Crony capitalism is a pejorative term describing an allegedly capitalist economy in which success in business depends on close relationships between businessmen and government officials. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where It may be exhibited by favoritism in the distribution of legal permits, government grants, special tax breaks, and so forth. A tax break is a tax Saving. This includes Tax exemption, an exemption from all or certain Taxes of a state or nation in which part of
Crony capitalism is believed to arise when political cronyism spills over into the business world; self-serving friendships and family ties between businessmen and the government influence the economy and society to the extent that it corrupts public-serving economic and political ideals. For the record label see Crony Records Cronyism is partiality to long-standing friends especially by appointing them to positions of authority In Economics, a public good is a good that is non-rivaled and non-excludable.
In its lightest form, crony capitalism consists of collusion among market players. Transparency International ( TI) is a leading international Non-governmental organization addressing corruption Collusion is an agreement usually secretive which occurs between two or more persons to deceive mislead or defraud others of their legal rights or to obtain an objective forbidden While perhaps lightly competing against each other, they will present a unified front to the government in requesting subsidies or aid (sometimed called a trade association or industry trade group). An industry trade group, also known as a trade association, is an organization founded and funded by Businesses that operate in a specific Industry. Newcomers to a market may find it difficult to find loans or acquire shelf space to sell their product; in technological fields, they may be accused of infringing on patents that the established competitors never invoke against each other. A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an Distribution networks will refuse to aid the entrant. That said, there will still be competitors who "crack" the system when the legal barriers are light, especially where the old guard has become inefficient and is failing to meet the needs of the market. Of course, some of these upstarts may then join with the established networks to help deter any other new competitors. The keiretsu of post-war Japan may be an example of such an arrangement, as would the powerful families who control much of the investment in Latin America. A is a set of companies with interlocking Business relationships and shareholdings.
Crony capitalism is generally associated with more virulent government intervention, however. Intentionally ambiguous laws and regulations are common in such systems. Taken strictly, such laws would greatly impede practically all business; in practice, they are only erratically enforced. The specter of having such laws suddenly brought down upon a business provides incentive to stay in the good graces of political officials. Troublesome rivals who have overstepped their bounds can have the laws suddenly enforced against them, leading to fines or even jail time.
States often said to exhibit crony capitalism are the People's Republic of China; India, especially up to the early 1990's when the manufacturing was strictly controlled by the Central Government, giving rise to the phrase of "Licence Raj"; Indonesia; Mexico; Brazil; Malaysia; Russia; and most other ex-Soviet states. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. Critics claim that government connections are almost indispensable to business success in these countries. Wu Jinglian, one of China's leading economists and a longtime champion of its transition to free markets, says that it faces two starkly contrasting futures: a market economy under the rule of law or crony capitalism. Wu Jinglian (吴敬琏 born January 24, 1930) is one of the preeminent Economists of the People's Republic of China (PRC primarily specializing 
More direct government involvement can lead to specific areas of crony capitalism, even if the economy as a whole may be healthy. Governments will, often in good faith, establish government agencies to regulate an industry. However, the members of an industry have a very strong interest in the actions of a regulatory body, while the rest of the citizenry are only lightly affected. As a result, it is not uncommon for current industry players to gain control of the "watchdog" and use it against competitors. This phenomenon is known as regulatory capture. Regulatory capture is a term used to refer to situations in which a Government regulatory agency created to act in the public interest instead acts in favor of the commercial A famous early example in the United States would be the Interstate Commerce Commission, which was established in 1887 to regulate the railroad "robber barons;" instead, it quickly became controlled by the railroads, who set up a permit system that was used to deny access to new entrants and functionally legalized price fixing. The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a Regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 which was signed Robber baron is a term revived in the 19th century in the United States as a pejorative reference to businessmen and bankers who dominated their respective industries Price fixing is an agreement between business competitors to sell the same product or service at the same price A more modern example would be the case of Creekstone Farms. Creekstone Farms Premium Beef LLC is a conventional and angus beef producer and Limited liability company with livestock based in Campbellsburg Kentucky After the mad cow scare, Creekstone decided to test all its cows for mad cow disease. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy ( BSE) commonly known as Mad-Cow Disease ( MCD) is a fatal Neurodegenerative disease in Cattle This would enable them to sell again to Japan, which had blocked import of all American beef that had not been completely tested. After the proper facilities had been built and the personnel hired to make such a change, the U.S. Department of Agriculture issued an injunction and refused to allow Creekstone to buy the kits necessary to test.  This allowed the larger beef producers to keep costs low and not be out-competed by a smaller rival. Creekstone sued the USDA in response for abrogating free competition in the market. Economist Paul Krugman commented that the incident showed that "the imperatives of crony capitalism trump[ed] professed faith in free markets," at least for the Department of Agriculture at the time. Paul Robin Krugman ( born February 28 1953 is an American Economist, Columnist, Author, and Intellectual. 
