drinking water, clay pipes being preferred. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly He comes to this conclusion in Book VIII of De Architectura after empirical observation of the apparent labourer illnesses in the plumbum foundries of his time. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly In 1986 the United States banned the use of lead in plumbing due to lead poisoning's neurological damage. However, much of the water used by Rome and many other cities was very hard, and coated the inner surfaces of the pipes, so lead poisoning was most unlikely. Lead poisoning (also known as saturnism, plumbism, or painter's colic) is a medical condition caused by increased levels of the metal Lead in
Vitruvius gives us the famous story about Archimedes and his detection of adulterated gold in a royal crown. Archimedes of Syracuse ( Greek:) ( c. 287 BC – c 212 BC was a Greek mathematician, Physicist, Engineer When Archimedes realised that the volume of the crown could be measured exactly by the displacement created in a bath of water, he ran into the street with the cry of Eureka (word), and the discovery enabled him to compare the density of the crown with pure gold. Eureka ( Greek "I have found it" is an exclamation used as an Interjection to celebrate a discovery Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 He showed that the crown had been alloyed with silver, and the king defrauded. Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen We are not told what happened to the metal worker who crafted the crown, but no doubt he suffered a painful fate.
He describes the construction of Archimedes' screw in Chapter X, although doesn't mention Archimedes by name. The Archimedes' screw, Archimedean screw, or screwpump is a Machine historically used for transferring water from a low-lying body of water into Irrigation It was a device widely used for raising water to irrigate fields and dewater mines. Other lifting machines he mentions include the endless chain of buckets and the reverse overshot water-wheel. Frequently used in mines and probably elsewhere the reverse overshot Water wheel was a Roman innovation to help remove water from the lowest levels of underground workings Remains of the water wheels used for lifting water have been discovered in old mines such as those at Rio Tinto in Spain and Dolaucothi in west Wales. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Dolaucothi Gold Mines ( also known as the Ogofau Gold Mine, are Roman surface and deep mines located in the valley of the River Cothi, One of the wheels from Rio Tinto is now in the British Museum, and the latter in the National Museum of Wales. The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London. National Museum Cardiff (Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Caerdydd is a Museum and Art gallery in Cardiff, Wales The remains were discovered when these mines were re-opened in modern mining attempts. They would have been used in a vertical sequence, with 16 such mills capable of raising water at least 96 feet above the water table. Each wheel would have been worked by a miner treading the device at the top of the wheel, by using cleats on the outer edge. That they were using such devices in mines clearly implies that they were entirely capable of using them as water wheels to develop power for a range of activities, not just for grinding corn, but also probably for sawing timber, crushing ores, fulling and so on. A water wheel is a means of extracting power from the flow (or fall of water otherwise known as Hydropower.
Ctesibius is credited with the invention of the force pump which Vitruvius describes as being built from bronze with valves to allow a head of water to be formed above the machine. Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius ( Greek Κτησίβιος ( fl For information on Wikipedia project-related discussions see WikipediaVillage pump. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus The device is also described by Hero of Alexandria in his "Pneumatica". Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria ( Ήρων ο Αλεξανδρεύς) (c The machine is operated by hand in moving a lever up and down. He mentions its use for supplying fountains above a reservoir, although a more mundane use might be as a simple fire-engine. One was found at Roman Silchester or Calleva Atrebatum in England, and another is on display at the British Museum. Calleva Atrebatum (or Silchester Roman Town) was an Iron Age Oppidum and subsequently a Town in the Roman province of Britannia Calleva Atrebatum (or Silchester Roman Town) was an Iron Age Oppidum and subsequently a Town in the Roman province of Britannia England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London. Their functions are not described but they are both made in bronze, just as Vitruvius specifies.
Vitruvius also mentions the several automatons that Ctesibius invented, and intended for amusement and pleasure rather than serving a useful function. This article is about a self-operating machine For other uses of Automaton see Automaton (disambiguation or Automata (disambiguation. Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius ( Greek Κτησίβιος ( fl .
