|King Tomislav · Ivan Gundulić · Andrija Mohorovičić · Vladimir Prelog|
Miroslav Krleža · Ivan Meštrović · Josip Jelačić · Antun Lučić
6. Ivan (Dživo Franov Gundulić ( Italian: Giovanni Francesco Gondola; January 9, 1589 &ndash December 8, 1638) is the most Andrija Mohorovičić (ˈandrija mɔhɔːrɔvitʃiʨ ( January 23 1857 &ndash December 18, 1936) was a notable Croatian Meteorologist Vladimir Prelog ( July 23 1906 &ndash January 7 1998) was a renowned Chemist and Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry Miroslav Krleža (mîroslaʋ křleʒa July 7, 1893 - December 29, 1981) was a leading Croatian writer and a figure in cultural life Ivan Meštrović ( August 15, 1883 &ndash January 16, 1962) was a Croatian sculptor. Count Josip Jelačić of Bužim (born October 16 1801, Petrovaradin, died May 20 1859, Zagreb; also spelled Jellachich Anthony Francis Lucas ( September 9, 1855 &ndash September 2 1921) was a Croatian mechanical engineer responsible for the first successful 2 - 9 million (est. )
|Regions with significant populations|
|Predominantly Roman Catholic|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs|
See "Cognate peoples" below
Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. The Croats ( Hrvati in Croatian, croaţi in Romanian) are an ethnic minority in Romania, numbering 6786 people Molise Croats ( moliški Hrvati in scientific literature live in the Molise region of Italy in the villages Acquaviva Collecroce (in Croatian The Croats of Macedonia ( Croatian: Hrvati iz Makedonije; Macedonian: Хрвати од Македонија Hrvati od Makedonija) are a small The Croats are an Ethnic minority in Slovenia, numbering 35642 people according to the 2002 census. Burgenland Croats (Gradišćanski Hrvati are ethnic Croats in the Austrian province of Burgenland. Croatian Diaspora refers to the Croatian communities that have formed outside Croatia. Croatia has been a source of migrants to Australia particularly in the 1960s and 1970s The Croatian community is present in most major Canadian cities including the Greater Toronto Area, Hamilton, Ottawa, Vancouver, Calgary Croatian-Peruvians are Peruvians of Croatian descent Although a small group in the European minority of Peru, Croatian-Peruvians and their descendants Croatian British refers to the Croats that have formed communities in or were born in the United Kingdom. Croatian Americans are citizens of the United States of Croatian descent Bunjevci ( Bunjevac, Croatian and Serbian: Bunjevci / Буњевци singular Bunjevac / Буњевац (pronounced 'boo-nyev-tsi Šokci, ( Croatian, Bosnian Šokci, singular Šokac, Serbian Cyrillic: Шокци in Hungarian: Sokácok The Krashovani ( Croatian and Serbian: Krašovani (Крашовани Karašovani or Krašovanje, Karaševci and Croatian language ( hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily in Croatia, by Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in neighbouring Chakavian dialect ( Čakavian; Croatian: čakavski, proper name čakavica or čakavština) is a dialect of the Croatian language Croatian Kajkavian dialect ( Croatian: kajkavski, proper name kajkavica or kajkavština) is one of the three main dialects of the Croatian Shtokavian or Štokavian (štokavski is the main dialect of the Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian languages Burgenland Croatian language or dialect ( gradišćanskohrvatski jezik) belongs to the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages. Molise Croatian dialect (also Molise Slavic Slavisano na-našo) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three Croatia first appeared as a Duchy in the 7th century and then as a kingdom in the 10th century Earliest history The details of the arrival of the Croats are scarcely documented Croats (Hrvati are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries Punta Arenas (literally in Spanish: "Sandy Point" is the most prominent settlement on the Strait of Magellan and the capital of the Magallanes y la Croatian language ( hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily in Croatia, by Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in neighbouring The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans mainly throughout the former Yugoslavia (meaning "Land of Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan There are around 4. 6 million Croats living in the southern Central Europe region, along the east bank of the Adriatic Sea and an estimated 9 million throughout the world. Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Due to political, social and economic reasons, many Croats have since migrated throughout the world, and established a notable Croatian diaspora. Croatian Diaspora refers to the Croatian communities that have formed outside Croatia. Large Croat communities exists in a number of countries, including The United States, Australia, Germany, Chile, New Zealand and South Africa. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Croats are noted for their unique culture, which throughout the ages, has been variously influenced by both the Eastern world and the Western world. The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various Cultures social structures and philosophical systems of " the East " The Croats are predominantly Catholic and their language is Croatian. Croatian language ( hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily in Croatia, by Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in neighbouring
Croatia is the nation state of the Croats, while in the adjacent Bosnia and Herzegovina they are one of the three constitutive nations. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan More than 95% of population of Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to one of its three constitutive ethnic groups: Bosniaks, Serbs and
Autochthonous Croat minorities exist in or among:
The population estimates are reasonably accurate domestically: around four million in Croatia and nearly 600,000 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, or 15% of the total population.
