The Cypria (Κύπρια; Latin: Cypria) is an epic of ancient Greek literature that was quite well known in the Classical period and fixed in a received text, but which subsequently was lost to view. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation Greek literature refers to those writings autochthonic to the areas of Greek influence typically though not necessarily in one of the Greek dialects throughout the It was one of the Epic Cycle, that is, the "Trojan" cycle, which told the entire history of the Trojan War in epic hexameter verse. The Epic Cycle (Επικός Κύκλος was a collection of Ancient Greek Epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her The story of the Cypria comes chronologically at the beginning of the Epic Cycle, and is followed by that of the Iliad; the composition of the two was apparently in the reverse order. The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient The poem comprised eleven books of verse in epic dactylic hexameters. Dactylic Hexameter (also known as "heroic hexameter" is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme
The Cypria, in the written form in which it was known in classical Greece, was probably composed in the later seventh century BCE, but there is much uncertainty. The Cyclic poets, as the translator of Homerica Hugh G. Evelyn-White noted "were careful not to trespass upon ground already occupied by Homer," one of the reasons for dating the final, literary form of Cypria as post-Homeric, in effect a "prequel". A prequel is a work that portrays events and/or aspects of a previously completed narrative but is set prior to the existing narrative "The author of the Kypria already regarded the Iliad as a text. Any reading of the Kypria will show it preparing for events for (specifically) the Iliad in order to refer back to them, for instance the sale of Lykaon to Lemnos or the kitting out of Achilles with Briseis and Agamemnon with Chryseis". Lycaon was the son of Pelasgus and Meliboea (or of Oread nymph Cyllene) father of Oenotrus and the mythical first king Lemnos (Λήμνος is an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea. "Achilleus" redirects here For the emperor with this name see Achilleus (emperor. In Greek mythology, Brisēís ( Greek Βρισηίς was a Trojan widow (from Lyrnessus) In Greek mythology, Agamemnon (very resolute / ( ancient Greek:) is a hero, the son of King Atreus of Mycenae In Greek mythology, Chryseis ( Greek: Χρύσηίς Khrysēís) was a Trojan woman the daughter of Chryses.  A comparison can be made with the Aithiopis, also lost, but which even in its quoted fragments is more independent of the Iliad as text.
The stories contained in the Cypria, on the other hand, were fixed much earlier than that, and the same problems of dating oral traditions associated with the Homeric epics also apply to the Cypria. Oral tradition, oral culture and oral lore is a way for a society to transmit history, literature, law and other Knowledges Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Many or all of the stories in the Cypria were known to the composer(s) of the Iliad and Odyssey. The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient The Odyssey ( Greek: Ὀδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. The Cypria, in presupposing an acquaintance with the events of the Homeric poem, in the received view thus formed a kind of introduction to the Iliad though there is an overlap in events from the death of Palamedes, including the catalogue of Trojan allies. The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient  J. Marks observes that "Indeed, the junction would be seamless if the Kypria simply ended with the death of Palamedes. " (p. 2).
The title Cypria, associating the epic with Cyprus, demanded some explanation: the epic was said in one ancient tradition to have been given by Homer as a dowry to his son-in-law, a Stasinus of Cyprus mentioned in no other context; there was apparently an allusion to this in a lost Nemean ode by Pindar. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the According to some ancient authorities Stasinus of Cyprus, a semi-legendary early Greek poet, was the author of the Cypria, in eleven books Pindar (ˈpɪndɚ (or Pindarus, Greek:) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos) was an Ancient Some later writers repeated the story. It did at least serve to explain why the Cypria was attributed by some to Homer and by others to Stasinus. Others, however, ascribed the poem to Hegesias (or Hegesinus) of Salamis in Cyprus or to Cyprias of Halicarnassus (see Cyclic poets). Cyclic Poets is a shorthand term for the early Greek epic poets, approximate contemporaries of Homer.
It is possible that the "Trojan Battle Order" (the list of Trojans and their allies, of Iliad 2. The Trojan Battle Order or Trojan Catalogue is a section of the second book of the Iliad listing the allied contingents that fought for Troy Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient 816-876, which forms an appendix to the "Catalogue of Ships") is abridged from that in the Cypria, which was known to contain in its final book a list of the Trojan allies. The Catalogue of Ships (νεῶν κατάλογος neōn katalogos) is a passage in Book
In current critical editions only about fifty lines survive of the Cypria's original text, quoted by others. For the content we are almost entirely dependent on a prose summary of the Cyclic epics contained in the Chrestomathy attributed to an unknown "Proclus" (possibly to be identified with the second-century CE grammarian Eutychius Proclus, or else with an otherwise unknown fifth-century grammarian). Chrestomathy (from the Greek words khrestos, useful and mathein, to know is a collection of choice literary passages used especially as an aid in learning Eutychius Proclus (Latin Greek Eutychios Proklos) was a Grammarian who flourished in the 2nd century CE  Many other passing references give further minor indications of the poem's storyline.