He describes the many innovations made in building design to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants. Foremost among them is the development of the hypocaust, a type of central heating where hot air developed by a fire was channelled under the floor and inside the walls of public baths and villas. A hypocaust (Latin hypocaustum) is an ancient Roman system of Central heating. For the Grand Central Records albums see Central Heating (Grand Central album and Central Heating 2. Public baths originated from a communal need for cleanliness Often the term public is misleading to some people as they will have restrictions based upon who can use the facility A villa was originally an Upper-class Country house, though since its origins in Roman times the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably He gives explicit instructions how to design such buildings so that fuel efficiency is maximised, so that for example, the caldarium is next to the tepidarium followed by the frigidarium. Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense is the same as Thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier A Caldarium (also called a Calidarium, Cella Caldaria or Cella Coctilium) was a room with a hot plunge bath used in a Roman bath complex The tepidarium was the warm ( tepidus) bathroom of the Roman baths heated by a Hypocaust or Underfloor heating system A frigidarium is a large cold pool to drop into after enjoying a hot Roman bath. He also advises on using a type of regulator to control the heat in the hot rooms, a bronze disc set into the roof under a circular aperture which could be raised or lowered by a pulley to adjust the ventilation. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus A pulley (also called a sheave or block) is a Wheel with a groove between two Flanges around its Circumference Although he does not suggest it himself, it is likely that his dewatering devices such as the reverse overshot water-wheel was used in the larger baths to lift water to header tanks at the top of the larger thermae, such as the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla. Frequently used in mines and probably elsewhere the reverse overshot Water wheel was a Roman innovation to help remove water from the lowest levels of underground workings The Baths of Diocletian ( Thermae Diocletiani) in Rome were the grandest of the public baths or Thermae built by successive emperors The Baths of Caracalla were Roman public baths or Thermae, built in Rome between AD 212 and 216 during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla
That he must have been well practised in surveying is shown by his descriptions of surveying instruments, especially the water level or chorobates, which he compares favourably with the groma, a device using plumb lines. A chorobates (Greek χωροβἀτης from khŏros; "place" + -batos, "going" was a kind of level used in Classical A plumb-bob or a plummet is a weight with a pointed tip on the bottom that is suspended from a string and used as a vertical reference line They were essential in all building operations, but especially in aqueduct construction, where a uniform gradient was important to provision of a regular supply of water without damage to the walls of the channel. He describes the hodometer, essentially a device for automatically measuring distances along roads, a machine essential for developing accurate itineraries, such as the Peutinger Table. The Tabula Peutingeriana ( Peutinger table) is an Itinerarium showing the Cursus publicus, the road network in the Roman Empire.
Vitruvius' work is one of many examples of Latin texts that owe their survival to the palace scriptorium of Charlemagne in the early 9th century. Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing" is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European Monasteries devoted to the copying of manuscripts by monastic Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his (This activity of finding and recopying classical manuscripts is part of what is called the Carolingian Renaissance. A manuscript is any Document that is Written by hand as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way The Carolingian Renaissance was a period of intellectual and cultural revival occurring in the late eighth and ninth centuries with the peak of the activities ) Many of the surviving manuscripts of Vitruvius' work derive from an existing manuscript that was written there, British Library manuscript Harley 2767. The British Library ( BL) is the National library of the United Kingdom. These texts were not just copied but also were known at the court of Charlemagne, since his historian, the bishop Einhard, asked for explanations of some technical terms at the visiting English churchman Alcuin. Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart) (c 775 &ndash March 14, 840 in Seligenstadt, Germany) was a Frankish Alcuin of York (Alcuinus or Ealhwine, nicknamed Albinus or Flaccus (c
