A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are part of the experience. A passenger ship is a Ship whose primary function is to carry passengers Cruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, with millions of passengers each year. This article is about yacht cruising For cruising on cruise liners see the article Cruise ship. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing European clientele. Smaller markets such as the Asia-Pacific region are generally serviced by older tonnage displaced by new ships introduced into the high growth areas. The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions
Cruise ships operate mostly on routes that return passengers to their originating port. In contrast, ocean liners do "line voyages" and typically transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on round trips. An ocean liner is a ship designed to transport people from one Seaport to another along regular long-distance Maritime routes according to a schedule Some liners also engage in longer trips which may not lead back to the same port for many months. 
A river cruise ship has similar amenities, however is shorter, narrower, and has a shallower draft, allowing it to travel inland waterways. A River cruise is a voyage along inland waterways often stopping at multiple ports along the way
The first vessel built exclusively for this purpose was the Prinzessin Victoria Luise, commissioned by Albert Ballin, general manager of Hamburg-America Line. A ship /ʃɪp/ is a large vessel that floats on water Ships are generally distinguished from Boats based on size Prinzessin Victoria Luise was a Passenger ship of the Hamburg-America Line of some. Albert Ballin ( 15 August 1857 - 9 November 1918) was a German businessman The Hamburg Amerikanische Packetfahrt Actien Gesellschaft ( HAPAG for short often referred to in English as Hamburg America Line, sometimes also Hamburg-Amerika The ship was completed in 1900.
The practice of cruising grew gradually out of the transatlantic crossing tradition, which never took less than four days. The term transatlantic refers to something occurring all the way across the Atlantic Ocean. In the competition for passengers, ocean liners added many luxuries — the Titanic being the most famous example — such as fine dining and well-appointed staterooms. An ocean liner is a ship designed to transport people from one Seaport to another along regular long-distance Maritime routes according to a schedule Construction The Titanic was a White Star Line ocean liner built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland
In the late 19th century, Albert Ballin, director of the Hamburg-America Line, was the first to send his transatlantic ships out on long southern cruises during the worst of the winter season of the North Atlantic. Albert Ballin ( 15 August 1857 - 9 November 1918) was a German businessman The Hamburg Amerikanische Packetfahrt Actien Gesellschaft ( HAPAG for short often referred to in English as Hamburg America Line, sometimes also Hamburg-Amerika Other companies followed suit. Some of them built specialized ships designed for easy transformation between summer crossings and winter cruising.
With the advent of large passenger jet aircraft in the 1960s, intercontinental travellers largely switched from ships to planes, sending the ocean liner trade into a slow decline. A jet aircraft is an Aircraft propelled by Jet engines Jet aircraft fly much faster than Propeller -powered aircraft and at higher altitudes -- as high as Ocean liner services aimed at passengers ceased in 1986, with the notable exception of transatlatic crossings operated by the Cunard Line, catering to the niche market who enjoy the few days of luxury and enforced idleness that a liner voyage affords. Cunard Line is a British shipping company operator of the Ocean liners RMS ''Queen Elizabeth 2'' ( QE2) RMS ''Queen Mary 2'' ( A niche market is a focused targetable portion (subset of a market In comparison to liner crossings, cruising voyages gained popularity; slowly at first but at an increased rate from the 1980s onwards. Initially the fledgling industry was serviced primarily by small redundant liners, and even the first purpose built cruise ships were small. This changed after the success of the SS Norway (originally the ocean liner SS France, re-launched in 1980) as the Caribbean's first "super-ship". Characteristics The SS France was the French Line Flagship from 1961 to 1974 combining regular Transatlantic crossings - six days and nights - with Since then the size of cruise ships has risen dramatically to become the largest passenger ships ever built.
The 1970s television show The Love Boat, featuring Princess Cruises' since-sold ship Pacific Princess, did much to raise awareness of cruises as a vacation option for ordinary people in the United States. The Love Boat (simply Love Boat in its final season is an American Television series set on a Cruise ship, which Princess Cruises is an American Cruise line, based in the Valencia section of the city of Santa Clarita, California, that History The ship began operation in 1971 with Flagship Cruises, under the name Sea Venture. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Initially this growth was centered around the Caribbean, Alaska and Mexico, but now encompasses all areas of the globe. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Today, several hundred cruise ships, some carrying over 3,000 passengers and measuring over 120,000 gross tons, ply routes worldwide. For certain destinations such as the Arctic and Antarctica, cruise ships are very nearly the only way to visit. The Arctic is the Region around the Earth 's North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole.
