Cuicuilco was an ancient city in the central Mexican highlands, on the southern shore of the Lake Texcoco in the southeastern Valley of Mexico. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Lake Texcoco (Lago de Texcoco was a natural Lake formation within the Valley of Mexico, a basin with an average Elevation of 2236 m Above Valley of Mexico is a highland Plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of the State Today, it is a significant archaeological site that was occupied during the Mesoamerican Middle and Late Formative (ca. An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either Prehistoric or historic or contemporary and Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Mesoamérica is a Region extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, defined Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica into a number of named successive eras or periods from the earliest evidence of human habitation Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica into a number of named successive eras or periods from the earliest evidence of human habitation 700 B. C. to A. D. 150). Based on its date of occupation, Cuicuilco may be the oldest city in the Valley of Mexico and was roughly contemporary with, and possibly interacting with the Olmec of the Gulf Coast of lowland Veracruz and Tabasco (also known as the Olmec heartland). The Olmec were an ancient Pre-Columbian people living in the Tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in what are roughly the modern-day states The Gulf Coast of Mexico stretches along the Gulf of Mexico from the border with the United states at Matamoros all the way to the tip of the Yucatán Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that constitute the republic of Mexico. Tabasco is a state in Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the west Chiapas to the south and Campeche to the The Olmec heartland is the southern portion of Mexico 's Gulf Coast region between the Tuxtla mountains and the Olmec Archaeological
According to translations of ancient Nahuatl, Cuicuilco can be interpreted as the "place of prayer" or the "place of the rainbow. Nahuatl ( is a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan or Nahuan branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family "
Cuicuilco was originally founded as a farming village, but presents evidence of early religious practices including stone offerings and the use of ceramics as grave goods. A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet, but smaller than a Town or City. Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware Grave goods, in Archaeology and Anthropology, are the items buried along with the body The city grew around a large ceremonial center with pyramids and an associated urban area that included plazas and avenues bordering a series of small, shallow pools. Mesoamerican pyramids, pyramid-shaped structures are an important part of ancient Mesoamerican architecture. Plaza ( / latin america) is a Spanish word related to "field" which describes an open urban Public space, such as a City square. These pools were fed by runoff from the nearby hills of Zacayuca and Zacaltepetl. Population at the city's peak is estimated at 20,000 people. Site features include terraces, various buildings, fortifications, and irrigation ditches and canals. Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops Canals are artificial channels for water There are two types of canals water conveyance canals which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water and Waterways
Archaeologists conclude that Cuicuilco was a prominent community prior to the emergence of Teotihuacan as an urban center, noting that the six small communities which eventually combined to become Teotihuacan were founded and showing evidence of modest growth during the time Cuicuilco was building pyramids and public monuments. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Teotihuacan is an enormous archaeological site in the Basin of Mexico, containing some of the largest pyramidal structures built in the Pre-Columbian Americas The city seems to have been abandoned around A. D. 150 to 200 after the eruption of a nearby volcano, Xitle, although the territory was reoccupied at a much later date. Xitle is a Volcano on the outskirts of the Ajusco range near Mexico City. Pottery, and other evidence, suggest that refugees from the volcanic disaster migrated north and became part of the population pool of Teotihuacan, near the northern shore of the Lake Texcoco.
The site of Cuicuilco is covered by a dense volcanic lava field known as the Pedregal de San Angel. The lava covers an area of approximately 80 km², including the foothills of the Ajusco mountain range and extending down to a nearby lake shore. A 1956 study concluded that the uneven lava deposits, reaching a depth over 10 m in areas, were a major factor in the preservation of Cuicuilco. The site is also inside a modern urban area, and is partially covered by buildings associated with the National University of Mexico. The National Autonomous University of Mexico (in Spanish: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México UNAM) is a Public university based Only partial archaeological investigation has been possible, and modern building techniques have damaged the prehistoric city. Several 1990 archaeological finds at Cuicuilco, consisting of a circular pyramid constructed within a plaza with smaller structures associated with agricultural system, were destroyed for the construction of a multi-storied office complex. Consequently, the true size and complexity of Cuicuilco may be difficult to ascertain.