|Cyclic adenosine monophosphate|
|Molar mass||329. CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for Chemical compounds Polymers biological sequences mixtures and Alloys They are also referred to PubChem is a Database of chemical Molecules The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI a component Medical Subject Headings ( MeSH) is a huge Controlled vocabulary (or metadata system for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the Atoms that constitute a particular Chemical compound, and how the relationship between those atoms changes Molar mass, symbol M, is the Mass of one mole of a substance ( Chemical element or Chemical compound) 206|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger that is important in many biological processes. In Chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 Kilopascals exactly Adenosine monophosphate ( AMP) also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a Nucleotide that is found in RNA. In Cell physiology, a secondary messenger system (also known as a second messenger system) is a method of cellular signaling whereby a diffusable signaling molecule cAMP is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms. Adenosine-5'-triphosphate ( ATP) is a multifunctional Nucleotide that is most important as a " molecular currency" of intracellular Energy In Biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another
cAMP is synthesised from ATP by adenylyl cyclase which is located at the cell membranes. Adenylate cyclase ( also known as adenylyl cyclase or AC) is a Lyase Enzyme. Adenylyl cyclase is activated by a range of signaling molecules through the activation of adenylyl cyclase stimulatory G (Gs)-coupled receptors and inhibited by agonists of adenylyl cyclase inhibitory G (Gi)-protein coupled receptors. The Gs alpha subunit (or Gs protein) is a Heterotrimeric G protein subunit which activates Adenylate cyclase. Liver adenylyl cyclase responds more strongly to glucagon, and muscle adenylyl cyclase responds more strongly to adrenaline.
cAMP decomposition into AMP is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphodiesterase. A phosphodiesterase is any Enzyme that breaks a Phosphodiester bond.
cAMP is a second messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction, such as transferring the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline, which cannot get through the cell membrane. Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus" are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body Glucagon is an important Hormone involved in Carbohydrate metabolism. Its purposes include the activation of protein kinases and regulating the effects of adrenaline and glucagon. A protein kinase is a Kinase Enzyme that modifies other Proteins by chemically adding Phosphate groups to them ( Phosphorylation) It is also used to regulate the passage of Ca2+ through ion channels. Calcium (ˈkælsiəm is the Chemical element with the symbol Ca and Atomic number 20 Ion channels are pore-forming Proteins that help establish and control the small Voltage Gradient across the Plasma membrane of all living
cAMP and its associated kinases function in several biochemical processes, including the regulation of glycogen, sugar, and lipid metabolism. Glycogen is a Polysaccharide of Glucose (Glc which functions as the secondary short term energy storage in Animal cells Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Lipids are broadly defined as any fat- Soluble ( lipophilic) naturally-occurring Molecule, such as fats oils waxes cholesterol sterols fat-soluble Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life.
In humans, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, also known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase). In Cell biology, protein kinase A, refers to a family of Enzymes whose activity is dependent on the level of Cyclic AMP (cAMP in the cell This is normally inactive as a tetrameric holoenzyme, consisting of 2 catalytic and 2 regulatory units (C2R2), with the regulatory units blocking the catalytic centers of the catalytic units. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Catalysis is the process in which the rate of a Chemical reaction is increased by means of a Chemical substance known as a catalyst Cyclic AMP binds to specific locations on the regulatory units of the protein kinase, and causes dissociation between the regulatory and catalytic subunits, thus activating the catalytic units and enabling them to phosphorylate substrate proteins.
The active subunits catalyze the transfer of phosphate from ATP to specific serine or threonine residues of protein substrates. The phosphorylated proteins may act directly on the cell's ion channels, or may become activated or inhibited enzymes. Protein kinase A can also phosphorylate specific proteins that bind to promoter regions of DNA, causing increased expression of specific genes. Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP: several types of protein kinases are not cAMP dependent, for example protein kinase C.
Further effects depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. In Cell biology, protein kinase A, refers to a family of Enzymes whose activity is dependent on the level of Cyclic AMP (cAMP in the cell
In bacteria, the level of cAMP varies depending on the medium used for growth. The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have In particular, cAMP is low when glucose is the carbon source. This occurs through inhibition of the cAMP-producing enzyme, adenylyl cyclase, as a side effect of glucose transport into the cell. The transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP) also called: CAP (Catabolite gene Activator Protein) forms a complex with cAMP and thereby is activated to bind to DNA. cAMP receptor protein (in short CRP, also known as catabolite gene activator protein (in short CAP) is a Regulatory protein in Bacteria CRP-cAMP increases expression of a large number of genes, including some encoding enzymes that can supply energy independent of glucose. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins
An example of cAMP's function is the positive regulation of the lac operon. The lac operon is an Operon required for the transport and Metabolism of Lactose in Escherichia coli and some other In an environment of a low glucose concentration, cAMP accumulates and binds to the allosteric site on CRP (cAMP receptor protein), a transcription activator protein. cAMP receptor protein (in short CRP, also known as catabolite gene activator protein (in short CAP) is a Regulatory protein in Bacteria The protein assumes its active shape and binds to a specific site beside the lac promoter, making it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to the adjacent promoter to start transcription of the lac operon, increasing the rate of lac operon transcription. With a high glucose concentration, the cAMP concentration decreases, and the CRP disengages from the lac operon.
In the species Dictyostelium discoideum specifically, the chemotactic movement of cells are organized by periodic waves of cAMP that propagate through the cell. Slime Mold is a broad term referring to amoeba-like organisms hence the name slime which feed on microorganisms in decaying vegetable matter hence the name Molds The dictyostelids are a group of cellular Slime molds or social Amoebae When food (normally bacteria is readily available they take the form of individual amoebae Chemotaxis, a kind of Taxis, is the phenomenon in which bodily cells bacteria, and other single-cell or Multicellular organisms direct their movements The waves are the result of a regulated production and secretion of extracellular cAMP and a spontaneous biological oscillator that initiates the waves at centers of territories.
Some research has suggested that a deregulation of cAMP pathways and an aberrant activation of cAMP-controlled genes is linked to the growth of some cancers. A carcinoma is any Malignant Cancer that arises from epithelial cells. 
Recent research may indicate that cAMP affects the function of higher order thinking in the prefrontal cortex through its regulation of ion channels called hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN). A cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG ion channel is any Ion channel that opens in the presence of Cyclic nucleotides Mechanism The channels are gated by When cAMP stimulates the HCN, these gates open, rendering the brain cell closed to communication, thus interfering with prefrontal cortex function. This research is of interest to scientists studying the brain, especially the degradation of higher cognitive function in ADHD and aging. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder affecting about 3-5% of the world's population 
cAMP represented in three ways