Cruise ships are organized much like floating hotels, with a complete hospitality staff in addition to the usual ship's crew. A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging usually on a short-term basis It is not uncommon for the most luxurious ships to have more crew and staff than passengers.
As with any vessel, adequate provisioning is crucial, especially on a cruise ship serving several thousand meals at each seating. Cruise ships consume vast amounts of Food every day as an example the following is a list of supplies provisioned onboard the Celebrity cruise ship Constellation Passengers and crew on the Royal Caribbean International ship Mariner of the Seas consume 20,000 pounds (9,000 kg) of beef, 28,000 eggs, 8,000 gallons (30,000 L) of ice cream, and 18,000 slices of pizza in a week. Royal Caribbean International () is a Norwegian / American Cruise line company based in Miami Florida. Technical Main propulsion Each propeller is driven by a double wound 3-phase synchronous motor with 4-bladed bronze propellers of Azipod type
Many older cruise ships have had multiple owners. Since each cruise line has its own livery and often a naming theme (for instance, ships of the Holland America Line have names ending in "-dam", e. A cruise line is a company that operates Cruise ships Cruise lines have a dual character they are partly in the transportation business and partly in the leisure A livery is a Uniform or other sign worn in a non-military context on a person or object (such as an airplane or Vehicle) to denote a relationship The Holland America Line was founded in 1873 as the Dutch-America Steamship Company, a shipping and passenger line g. MS Statendam, and Royal Caribbean's ships' names all end with "of the Seas", e. Royal Caribbean International () is a Norwegian / American Cruise line company based in Miami Florida. g. MS Freedom of the Seas), it is usual for the transfer of ownership to entail a refitting and a name change. "Freedom of the Seas" redirects here For the concept in international and admiralty law see Freedom of the seas, and for the play and film of this title see Some ships have had a dozen or more identities.
Cruise ships and former liners often find employment in applications other than those for which they were built. A shortage of hotel accommodation for the 2004 Summer Olympics led to a plan to moor a number of cruise ships in Athens to provide tourist accommodation. The 2004 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad, was an International Multi-sport event which was celebrated Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's On September 1, 2005, FEMA contracted three Carnival Cruise Lines vessels to house Hurricane Katrina evacuees. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The purpose of FEMA is to coordinate the response to a Disaster which has occurred in the United States and which overwhelms the resources of local and state authorities Carnival Cruise Lines is a Cruise line operating a large number of Cruise ships. Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest in the history of the United States 
Although similar luxury is available on inland waterway cruise ships, there are differences. A River cruise is a voyage along inland waterways often stopping at multiple ports along the way The ships are much smaller, perhaps carrying 20-240 people. The size of such ships allows for movement through locks. For instance the Moonlight Lady a ship of Vermont Discovery Cruises travels through the locks of the Chamblay Canal, allowing for international inland waterway travel between the United States and Canada. There is more opportunity to visit ashore, and it is possible to leave the boat and catch it again later using alternative transportation. Inland waterway cruises are more common than ocean cruises, and many more destinations are available. 
The number of cruise tourists worldwide in 2005 was estimated at some 14 million. The main region for cruising was North America (70% of cruises), where the Caribbean islands were the most popular destinations. Next was Continental Europe (13%). Most European routes were in the Mediterranean Sea but an increasing number of cruises are in the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. 
The first journeys across the Caribbean Sea were made by Amerindian canoeists who “settled the island chains, paddling north from the river systems of the Orinoco and the Amazon”.  This resulted in the fight for control of the Caribbean, particularly for the Caribbean Sea between the European powers. The sea became an economic highway for “slavers, traders, buccaneers, and fishermen”.  It also became a passageway for “escaped slaves, indentured labourers and settlers, and later still a watery flight path for emigrants and boat people”. 
The Caribbean cruising industry is a large and growing market, and currently the most popular. Cruising has grown from “an estimated 900,850 passengers in 1983 to 2. 3 million passengers in 1993”.  Cruise lines operating in the Caribbean include Royal Caribbean International, Princess Cruises, Carnival Cruise Line, Celebrity Cruises, Disney Cruise Line, Holland America, P&O, Cunard, and Norwegian Cruise Line. Royal Caribbean International () is a Norwegian / American Cruise line company based in Miami Florida. Princess Cruises is an American Cruise line, based in the Valencia section of the city of Santa Clarita, California, that Carnival Cruise Lines is a Cruise line operating a large number of Cruise ships. Celebrity Cruises is a Cruise line founded in 1989 by the Greek Chandris Group. Disney Cruise Line is an American Cruise ship company owned by The Walt Disney Company and headquartered in Celebration Florida. The Holland America Line was founded in 1873 as the Dutch-America Steamship Company, a shipping and passenger line The P&O Cruises brand is not owned by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company Cunard may refer to Nancy Cunard (1896–1965 English writer editor and publisher Samuel Cunard (1787–1865 British shipping Norwegian Cruise Line (NCL is a company operating Cruise ships headquartered in Miami, Florida. There are also smaller cruise lines that cater to a more intimate feeling among their guests. The biggest cruise line companies are Royal Caribbean, Princess Cruises, and Carnival Cruise Line.