What follows embeds reports of known content of the Cypria in a retelling of the known events leading up to the anger of Achilles.
The poem narrates the origins of the Trojan War and its first events. In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her It begins with the decision of Zeus to relieve the Earth of the burden of population through war, a decision with familiar Mesopotamian parallels.  The Theban war of the Seven ensues. The Seven against Thebes (Επτά επί Θήβας Epta epi Thēbas) is a mythic narrative whose classic statement is found in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE
The Cypria described the wedding of Peleus and Thetis; in the Judgement of Paris among the goddesses Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite: Paris awards the prize for beauty to Aphrodite, and as a prize is awarded Helen, wife of Menelaus. In Greek mythology, Pēleús (Πηλεύς was a hero who was already known to Homer. This article is about the Greek sea nymph Thetis should not be confused with Themis, the embodiment of the laws of nature but see the sea-goddess Tethys. The Judgement of Paris is a story from Greek mythology, which was one of the events that led up to the Trojan War and (in slightly later versions of the story to ATHENA was an Antimatter research project that took place at the AD Ring at CERN. In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera (ˈhɪərə or /ˈhɛrə/ Greek) or Here ( in Ionic and Homer This article is about the mythological figure Helen of Troy For other uses see Helen (disambiguation and Helen of Troy (disambiguation. In Greek mythology, Menelaus ( Ancient Greek:) was a king of Ancient Sparta, the husband of Helen, and a central figure in the
Then Paris builds his ships at Aphrodite's suggestion, and Helenus foretells the future to him, and Aphrodite orders Aeneas to sail with him, while Cassandra prophesies the outcome. Helenus was a Trojan soldier and prophet in the Trojan War. In Greek mythology, Helenus was the son of King Priam and Queen This article is about the Roman hero For other uses see Aeneas (disambiguation. In Greek mythology, Cassandra ( Greek: Κασσάνδρα "she who entangles men" (also known as Alexandra) was the daughter of King In Lacedaemon the Trojans are entertained by the sons of Tyndareus, Castor and Polydeuces, and by Menelaus, who then sets sail for Crete, ordering Helen to furnish the guests with all they require. In Greek mythology, Tyndareus Τυνδαρεύς (or Tyndareos Τυνδάρεως) was a Spartan king son of Oebalus For the stars see Castor (star and Pollux (star, for the sculptural group in the Prado Museum, see Castor and Pollux (Prado, and for Aphrodite brings Helen and Paris together, and he takes her and her dowry back to his home of Troy with an episode at Sidon, which Paris and his men successfully storm. A dowry (also known as trousseau or tocher) is the money goods or estate that a woman brings to her soon to be husband in marriage Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or Sidon,or Saïda, ( Arabic ar صيدا; Phoenician phoenician yodh
In the meantime Castor and Polydeuces, while stealing the cattle of Idas and Lynceus, are caught and killed: Zeus gives them immortality that they share every other day.
