|Daniel Toroitich arap Moi|
August 22, 1978 – December 30, 2002
|Vice President||Mwai Kibaki|
|Preceded by||Jomo Kenyatta|
|Succeeded by||Mwai Kibaki|
|Born||2 September 1924 |
Daniel Toroitich arap Moi (born September 2, 1924) was the President of Kenya from 1978 until 2002. List of the heads of state of Kenya Dominion of Kenya (1963 – 1964 Republic of Kenya (1964 – present Latest election "Notes from Events 392 - Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor. Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. Dr Josephat Njuguna Karanja (? - 1994 was a Vice-President of the Republic of Kenya between 1988-1989 Prof George Kinuthia Saitoti (born 1945) is a mathematician politician and former Vice President of Kenya. Wycliffe Musalia Mudavadi (born September 21, 1960) is a Kenyan politician currently serving as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Local Government Jomo Kenyatta ( October 20, 1894 &ndash August 22, 1978) served as the first Prime Minister (1963&ndash1964 and President Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Sacho is a township in Baringo District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south The Kenya African National Union, better known as KANU, ruled Kenya for nearly 40 years after its independence from British colonial rule in 1963 until its electoral Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.
Daniel arap Moi is popularly known to Kenyans as 'Nyayo', a Swahili word for 'footsteps'. Swahili (called Kiswahili in the language itself is the First language of the Swahili people (Waswahili who inhabit several large stretches He claimed to be following the footsteps of the first Kenyan President, Jomo Kenyatta. Jomo Kenyatta ( October 20, 1894 &ndash August 22, 1978) served as the first Prime Minister (1963&ndash1964 and President
Moi was born in Kurieng'wo village, Sacho division, Baringo District, Rift Valley Province, and was raised by his mother Kimoi Chebii following the early death of his father. Sacho is a township in Baringo District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. Baringo District is an administrative district in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. Rift Valley Province of Kenya, bordering Uganda, is one of Kenya's seven administrative provinces outside Nairobi. After completing his secondary education, he attended Tambach Teachers Training College in Keiyo District. Keiyo District (also known as Elgeyo district) is an administrative district in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. He worked as a teacher from 1946 until 1955. Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar)
In 1955 Moi entered politics when he was elected Member of the Legislative Council for Rift Valley. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) In 1960 he founded the Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU) with Ronald Ngala to challenge the Kenya African National Union (KANU) led by Jomo Kenyatta. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Kenya African Democratic Union was a political party in Kenya. The Kenya African National Union, better known as KANU, ruled Kenya for nearly 40 years after its independence from British colonial rule in 1963 until its electoral KADU's aim was to defend the interests of the small minority tribes, such as the Kalenjin to which Moi belonged, against the dominance of the big Luo and Gĩkũyũ tribes that comprised the majority of KANU's membership (Kenyatta himself being a Gĩkũyũ). The Luo (also called Jaluo and Joluo) are an ethnic group in Kenya, eastern Uganda, and northern Tanzania. There is also a town in Kiambu district called Kikuyu, and a species of Pennisetum grass native to the Kenyan highlands named Kikuyu KADU pressed for a federal constitution, while KANU was in favour of centralism. The advantage lay with the numerically stronger KANU, and the British government was finally forced to remove all provisions of a federal nature from the constitution.
In 1957 Moi was re-elected Member of the Legislative Council for Rift Valley. Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) He became Minister of Education in the pre-independence government of 1960–1961. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
After Kenya gained independence on December 12, 1963, Kenyatta convinced Moi that KADU and KANU should be merged to complete the process of decolonisation. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Kenya therefore became a de facto single-party state, dominated by the Kĩkũyũ-Luo alliance. A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party With an eye on the fertile lands of the rift valley populated by members of Moi's Kalenjin tribe, Kenyatta secured their support by first promoting Moi to Minister for Home Affairs in 1964, and then to vice-president in 1967. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The Vice-President of Kenya is the second-highest executive official in the Kenyan government Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. As a member of a minority tribe Moi was also an acceptable compromise for the major tribes. Moi was elected to the Kenyan parliament in 1963 from Baringo North. The Unicameral National Assembly of Kenya is the country's legislative body Since 1966 until his retirement in 2002 he served as the Baringo Central MP . Baringo Central Constituency is an electoral constituency in Kenya.
However, Moi faced opposition from the Kikuyu elite known as the Kiambu Mafia, who would have preferred one of their own to be eligible for the presidency. Elite (also spelled Élite) is taken originally from the Latin, eligere, "to elect" The Kiambu Mafia is a pejorative term referring to a small group of the Kikuyu people primarily from the then Kiambu District of Kenya (now Kiambu and portion This resulted in an infamous attempt by the constitutional drafting group to change the constitution to prevent the vice-president automatically assuming power in the event of the president's death. The presence of this succession mechanism may have led to dangerous political instability if Kenyatta died, given his advanced age and perennial illnesses. However, Kenyatta withstood the political pressure and safeguarded Moi's position.