A large number of Croats were forced over the course of the time for economic or political reasons to leave their traditional homeland, thus today there exists quite a large Croat diaspora outside of their traditional homeland of the southern Central Europe. Croatian Diaspora refers to the Croatian communities that have formed outside Croatia.
The first large emigration of Croats took place in the 15th and 16th centuries, at the beginning of the Ottoman conquests in today's Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish People fled into safer areas within today's Croatia, and other areas of the Habsburg Empire (today's Austria and Hungary). Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor This migration resulted in Croat communities in Austria and Hungary.
At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, larger numbers of Croats emigrated, particularly for economic reasons, to overseas destinations. Some destinations included North America, South America (above all Chile and Argentina), Australia and New Zealand.
A further larger emigration wave, this time for political reasons, took place immediately after the end of the Second World War. Here fled both collaborators of the Ustaša regime, and refugees who did not want to live under a communist regime. It is estimated that during and immediately after the Second World War (from 1939 to 1948) about 250,000 Croats had to leave the country.
In the second half the 20th century numerous Croats, to a large extent due to difficult economic living conditions, left the country as immigrant workers particularly to Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In addition some emigrants left for political reasons. This migration made a lowering of unemployment for communist Yugoslavia possible at that time and created at the same time by the transfers of the emigrants to its families an enormous foreign exchange source of income.
The last large wave of Croat emigration occurred during and after the Yugoslav Wars, when many people from the region (not only Croats but Serbs, Bosniaks and others as well) had to leave as refugees. The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY that took place between 1991 and Migrant communities that were already established in countries such as Australia, the USA, and Germany grew as a result.
Abroad, the count is only approximate because of incomplete statistical records and naturalization, but (highest) estimates suggest that the Croatian diaspora numbers between a third  and a half of the total number of Croats. Naturalization is the acquisition of Citizenship or Nationality by somebody who was not a citizen or national of that country when he or she was born The largest emigrant groups are in Western Europe, mainly in Germany, where it is estimated that there are around 450,000 people with direct Croatian ancestry.
Overseas, the United States contains the largest Croatian emigrant group (544,270 in the 1990 census; 374,271 in the 2000 census), mostly in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois and California), followed by Australia (105,747 according to 2001 census, with concentrations in Sydney, Melbourne and Perth) and Canada (Southern Ontario, British Columbia, Alberta). Croatian Americans are citizens of the United States of Croatian descent Croatia has been a source of migrants to Australia particularly in the 1960s and 1970s Croats have also emigrated in several waves into South America, chiefly Argentina, Chile, and Brazil; estimates of their number wildly vary. There are also smaller groups in Peru, New Zealand and South Africa. The most important organization of the Croatian diaspora are the Croatian Fraternal Union, Croatian Heritage Foundation and the Croatian World Congress. The term Diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά &ndash " a scattering or sowing of seeds " refers any population sharing common ethnic The Croatian Fraternal Union ( Hrvatska bratska zajednica) the oldest and largest Croatian organization in North America, is a fraternal benefit society of the The Croatian Heritage Foundation ( Hrvatska matica isljenika) is an organization which works with Croatian Emigrants.