Iris informs Menelaus, who returns to plan an expedition against Ilium with his brother Agamemnon. In Greek mythology, Iris (Ἴρις is the personification of the Rainbow and messenger of the gods In Greek mythology, Agamemnon (very resolute / ( ancient Greek:) is a hero, the son of King Atreus of Mycenae They set out to assemble the former suiters of Helen, who had sworn an oath to defend the rights of whichever one won her hand. Nestor in a digression tells Menelaus how Epopeus was destroyed after seducing the daughter of Lycus, the story of Oedipus, the madness of Heracles, and the story of Theseus and Ariadne. In Greek mythology, Nestor of Gerênia ( Greek: Νέστωρ) was the son of Neleus and Chloris, and the King of Pylos. Epopeus (Ἐποπεύς was a mythical Greek king of Sicyon, with an archaic bird-name that linked him to epops (έποψ the Hoopoe, the Oedipus (pronounced /ˈɛdəpəs/ in American English or /ˈiːdəpəs/ in British English; Greek: Oidípous meaning "swollen-footed" In Greek mythology, Heracles or Herakles ("glory of Hera " or For other uses see Theseus (disambiguation Theseus (Θησεύς was a Legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered Ariadne, in Greek mythology (Latin Arianna French Arianne was daughter of King Minos of Crete and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter In gathering the leaders, they detect Odysseus' feigned madness. grc-Latn Odysseus or la Ulysses ( Greek grc-Latn Odysseus; Latin: la Ulixes or more commonly Ulysses) oʊˈdɪsiəs
The assembled leaders offer ill-omened sacrifice at Aulis, where the prophet Calchas warns the Greeks that the war will last ten years. In Greek mythology, Calchas ("bronze-man" son of Thestor was a Argive Seer, with a gift for interpreting the flight of birds that he received They reach the city of Teuthras in Mysia and sack it in error for Ilium: Telephus comes to the city's rescue and is wounded by Achilles. Mysia (Μυσία was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor or Anatolia (part of modern Turkey) This article is about Telephus the son of Heracles. The name also refers to the father of Cyparissus. "Achilleus" redirects here For the emperor with this name see Achilleus (emperor. The fleet scattered by storm, Achilles puts in at Scyros and marries Deidameia, the daughter of Lycomedes, then heals Telephus, so that he might be their guide to Ilium. Skyros (Σκύρος is the southernmost Island of the Sporades, a Greek archipelago in the Aegean Sea. Lycomedes (also known as Lycurgus) in Greek mythology, was the King of Scyros during the Trojan War.
When the Achaeans have been mustered a second time at Aulis, Agamemnon is persuaded by Calchas to sacrifice his daughter Iphigeneia to appease the goddess Artemis and obtain safe passage for the ships, after he offends her by killing a stag. 112 Iphigenia is an Asteroid. Iphigeneia (Eng /ɪfədʒə'naɪə/, also Iphigenia In Greek mythology, Artemis language|Greek] ( Nominative), ( Genitive))] was the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister Iphigeneia is fetched as though for marriage with Achilles. Artemis, however, snatches her away, substituting a deer on the altar, and transports her to the land of the Tauri, making her immortal. The Tauri ( also Scythotauri, Tauri Scythae, Tauroscythae ( Pliny, H
Next they sail as far as Tenedos, where while they are feasting, Philoctetes is bitten by a snake and is left behind in Lemnos. For the ant spider genus see Tenedos (genus. For the 19th century fort in Zululand, see Fort Tenedos Tenedos, officially In Greek mythology, Philoctetes (also Philoktêtês or Philocthetes, Φιλοκτήτης was the son of King Poeas of Meliboea Lemnos (Λήμνος is an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea. Here, too, Achilles quarrels with Agamemnon. A first landing at the Troad is repulsed by the Trojans, and Protesilaus is killed by Hector. Troas or The Troad is the historical name of the Biga peninsula ( modern Turkish: Biga Yarımadası) in the northwestern part of Anatolia In Greek mythology, Protesilaus ( Ancient Greek:, Protesilaos) was a hero in the Iliad who was venerated in Thessaly and Thrace In Greek mythology, Hectōr ( "holding fast" or Hektōr, is a Trojan prince and one of the greatest fighters in the Achilles then kills Cycnus, the son of Poseidon, and drives the Trojans back. In Greek mythology, four people were known as Cycnus or Cygnus. The Greeks take up their dead and send envoys to the Trojans demanding the surrender of Helen and the treasure. The Trojans refusing, they first attempt an assault upon the city, and then lay waste the country round about.
Achilles desires to see Helen, and Aphrodite and Thetis contrive a meeting between them. The Achaeans next desire to return home, but are restrained by Achilles, who afterwards drives off the cattle of Aeneas, sacks neighbouring cities, and kills Troilus. Troilus (also Troilos, Troylus) ( Ancient Greek: Τρωίλος Troïlos Latin: Troilus is a legendary character associated with the story Patroclus carries away Lycaon to Lemnos and sells him as a slave, and out of the spoils Achilles receives Briseis as a prize, and Agamemnon Chryseis. In Greek mythology, as recorded in the Iliad by Homer, Patroclus, or Patroklos (Gr In Greek mythology, Brisēís ( Greek Βρισηίς was a Trojan widow (from Lyrnessus) In Greek mythology, Chryseis ( Greek: Χρύσηίς Khrysēís) was a Trojan woman the daughter of Chryses.
Then follow the death of Palamedes, the plan of Zeus to relieve the Trojans by detaching Achilles from the Hellenic confederacy, and a catalogue of the Trojan allies.
The Cypria was considered to be a lesser work than Homer's two masterpieces: Aristotle criticised it for its lack of narrative cohesion and focus. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. It was rather a catalogue of events than a unified story.