The so-called "military-industrial complex" in the United States is often accused to be a case of crony capitalism in an industry. A military-industrial complex (MIC is a concept commonly used to refer to Policy relationships between Governments national Armed forces, and industrial Connections with The Pentagon and lobbyists in Washington are decried by critics as more important than actual competition, due to the political and secretive nature of defense contracts. The Pentagon is the Headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia. In the Airbus-Boeing WTO dispute, Airbus (which receives subsidies from European governments outright) alleges that Boeing receives similar subsidies hidden as inefficient defense contracts. Transatlantic relations refers to the historic cultural political economic and social relations between countries on both side of the Atlantic Ocean. In Economics, a subsidy (also known as a subvention is a form of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector
In its worst form, crony capitalism can devolve into simple corruption, where any pretense of a free market is dispensed with. Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain Bribes to government officials are considered de rigueur and tax evasion is common; this is seen in many parts of Africa, for instance. Tax avoidance is the legal utilization of the Tax regime to one's own advantage in order to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law This is sometimes called plutocracy (rule by wealth) or kleptocracy (rule by theft). Plutocracy is rule by the wealthy or power provided by wealth A kleptocracy (sometimes cleptocracy, occasionally kleptarchy) ( root klepto+kratein = rule by thieves) is a term applied to a
Corrupt governments may favor one set of business owners who have close ties to the government over others. Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain This may also be done with racial, religious, or ethnic favoritsm; for instance, Alawites in Syria have a disproportionate share of power in the government and business there. For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see Alawi (sheikhdom The Alawites Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية (President Assad is an Alawite. Dr Bashar al-Assad (بشار الأسد) (born 11 September, 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary ) This can be explained by considering personal relationships as a social network. A social network is a Social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations that are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency such as As government and business leaders try to accomplish various things, they naturally turn to other powerful people for support in their endeavors. These people form hubs in the network. In a developing country those hubs may be very few, thus concentrating economic and political power in a small interlocking group.
Normally, this will be untenable to maintain in business; new entrants will affect the market. However, if business and government are entwined, then the government can maintain the small-hub network.
Socialists and other anti-capitalists often assert that crony capitalism is the inevitable result of any capitalist system. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Anti-capitalism describes a wide variety of movements ideas and attitudes which oppose Capitalism. Jane Jacobs calls it a natural consequence of collusion between those managing power and trade. Jane Jacobs, OC, OOnt ( May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an Power is a measure of a person's ability to control the environment around them including the behavior of other people Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce. Since businesses make money and money leads to political power, business will inevitably use their power to influence governments. Much of the impetus behind campaign finance reform in the United States and other countries is an attempt to prevent the leveraging of economic power into political power. Campaign finance reform is the common term for the political effort in the United States to change the involvement of money in Politics, primarily in Political
Capitalists generally oppose crony capitalism as well, but consider it an aberration brought on by governmental favors incompatible with true capitalism. In this view, crony capitalism is the result of an excess of socialist-style interference in the market, which requires active corporate lobbying to reduce red tape. They point to the relatively higher levels of interaction between corporations and governments that are considered more socialist, taken to its maximum in the form of nationalization of industries. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government Even if the initial regulation was well-intentioned (to curb actual abuses), and even if the initial lobbying by corporations was well-intentioned (to reduce illogical regulations), the mixture of business and government eventually proves poisonous. Burton W. Folsom, Jr., in his book The Myth of the Robber Barons, distinguished those that engage in crony capitalism – designated by him "political entrepreneurs" – from those who compete in the marketplace without special aid from government, whom he calls "market entrepreneurs. Burton W Folsom Jr (born 1947 is an American Historian and author " Economists of the Austrian School are severe in attacking crony capitalism, although in more formal contexts the term "state corporatism" is usually used. The Austrian School, also known as the “ Vienna School ” or the “ Psychological School ” is a heterodox school of economics that advocates Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic
Socialist economists have described the term as an ideologically motivated attempt to avoid the more fundamental problems of market capitalist economic arrangements. The term "crony capitalism" made its first significant impact in the public arena as an explanation of the Asian financial crisis. However, radical economists have frequently dismissed this explanation of the Asian financial crisis as apologetics for failures of neoliberal policy and more fundamental weaknesses of market allocation. The Asian Financial Crisis was a period of Financial crisis that gripped much of Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown ( According to socialist economist Robin Hahnel,
Finally, some critics question whether the concept is meaningful at all, pointing out that personal factors influence business decisions in all economic systems that involve a government and that the existence of these factors is an insufficient explanation for why certain economic systems work better than others.