The origin of the Croatian tribe before the great migration of the Slavs is uncertain. Human migration denotes any movement by Humans from one locality to another sometimes over long distances or According to the most widely accepted Slavic theory of the 7th century, the Croatian tribe moved from the area north of the Carpathians and east of the river Vistula (referred to as White Croatia) and migrated into the western Dinaric Alps. The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians (Carpaţi Czech, Polish and Slovak: Karpaty; Ukrainian: Карпати The Dinaric Alps or Dinarides ( Croatian and Bosnian: Dinarsko gorje or Dinaridi, Alpet Dinaride White Croats formed the Principality of Dalmatia in the upper Adriatic. White Croats ( Byelohravati) is the designation for one group of Slavic (Croatian tribes which migrated to Dalmatia (the coastal part of today's Croatia Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern Another wave of Slavic migrants from White Croatia subsequently founded the Principality of Pannonia. White Croats ( Byelohravati) is the designation for one group of Slavic (Croatian tribes which migrated to Dalmatia (the coastal part of today's Croatia Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy,
According to the autochthonous model, mostly promoted by Illyrian Movement in the 19th century and abandoned by the mid-19th century, the homeland of Slavs is actually in the area of southern Croatia, and they spread northwards and westwards rather than the other way round. Illyrian movement (Ilirski pokret also Croatian national revival ( Hrvatski narodni preporod) was a cultural and political campaign initiated by a group of A revision of the theory, developed by Ivan Muzić  argues that Slav migration from the north did happen, but the actual number of Slavic settlers was small and that the Illyrian ethnic substratum was prevalent for formation of Croatian ethnicity. The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as
The Iranian origin of the Croats suggests that they are descendants of ancient Iranians (cf. The Iranian people are a collection of Ethnic groups defined along linguistic lines as speaking Iranian languages. Alans), these are perceived appearances of the name for Croatia or Croatians. The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people The earliest claimed mention of the Croatian name, Horouathos, can be traced on two stone inscriptions in the Greek language and script, dating from around the year 200 AD, found in the seaport Tanais on the Azov sea, located on the Crimean peninsula (near the Black Sea). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The Greek alphabet (Ελληνικό αλφάβητο is a set of twenty-four letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early Events By Place World Human population reaches about 257 million Tanais ( Greek: Τάναϊς Tánaïs) is the ancient name for the River Don in Russia. The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре - Azovskoye more; Азо́вське мо́ре - Azovs'ke more, Azaq deñizi is the world's shallowest sea linked Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey Both tablets are kept in an archaeological museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Whether the term Hourathos is related to the Croat ethnonym is open to conjecture, as the two words may have separate origins.
Genetically, on the Y chromosome line, a majority (>87%) of Croats belong to one of the three major European Y-DNA haplogroups -- Haplogroup I (38%), Haplogroup R1a 35% and Haplogroup R1b 16%. Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is In the study of Molecular evolution, a haplogroup, from "ἁπλο-" (Greek haplo-: simple or single + "group" is a group of similar Haplotypes In Human genetics, Haplogroup I is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ, itself a derivative of Haplogroup F. A Subclade of R1, R1a is a Y-chromosome haplogroup found at high frequency in the extreme north of India among the Kashmiri Pandits In Human genetics, Haplogroup R1b is the most frequent Y-chromosome Haplogroup in Western Europe All three groups migrated to Europe during the upper paleolithic around 30,000-20,000 BC.
Later, neolithic lineages, originating in the Middle East and that brought agriculture to Europe, are present in surprisingly low numbers. The haplogroups J, E and G constitute together less than 10% - significantly lower than other populations in the region. In the study of Molecular evolution, a haplogroup, from "ἁπλο-" (Greek haplo-: simple or single + "group" is a group of similar Haplotypes In Human genetics, Haplogroup J (previously known as HG9 or Eu9/Eu10) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. In Human genetics, Haplogroup E (M96 is a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. In Human genetics, Haplogroup G (M201 is a Y-chromosome Haplogroup.  Furthermore the dominant presence of haplogroup I is rather interesting. In Human genetics, Haplogroup I is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ, itself a derivative of Haplogroup F. This group exists in Europe only and is fairly wide-spread, but in relatively small percentages. Its frequency in the Balkans is high, but the only populations that have similar levels of the I group are the Scandinavians. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well  Haplogroup I is believed to have weathered the last glacial maximum in the western Balkans, migrating north as the ice sheets retreated.
There are a number of relevant conclusions that can be drawn from the genetic data.