Thus when Kenyatta died on August 22, 1978, Moi became president and took the oath of office. Events 392 - Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor. Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) He was popular, with widespread support all over the country. He toured the country and came into contact with the people everywhere, which was in great contrast to Kenyatta's imperial style of governing behind closed gates. Political realities however dictated that he would continue to be beholden to the Kenyatta system which he had inherited intact, and he was still too weak to consolidate his power. The Kikuyu elite referred to him as "a passing cloud" and a "limping sheep that could not lead other sheep to the pasture", the implication being that he would be pushed aside in a short while to allow them back into power. From the beginning, anticommunism was an important theme of Moi's government; speaking on the new President's behalf, Vice-President Mwai Kibaki bluntly stated, "There is no room for communists in Kenya. Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. "
On August 1, 1982, fate played into Moi's hands when forces loyal to his government defeated an attempted coup by Air Force officers led by Hezekiah Ochuka (see 1982 Kenyan coup). Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) Hezekiah Rabala Ochuka, (alias Awour) ( July 23, 1953 &ndash July 9, 1987) was Senior Private in the Kenya Air Force The 1982 Kenyan coup d'état attempt was a failed attempt to overthrow President Daniel arap Moi 's government To this day it appears that the attempt by two independent groups to seize power contributed to the failure of both, with one group making its attempt slightly earlier than the other.
Moi took the opportunity to dismiss political opponents and consolidate his power. He reduced the influence of Kenyatta's men in the cabinet through a long running judicial enquiry that resulted in the identification of key Kenyatta men as traitors. In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation. Moi pardoned them but not before establishing their traitor status in the public view. The main conspirators in the coup, including Ochuka were sentenced to death, marking the last judicial executions in Kenya. He appointed supporters to key roles and changed the constitution to establish a de jure single-party state. A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party
Kenya's academics and other intelligentsia did not accept this and the universities and colleges became the origin of movements that sought to introduce democratic reforms. However, Kenyan secret police infiltrated these groups and many members moved into exile. Secret police (sometimes political police) are a Police agency which operates in Secrecy to maintain National security against internal Exile means to be away from one's home (ie city state or country while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return Marxism could no longer be taught at Kenyan universities. Underground movements, e. g. Mwakenya and Pambana, were born.
Moi's regime now faced the end of the Cold War, and an economy stagnating under rising oil prices and falling prices for agricultural commodities. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the At the same time the West no longer dealt with Kenya as it had in the past, when it was viewed as a strategic regional outpost against communist influences from Ethiopia and Tanzania. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings At that time Kenya had received much foreign aid, and the country was accepted as being well governed with Moi as a legitimate leader and firmly in charge. Aid (from the french word aide, also known as international aid, overseas aid, or foreign aid, especially in the United States) is The increasing amount of political repression, including the use of torture, at the infamous Nyayo House torture chambers had been deliberately overlooked. Political repression is the Persecution of an individual or group for political reasons particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally Some of the evidence of these torture cells were to be later exposed in 2003 after Mwai Kibaki became President. Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. 
However, a new thinking emerged after the end of the Cold War, and as Moi became increasingly viewed as a despot, aid was withheld pending compliance with economic and political reforms. Despotism is a Form of government by a single authority either an individual or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute political power One of the key conditions imposed on his regime, especially by the United States through fiery ambassador Smith Hempstone, was the restoration of a multi-party system. Smith Hempstone ( February 1, 1929 &ndash November 19, 2006) was a journalist author and the United States ambassador to Kenya A multi-party system is a system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition Moi managed to accomplish this against fierce opposition, single handedly convincing the delegates at the KANU conference at Kasarani in December 1991. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar.
Moi won elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by political killings on both sides. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Extrajudicial punishment is Punishment by the state or some other official authority without the permission of a Court or legal authority Moi skillfully exploited Kenya's mix of ethnic tensions in these contests, with the ever present fear of the smaller tribes being dominated by the larger tribes. In the absence of an effective and organised opposition Moi had no difficulty in winning. Although it is also suspected that electoral fraud may have occurred, the key to his victory in both elections was a divided opposition. Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an Election.
