"Fallow" redirects here. For the album by The Weakerthans, see Fallow (album). The Weakerthans are an award-winning four-piece (and sometimes six-piece Canadian Indie rock band that blends Punk rock with Folk rock. Fallow is the debut album by The Weakerthans. It was released in 1997 on G7 Welcoming Committee Records in Canada, and in 1999 on
Crop rotation or Crop sequencing is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same space in sequential seasons for various benefits such as to avoid the build up of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one species is continuously cropped. A pathogen (from Greek πάθος pathos "suffering passion" and γἰγνομαι (γεν- gignomai (gen- "I give birth to" infectious Crop rotation also seeks to balance the fertility demands of various crops to avoid excessive depletion of soil nutrients. A traditional component of crop rotation is the replenishment of nitrogen through the use of green manure in sequence with cereals and other crops. Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 In Agriculture, a green manure is a type of Cover crop grown primarily to add Nutrients and Organic matter to the Soil. It is one component of polyculture. Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems and avoiding large stands of single crops or Monoculture Crop rotation can also improve soil structure and fertility by alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants. Soil structure is determined by how individual soil Granules clump or bind together and aggregate and therefore the arrangement of soil pores between them Soil fertility is the characteristic of soil that supports abundant plant life
Crop rotation avoids a decrease in soil fertility, as growing the same crop repeated in the same place eventually depletes the soil of various nutrients. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel A nutrient is food or chemicals that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organism's metabolism which must be taken in from its environment A crop that leaches the soil of one kind of nutrient is followed during the next growing season by a dissimilar crop that returns that nutrient to the soil or draws a different ratio of nutrients, for example, rices followed by cottons. By crop rotation farmers can keep their fields under continuous production, without the need to let them lie fallow, and reducing the need for artificial fertilizers, both of which can be expensive. In Agriculture, a field refers generally to an area of Land enclosed or otherwise and used for agricultural purposes such as Cultivating crops Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant Rotating crops add nutrients to the soils.
Legumes, plants of the family Fabaceae, for instance, have nodules on their roots which contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria. A legume is a Plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae or a Fruit of these specific plants Fabaceae or Leguminosae is a large and economically important family of Flowering plants which is commonly known as the legume family, pea ROOT is an object-oriented program and library developed by CERN. Nitrogen fixation is the process by which Nitrogen is taken from its natural relatively inert molecular form (N2 in the atmosphere and converted into The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have It therefore makes good sense agriculturally to alternate them with cereals (family Poaceae) and other plants that require nitrates. Poaceae or Gramineae is a family in the Class Liliopsida of the flowering plants. In Inorganic chemistry, a nitrate is a salt of Nitric acid with an Ion composed of one Nitrogen and three Oxygen atoms A common modern crop rotation is alternating soybeans and maize (corn). Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica In subsistence farming, it also makes good nutritional sense to grow beans and grain at the same time in different fields. Subsistence agriculture is self-sufficient farming in which farmers grow only enough food to feed the family and to pay taxes or feudal dues
Crop rotation is also used to control pests and diseases that can become established in the soil over time. Plants within the same taxonomic family tend to have similar pests and pathogens. In Biological classification, family ( Latin By regularly changing the planting location, the pest cycles can be broken or limited. For example, root-knot nematode is a serious problem for some plants in warm climates and sandy soils, where it slowly builds up to high levels in the soil, and can severely damage plant productivity by cutting off circulation from the plant roots. Root-knot nematodes are plant-parasitic Nematodes from the genus Meloidogyne. Growing a crop that is not a host for root-knot nematode for one season greatly reduces the level of the nematode in the soil, thus making it possible to grow a susceptible crop the following season without needing soil fumigation. Fumigation is a method of Pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous Pesticides to suffocate or poison the pests within
It is also difficult to control weeds similar to the crop which may contaminate the final produce. WEED (1390 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Spanish format For instance, ergot in weed grasses is difficult to separate from harvested grain. Ergot is the common name of a Fungus in the Genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses A different crop allows the weeds to be eliminated, breaking the ergot cycle.
This principle is of particular use in organic farming, where pest control may be achieved without synthetic pesticides. Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on Crop rotation, Green manure, Compost, Biological pest control, and mechanical Cultivation Biological control of pests in Agriculture is a method of controlling pests (including Insects Mites Weeds and plant diseases
A general effect of crop rotation is that there is a geographic mixing of crops, which can slow the spread of pests and diseases during the growing season. The different crops can also reduce the effects of adverse weather for the individual farmer and, by requiring planting and harvest at different times, allow more land to be farmed with the same amount of machinery and labor.