First of all it gives strong support to the theory that the region of modern day Croatia served as a refuge for northern populations during the last glacial maximum (LGM). The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM refers to the time of maximum extent of the Ice sheets during the last Glaciation (the Würm or Wisconsin glaciation) approximately Eastern Adriatic coast was much more to the south, northern and western parts of that sea were steppes and plains, while modern Croatian islands (rich with the archeological sites from Paleolithic) were hills and mountains. After the LGM there was a migration to the north of the people whose offspring today form a significant portion of the three aforementioned Scandinavian populations. Those who decided to stay are the ancestors of about 38 per cent of modern day Croats  in the Croatian mainland and more than 50 per cent of modern day Croats in Dalmatia (Croatia).
The second conclusion that can be drawn is that the theory of an Iranian origin has little genetic support. Modern-day Iranians have a significantly different haplogroup distribution, although millennia ago Persia may have been home to altogether different peoples. Only a relatively small percentage of the Croats belong to one of the haplogroups that is common in the Middle East. The low frequency of these groups is consistent with the minor migration of Neolithic farmers from the Middle East that occurred around 10,000 years ago. 
And the third conclusion is that modern-day Croats may not have that much genetically in common with the Croats of the proto-Slavic origin. The R1a haplogroup that is usually at 40-60% levels in most Eastern European countries is at 35% within the Croat population. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Genetic evidence points to the fact that there was a high degree of mixing of the newly arrived Croat tribes with the indigenous populations that were already present in the region of the modern day Croatia.  Hence, most modern day Croats are descended from the original European population of the region and have lived in the territory by other names, such as Illyrians and their forebears. Illyrians has come to refer to a broad ill-defined " Indo-European " group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans ( Illyria, roughly These original inhabitants also served an important role in re-populating Europe after the last ice age. 
The earliest Croatian state was the Principality of Dalmatia. Croatia first appeared as a Duchy in the 7th century and then as a kingdom in the 10th century The Croatian people trace their origins to Slavic peoples which moved into the territory of the former Roman provinces Pannonia and Dalmatia Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern Prince Trpimir of Dalmatia was called Duke of Croats in 852. Trpimir I, Prince (Knez of Littoral Croatia in 845&ndash864 He is the founder of the Croatian House of Trpimirović. A duke is a member of the Nobility, historically of highest rank below the Sovereign, and historically controlled a Duchy or a Dukedom In 925 Croatian Duke of Dalmatia Tomislav of Trpimir united all Croats. Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern He organized a state by annexing the Principality of Pannonia as well as maintaining close ties with Pagania and Zahumlje. Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, Pagania, Merania or Neretvia (the Narentine Frontier, Ancient Greek:, Italian: Narentani Zachlumia ( Croatian: Zahumlje Serbian: Захумље also known as the Land of the Hum and Chelm, was a Medieval
Since the creation of the personal union with Hungary in 1102, the Croats were at times subjected to forceful Germanization and Magyarization from XVII century. Pacta conventa ( Lat agreed accords) was an agreement between King Coloman of Hungary and the Croatian nobility in 1102 Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is either the spread of the German language, people and culture either by force or Assimilation Magyarization (also "Magyarisation" "Hungarisation" "Hungarization" "Hungarianization" "Hungarianisation" is a designator applied The ensuing Ottoman conquests and Habsburg domination broke the Croatian lands into disunity again—with the majority of Croats living in Croatia proper and Dalmatia. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Croatia first appeared as a Duchy in the 7th century and then as a kingdom in the 10th century This article is a detailed account of the history of the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Large numbers of Croats also lived in Slavonia, Istria, Rijeka, Herzegovina and Bosnia. Not to be confused with Slovenia, a nearby country Slavonia ( Croatian, Serbian: Slavonija, Cyrillic script This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea Rijeka (other Croatian dialects Rika and Reka, Reka Italian and Hungarian: Fiume, Sankt Veit am Pflaumb is Herzegovina ( Bosnian, Croatian: Hercegovina, Serbian: Херцеговина) is a traditionally Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan Over the centuries ensued a wave of Croatian emigrants, notably to Molise in Italy, Burgenland in Austria and eventually the United States of America. Molise is a region of Southern Italy, the second smallest of the regions Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Burgenland ( Croatian Gradišće, Slovenian Gradiščansko, Hungarian Várvidék, Őrvidék or Felsőőrvidék Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