Fifty-five copies of De architectura did exist in manuscript form during the Middle Ages but appear to have received little attention. Vitrivius' work was "rediscovered" in 1414 by the Florentine humanist Poggio Bracciolini, who found it in the Abbey of St Gallen, Switzerland. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal (Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini ( February 11, 1380 – October 30, 1459) was one of the most important Italian humanists. St Gallen ( Saint-Gall San Gallo is the capital of the canton of St Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation He publicised the manuscript to a receptive audience of Renaissance thinkers, just as interest in the classical cultural and scientific heritage was reviving. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere
The first printed edition, an incunabula version, was published by the Veronese scholar Fra Giovanni Sulpitius in 1486. Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. The Dominican friar Fra Giovanni Giocondo produced the first version illustrated with woodcuts in Venice in 1511. The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is Fra Giovanni Giocondo (c 1433 &ndash 1515 was an Italian Architect, Antiquary, Archaeologist, and Classical scholar. For the origins of the technique and non-artistic use see Woodblock printing; for the related technique invented in the 18th century see Wood engraving Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the It had a thorough philosophical approach and superb illustrations. Translations into Italian were in circulation by the 1520s, such as the translation by Cesare Cesariano in Como in 1521. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Cesare di Lorenzo Cesariano was a late 15th-early 16th century Architect and architectural theorist in Milan, known to Donato Bramante ca Como is a City in Lombardy, Italy, north of Milan. Situated at the southern tip of the south-west arm of Lake Como, it It was rapidly translated into other European languages – the first German version was published in 1528 – though, curiously, English-speakers had to wait until 1771 for a full translation of the first five volumes and 1791 for the whole thing. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Sir Henry Wotton's 1624 version, The Elements of Architecture, was more of a free adaptation than a literal translation, while a 1692 translation was much abbreviated. Henry Wotton may also refer to Lord Henry Wotton, a fictional character Sir Henry Wotton (1568 - December 1639 was an English Author
The rediscovery of Vitruvius' work had a profound influence on architects of the Renaissance, prompting the rise of the Neo-Classical style. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century both as a reaction against the Rococo Renaissance architects, such as Niccoli, Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti, found in "De Architectura" their rationale for raising their branch of knowledge to a scientific discipline instead of an artisanal discipline. Niccolò de' Niccoli (1364 &ndash 1437 was an Italian Renaissance humanist. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. Leon Battista Alberti ( February 14, 1404 &ndash April 25, 1472) was an Italian author artist Architect, Poet
The English architect Inigo Jones and the Frenchman Salomon De Caus were among the first to re-evaluate and implement those disciplines that Vitruvius considered a necessary element of architecture: arts and sciences based upon number and proportion (architecture). Iñigo Jones ( July 15, 1573 &ndash June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant British architect, and the first to bring Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Proportion is the relation between elements and a whole Proportion is a correspondence among the measures of the members of an entire work and of the whole to a certain part selected The 16th century architect Palladio considered Vitrivius his master and guide, and made some drawings based on Vitruvius' work before conceiving his own architectural precepts. Andrea Palladio ( November 30, 1508 – August 19, 1580) was an Italian Architect, widely considered the most influential
Translated in 1914 as "Ten Books on Architecture" by Morris H. Morgan, Ph. Sextus Julius Frontinus (ca 40-103 AD was one of the most distinguished Roman aristocrats of the late first century AD but is best known to the post-Classical world as an Naturalis Historia ( Latin for "Natural History" is an Encyclopedia written Circa AD 77 by Pliny the Elder. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author The Architecture of Ancient Rome adopted the external Greek architecture for their own purposes which were so different from Greek buildings as to create a new Origins The Romans are generally famous for their advanced Engineering accomplishments although some of their own inventions were improvements on older ideas concepts Roman technology is the engineering practice which supported Roman civilization and made the expansion of Roman commerce and Roman military possible over nearly a thousand years Morris Hicky Morgan (1859–1910 was professor of Classical philology at Harvard University. D, LL. D. Late Professor of Classical Philology in Harvard University. The full text of this translation is available from the Project Gutenberg, see external links