In 1999 the findings of NGOs like Amnesty International  and a special investigation by the United Nations  were published which indicated that human rights abuses were prevalent in Kenya under the Moi regime. Political corruption in the post- colonial government of Kenya has had a history which spans the era of the Jomo Kenyatta and Daniel arap Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled
Moi has also been implicated in the 1990s Goldenberg scandal and subsequent cover-ups, where the Kenyan government subsidized exports of gold far in excess of the foreign currency earnings of exporters. The Goldenberg scandal was a Political scandal where the Kenyan government was found to have subsidised exports of Gold far beyond standard arrangements The Goldenberg scandal was a Political scandal where the Kenyan government was found to have subsidised exports of Gold far beyond standard arrangements Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 In this case, the gold was smuggled from Congo, as Kenya has negligible gold reserves. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to The Goldenberg scandal cost Kenya the equivalent of more than 10% of the country's annual GDP.
Half-hearted inquiries that began at the request of foreign aid donors came to nothing during Moi's presidency. Although it appears that the peaceful transfer of power to Mwai Kibaki may have involved an understanding that Moi would not stand trial for offences committed during his presidency, foreign aid donors reiterated their requests and Kibaki reopened the inquiry. Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. As the inquiry has progressed, Moi, his two sons, Philip and Gideon (now a member of Parliament), and his daughter June, as well as a host of high-ranking Kenyans, have been implicated. In bombshell testimony delivered in late July 2003, Treasury Permanent Secretary Joseph Magari recounted that in 1991, Moi ordered him to pay Ksh34. 5 million ($460,000) to Goldenberg, contrary to the laws then in force. 
In October 2006, Moi was found, by the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, to have taken a bribe from a Pakistani businessman to award monopoly of duty free shops at the country's international airport in Mombasa and Nairobi. The businessman Ali Nasir claimed to have paid Moi 2 million US$ in cash to obtain government approval for the World Duty Free Limited investment in Kenya. 
Moi was constitutionally barred from running in the 2002 presidential elections. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Some of his supporters floated the idea of amending the constitution to allow him to run for a third term, but Moi preferred to retire, choosing Uhuru Kenyatta, the son of Kenya's first President, as his successor. Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta (born October 26 1961) is a Kenyan politician currently serving as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Trade Mwai Kibaki, was elected President by a two to one majority over Kenyatta, which was confirmed on December 29, 2002. Mwai Kibaki (born November 15, 1931) is the President of Kenya. Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Kibaki was then wheelchair bound having narrowly escaped death in a road traffic accident on the campaign trail.
Moi handed over power in a poorly organised handing over ceremony that had one of the largest crowds ever seen in Nairobi in attendance. The crowd was openly hostile to Moi.
Moi now lives in retirement, largely shunned by the current political establishment, but widely popular with the masses, his presence never failing to quickly gather a crowd. He has recently spoken out against the proposed new constitution, terming it a document against the aspirations of the Kenyan people and deciding to vote "No" in the referendum; the referendum was defeated. Kibaki called Moi to arrange for a meeting to discuss the way forward after the defeat.
On July 25, 2007, Kibaki appointed Moi as special peace envoy to Sudan, referring to Moi's "vast experience and knowledge of African affairs" and "his stature as an elder statesman". Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. In his capacity as peace envoy, Moi's primary role will be to help secure peace in southern Sudan, where an agreement, signed in early 2005, is being implemented. The Kenyan press speculated that Moi and Kibaki were planning an alliance ahead of the December 2007 election. A presidential election was held as part of the Kenyan general election on December 27 2007; parliamentary elections were held on the same date  On August 28, 2007, Moi announced his support for Kibaki's re-election and said that he would campaign for Kibaki. Events 475 - The Roman General Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his Capital Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. He sharply criticized the two opposition Orange Democratic Movement factions as being tribal in nature. Orange Democratic Movement refers to a Political party in Kenya, which originated as a single party that was formed as a result of the 2005 Kenyan constitutional 
Daniel arap Moi married Lena Moi (born Helena Bommet) in 1950, but they separated in 1974, before his presidency. Thus "Mama Ngina", the wife of Jomo Kenyatta, retained her first lady status. Ngina Kenyatta (born 1933 popularly known as "Mama Ngina" is the widow of Kenya 's first president Jomo Kenyatta. Lena died in 2004. Daniel arap Moi has eight children, five sons and three daughters. Among the children are Gideon Moi (an MP), Jonathan Toroitich (a former rally driver) and Philip Moi (a retired army officer). Gideon Moi (born 1964 is a Kenyan politician He is the youngest son of Kenya's second president Daniel arap Moi, and Lena Moi Rallying is a form of motor competition that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars . His older and only brother William Tuitoek died in 1995 
|Vice President of Kenya|
1967 – 1978
|President of Kenya|
1978 – 2002