After the First World War, most Croats were united within the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, created by joining South Slavic lands under the former Austro-Hungarian rule with the Kingdom of Serbia, Croats became one of the constituent nations of the new kingdom. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija One of the first Serbian states Raška, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown The state was transformed into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929 and the Croats were melted into the new nation with their neighbour fellow-South Slavs—Yugoslavs. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija Yugoslavs ( Bosnian: Jugosloveni/Jugoslaveni; Macedonian and Serbian: Југословени Jugosloveni; Croatian In 1939, the Croats received a high degree of autonomy when the Banovina of Croatia was created, which united almost all ethnic Croatian territories within the Kingdom. The Banovina of Croatia or Banate of Croatia ( Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian: Banovina Hrvatska) was a province ( Banovina In the Second World War, the Axis forces created a puppet state—the Independent State of Croatia, led by the fascist Ustaše movement, which sought to create an ethnically clean Croatian state. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries The Independent State of Croatia ( Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH was a Puppet state of the Axis powers. For the militiamen of the Military Frontier, see Uskoci The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement ( Croatian: In response, many Croats joined the anti-fascist supra-ethnic partisan movement, led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav Partisans, or simply the Partisans, ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani League of Communists of Yugoslavia ( Savez komunista Jugoslavije) before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia ( Komunistička partija Jugoslavije) was During and after the war, between 40,000 and 200,000 Croats lost their lives.
Post-war Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia became a federation consisting of 6 republics, and Croats became one of two constituent peoples of two—Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (in the latter one of the three since 1968). The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: A federation ( Latin: foedus, covenant is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central ("federal" Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Croats in Serbia, in autonomous province of Vojvodina never reached that status. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina ( Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Војводина or Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; Hungarian: Vajdaság Following the democratization of society, accompanied with ethnic tensions that emerged in post-Tito era, in 1990 the Republic of Croatia declared independence, which was followed by war with its Serb minority, backed up by Serbia-controlled Yugoslav People's Army. The Croatian War of Independence was a War in Croatia from 1991 to 1995 The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA YPA ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian: Jugoslavenska Narodna Armija or Jugoslovenska In the first years of the war, over 200,000 Croats were displaced from their homes as a result of the military actions. In the peak of the fighting, around 550,000 ethnic Croats were displaced altogether during the Yugoslav wars.
During the Bosnian War, which followed the one in Croatia, the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Croats attempted their own independent state inside Bosnia and Herzegovina—the Croatian Community/Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, but subsequently joined into the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, commonly known as the Bosnian War, was an international armed conflict that took place between March 1992 and November 1995 The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (Hrvatska Republika Herceg-Bosna was an unrecognised entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina that existed between 1991 and 1994 as a result of The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine Федерација Босне и Херцеговине) is one of the two political
Post-war government's policy of easing the immigration of ethnic Croats from abroad encouraged a number of Croatian descendants to return to Croatia. The influx was increased by the arrival of Croatian refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan After the war's end in 1995, most Croatian refugees returned to their previous homes, while some (mostly Croat refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina and Janjevci from Kosovo) moved into the formerly-held Serbian housing.
The area settled by Croats has a large diversity of historical and cultural influences, as well as diversity of terrain and geography. The Culture of Croatia has roots in a long history: the Croatian people have been inhabiting the area for fourteen centuries but there are important The coastland areas of Dalmatia and Istria were subject to Roman Empire, Venetian and Italian rule; central regions like Lika and western Herzegovina were a scene of battlefield against the Ottoman Empire, and have strong epic traditions. Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the Plješevica mountain from the northeast Herzegovina ( Bosnian, Croatian: Hercegovina, Serbian: Херцеговина) is a traditionally The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish In the northern plains, Austro-Hungarian rule has left its marks.