Many of the American cruise lines in the Caribbean depart from ports in the United States, “nearly one-third of the cruises sailed out of Miami”.  Other cruise ships depart from Fort Lauderdale ("Port Everglades") New York, Tampa, Galveston, and San Juan. Many UK cruise lines base their ships out of Barbados for the Caribbean season, operating direct charter flights out of the UK and avoiding the sometimes lengthy delays at US immigration.
Cruises sailing in the Caribbean travel on itineraries depending on the port of departure and the length of the cruise. The busiest port of call is the Bahamas with “1. 8 million cruise-ship arrivals in 1994”.  This is because its distance from Florida, is very convenient for short and long cruises. The next most popular ports of call were “the US Virgin Islands (1. 2 million), St. Maarten (718,553), Puerto Rico (680,195), the Cayman Islands (599,387), and Jamaica (595,036)”.  Other ports of call include: Belize City, Costa Maya, Cozumel, Antigua, Aruba, Grand Turk and Key West. St Thomas in the US Virgin Islands is particularly popular with US passengers because they get a second Duty Free allowance to use on goods purchased there.
The majority of the major cruise lines also stop at their own "Private Island," more truthfully, a private section of a Caribbean island. These private resorts are reserved exclusively for passengers of the respective cruise line using the location, and frequently offer unique features such as an Aqua Park, kayaking, snorkeling, parasailing, music, or private reservable cabanas.  
The market for cruise ships is dominated by three European companies:
A large number of cruise ships have been built by other shipyards, but no other individual yard has reached the large numbers of built ships achieved by the three above. A handful of old ocean liners also remain in service as cruise ships. An ocean liner is a ship designed to transport people from one Seaport to another along regular long-distance Maritime routes according to a schedule Despite the dominance of United States-based cruise ship operators and American clients in the industry, only one ship built in the United States, the SS The Emerald, is still sailing. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the History Santa Rosa and time laid up The ship was originally launched in 1958 as Santa Rosa and she measured 20000 tonnes
Norovirus infections continue to be a problem on cruise ships. Norovirus (was "Norwalk-like viruses" an RNA virus of the Caliciviridae taxonomic family, causes approximately 90% of Epidemic In 2002, there were 25 reported outbreaks, with 2,648 passengers becoming ill from the virus.  There have been a number of voyages where hundreds of passengers have become ill.  Outbreak investigations by the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have shown that transmission among cruise ship passengers is almost wholly person-to-person; water supplies have never been implicated.
Other pathogens which are known to be a problem on board cruise ships include Legionella, the bacteria which causes Legionnaires' disease. Legionella is a Gram negative Bacterium, including species that cause Legionellosis or Legionnaires' disease most notably L Legionellosis is an Infectious disease caused by Bacteria belonging to the Genus Legionella. Legionella can colonise the domestic water systems and whirlpool spas as well as cooling systems used on board. Legionella, and in particular the most virulent strain, Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, can cause infections when inhaled as an aerosol or aspirated. Infections are more common amongst the over 50s, with smokers and others with pre-existing respiratory disease being particularly vulnerable. The demographic most commonly using cruise ships can be particularly vulnerable. A number of cases of Legionnaires' disease have been associated with cruise ships. 
Cruise ships generate a number of waste streams that can result in discharges to the marine environment, including sewage, graywater, hazardous wastes, oily bilge water, ballast water, and solid waste. Cruise ships generate Sewage, Greywater, Hazardous wastes oily Bilge water ballast water solid waste and air pollutants They also emit air pollutants to the air and water. These wastes, if not properly treated and disposed of, can be a significant source of pathogens, nutrients, and toxic substances with the potential to threaten human health and damage aquatic life. Cruise ships represent a small — although highly visible — portion of the entire international shipping industry, and such waste streams are not unique to cruise ships. However, particular types of wastes, such as sewage, graywater, and solid waste, may be of greater concern for cruise ships relative to other seagoing vessels, because of the large numbers of passengers and crew that cruise ships carry and the large volumes of wastes that they produce. Further, because cruise ships tend to concentrate their activities in specific coastal areas and visit the same ports repeatedly, their cumulative impact on a local scale could be significant, as can impacts of individual large-volume releases (either accidental or intentional).