The choice and sequence of rotation crops depends on the nature of the soil, the climate, and precipitation which together determine the type of plants that may be cultivated. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric Other important aspects of farming such as crop marketing and economic variables must also be considered when choosing a crop rotation.
Early crop rotation methods were mentioned in Roman literature, and referred to by several civilizations in Asia and Africa. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution of the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim engineers and farmers introduced a new modern rotation system where land was cropped four times or more in a two-year period. The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in Agriculture known as the Arab Agricultural Winter crops were followed by summer ones, and in some cases there was a crop in between. In areas where plants of shorter growing season were used, ie. spinach and eggplants, the land could be cropped three or more times a year. Spinach ( Spinacia oleracea) is a Flowering plant in the family of Amaranthaceae. The eggplant, aubergine, or brinjal ( Solanum melongena) is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades According to some sources, in parts of Yemen wheat yielded two harvests a year on the same land, as did rice in Iraq. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya  Scholars such as Andrew Watson have written of a Muslim agricultural revolution as the Islamic world made significant progress in developing a more "scientific" approach based on three major elements: sophisticated systems of crop rotation, highly developed irrigation techniques and introduction of a large variety of crops which were studied and catalogued according to the season, type of land and amount of water they require. Andrew Watson may refer to Andrew Watson (footballer (born 1857 date of death unknown Scottish footballer Andrew Naismith Watson Numerous farming encyclopaedias, with surprisingly great precision and details, were produced. 
From the end of the Middle Ages until the 20th century, the three-year rotation was practiced by farmers in Europe with a rotation of rye or winter wheat, followed by spring oats or barley, then letting the soil rest (leaving it fallow) during the third stage. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Rye ( Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Oats redirects here It may mean either the common cereal oat discussed here or any cultivated or wild species of the Genus Avena. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for The fact that suitable rotations made it possible to restore or to maintain a productive soil has long been recognized by planting spring crops for livestock in place of grains for human consumption.
A four-field rotation was pioneered by farmers, namely in the region Waasland in the early 16th century and popularised by the British agriculturist Charles Townshend in the 18th century. The Waasland is a region in Flanders, Belgium, although without any administrative functions The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Charles Townshend 2nd Viscount Townshend ( April 18, 1674 &ndash June 21, 1738) was an English statesman The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The system (wheat, barley, turnips and clover), opened up a fodder crop and grazing crop allowing livestock to be bred year-round. For similar vegetables also called "turnip" see Turnip (disambiguation. Alsike redirects here Alsike Sweden is also a town in the Knivsta Municipality, Sweden. Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food The four-field crop rotation was a key development in the British Agricultural Revolution. The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of development in Britain between the 18th century and the end of the 19th century which saw a massive increase in agricultural
George Washington Carver pioneered crop rotation methods in the United States by teaching southern farmers to rotate soil depleting crops like cotton with soil enriching crops like peanuts and peas. George Washington Carver (January 1864 – January 5 1943 was an African American Scientist, Botanist, Educator, and Inventor The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The peanut, or Groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea) is a species in the Legume family Fabaceae native to South America, Mexico A pea (inaccurately called a '''sweet pea''' by food distubutors is most commonly the small spherical Seed or the seed-pod of the Legume Pisum 
In the Green revolution, the traditional practice of crop rotation gave way in some parts of the world to the practice of supplementing the chemical inputs to the soil through top dressing with fertilizers, e. The Green Revolution refers to the transformation of Agriculture that began in 1945 at the request of the Mexican government to establish an agricultural research station to Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant g. , adding ammonium nitrate or urea and restoring soil pH with lime in the search for increased yields, preparing soil for specialist crops, and seeking to reduce waste and inefficiency by simplifying planting and harvesting. The Chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the Nitrate of Ammonia with the chemical formula N[[Hydrogen H]]4 N[[Oxygen O]]3 Urea is an Organic compound with the Chemical formula ( N[[hydrogen H]]22 C[[oxygen O]] pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution. Lime is a general term for various naturally occurring Minerals and materials derived from them in which Carbonates Oxides and Hydroxides of Some disadvantages of this type of monoculture have since become apparent, notably from the perspective of sustainable agriculture and the risk of catastrophic crop failure. Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals environmental Stewardship, Farm Profitability and prosperous Farming communities