In spite of foreign rule, Croats developed a strong, distinctive culture and sense of national identity, a tribute to the centuries in which they remained distinct, avoiding assimilation of the overlords' population. The most distinctive features of Croatian folklore include klapa ensembles of Dalmatia, tamburitza orchestras of Slavonia. History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological The music of Croatia, like the country itself has three major influences the influence of the Mediterranean especially present in the coastal areas of the Balkans The Tamburitza ( Croatian: Tamburica, meaning Little Tambura) is a String instrument popular in the traditional folk music Not to be confused with Slovenia, a nearby country Slavonia ( Croatian, Serbian: Slavonija, Cyrillic script Folk arts are performed at special events and festivals, perhaps the most distinctive being Alka of Sinj, a traditional knights' competition celebrating the victory against Ottoman Turks. The Alka is a Knight Tournament which has been held every first Sunday in the month of August in town of Sinj, Croatia since 1715 Sinj is a town in the continental part of Split-Dalmatia county, Croatia, at. The epic tradition is also preserved in epic songs sung with gusle. The gusle or gusla (гусле gusle, lahuta гусла is a single- stringed musical instrument used in the Balkans and in the Dinarides Various types of kolo circular dance are also encountered throughout Croatia. Kolo ( Serbian Cyrillic: Коло, Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Latin: Kolo) is a collective
Croatian language has the longest written tradition of all South Slavic languages, with documents like Baška Tablet dating as early as 1100. Croatian language ( hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily in Croatia, by Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in neighbouring South Slavic languages comprise one of the three geographical groups of Slavic languages (besides West and East Slavic) Baška tablet (Bašćanska ploča is one of the first monuments of Croatian language, dating from the year 1100 The modern standard language is based on ijekavian shtokavian dialect. Shtokavian or Štokavian (štokavski is the main dialect of the Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian languages There are two other dialects, chakavian (spoken in Istria and Dalmatia) and kajkavian, (spoken in Zagorje and wider Zagreb area), which to an extent have been influenced and superseded by the standard, yet they still color the respective vernacular speeches. Chakavian dialect ( Čakavian; Croatian: čakavski, proper name čakavica or čakavština) is a dialect of the Croatian language Croatian Kajkavian dialect ( Croatian: kajkavski, proper name kajkavica or kajkavština) is one of the three main dialects of the Croatian Zagreb (ˈzɑːgrɛb is the Capital and the largest city of Croatia. Despite that diversity, Croats take their language as a strong issue of national consciousness and are fairly negative towards foreign influences.
Croats are vastly Roman Catholic, and the church has had a significant role in fostering of the national identity. The confession played a significant role in the Croatian ethnogenesis. Ethnogenesis (From Greek: ethnos ( group of people nation and genesis ( a coming into being is the process by which a group of human beings comes
Dubrovnik Republic and Dalmatia are the homeland of Croatian literature. The Republic of Medieval period (ca 800 Višeslavs baptismal font (ca11th cent Kartular of Supetar (ca It was developed largely in the renaissance period, with works of Dalmatian and Ragusan authors like Marko Marulić and Marin Držić, and continued through baroque with Ivan Gundulić, romanticism with Ivan Mažuranić and August Šenoa up to the modern days. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern Marko Marulić ( Split, August 18, 1450 - Split January 5, 1524) was a Croatian Poet and Christian humanist Marin Držić (also Marino Darza or Marino Darsa; 1508-1567 is considered the finest Croatian Renaissance playwright and prose writer Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Ivan (Dživo Franov Gundulić ( Italian: Giovanni Francesco Gondola; January 9, 1589 &ndash December 8, 1638) is the most Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Ivan Mažuranić (1814-1890 was a Croatian poet linguist and politician&mdashprobably the most important figure in Croatia's cultural life in the mid-19th century August Šenoa ( November 14, 1838 &ndash December 13, 1881) was a Croatian novelist critic editor poet and dramatist
In the 7th century the Croats, with other Slavs and Avars, came from Northern Europe to the region where they live today. The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The Croats were open to roman art and culture, and first of all to Christianity. Roman art includes the visual arts produced in Ancient Rome, and in the territories of the Roman empire. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings First churches were build as royal sanctuaries, and influences of Roman art was strongest in Dalmatia where urbanization was thickest, and there was largest number of monuments. Gradually that influence was neglected and certain simplification, alteration of inherited forms and even creation of original buildings appeared.
The largest and most complicated central based church from 9th century is St Donatus in Zadar. Zadar is a city in Croatia on the Adriatic Sea, with a population of 72717 (2001 From those times, with its size and beauty we can only compare the chapel of Charlemagne in Aachen. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his ( Ripuarian: Oche, Dutch: Aken, Spanish: Aquisgrán, Italian: Aquisgrana, French, Altar enclosure and windows of those churches were highly decorated with transparent shallow string-like ornament that is called Croatian pleter (meaning to weed) because the strings were threaded and rethreaded through itself. An altar is any structure upon which Sacrifices or other offerings are made for religious purposes or some other sacred place where ceremonies take place Sometimes the engravings in early Croatian script – Glagolitic appeared. The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic Alphabet. Soon, the glagolic writings were replaced with Latin on altar boundaries and architraves of old-Croatian churches. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The architrave (also called epistyle or door frame) is a moulded or ornamental band framing a rectangular opening
By joining the Hungarian state in the twelfth century, Croatia lost its independence, but it didn't lose its ties with the south and the west, and instead this ensured the beginning of a new era of Central European cultural influence. ||-||-||-||-||-||-||} Dubrovnik (ˈdǔbro̞ːʋniːk Dalmatian: Ragusa; Latin: Ragusium, also Rhausium, Rhaugia; United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and
Early Romanesque art appeared in Croatia at the beginning of 11th century with strong development of monasteries and reform of the church. This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. In that period many valuable monuments and artefacts alongside Croatian coast were made, like Cathedral of St. Anastasia, Zadar (natively - St. The Cathedral of St Anastasia (Katedrala sv Stošije is a Roman Catholic Cathedral in Zadar, Croatia. Stošija) in Zadar (13th century). In Croatian Romanesque sculpture we have a transformation of decorative interlace relief (Croatian pleter) to figurative. The best examples of Romanesque sculpture are: wooden doors of Split cathedral done by Andrija Buvina (c. Andrija Buvina was a 13th century Medieval Croatian sculptor and painter 1220) and Stone portal of Trogir cathedral done by artisan Radovan (c. Radovan was a sculptor and Architect who lived in Dalmatia, (today's Croatia) in the 13th century. 1240). Early frescoes are numerous and best preserved in Istria. Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea On them we can evidence the mixing of influences of Eastern and Western Europe. The oldest miniatures are from 13th century – Evangelical book from Split and Trogir. This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament
The Gothic art in 14th century was supported by culture of cities councils, preaching orders (like Franciscans), and knightly culture. Zagreb (ˈzɑːgrɛb is the Capital and the largest city of Croatia. This article is about Gothic art See also Gothic architecture Gothic art was a Medieval art movement that lasted about 200 The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. It was the golden age of free Dalmatian cities that were trading with Croatian feudal nobility in the continent. Largest urban project of those times was complete building of two new towns – Small and Large Ston, and about a kilometre of wall with guard towers between them (14th century). Ston is a village and municipality in the Dubrovnik-Neretva county of Croatia, located at the south of isthmus of the Pelješac peninsula After Hadrian's wall in Scotland, the longest wall in Europe. Hadrian's Wall ( Latin: perhaps Vallum Aelium, "the Aelian wall" is a stone and turf Fortification built by the Roman Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Tatars destroyed Romanesque cathedral in Zagreb during their scourge in 1240, but right after their departure Zagreb got the title of a free city from Hungarian king Bela IV. Tatars ( Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар sometimes spelled Tartars, are a Turkic -speaking ethnic group or multiple ethnic groups The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 Béla IV (IV Béla (1206 &ndash 3 May 1270 King of Hungary and Croatia (1214-1270 Duke of Styria (1254-1258 Soon after bishop Timotej began to rebuild the cathedral in new Gothic style. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period.
Zadar was an independent Venetian city. Zadar is a city in Croatia on the Adriatic Sea, with a population of 72717 (2001 The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica The most beautiful examples of gothic humanism in Zadar are reliefs in gilded metal as in Arc of St Simon by artisan from Milan in 1380. Gilding is the art of applying a thin layer of gold simulated gold or other metal to a surface Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Gothic painting is less preserved, and finest works are in Istria as fresco-cycle of Vincent from Kastv in Church of Holy Mary in Škriljinah near Beram, from 1474. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or From that times are the two of the best and most decorated illuminated liturgies done by monks from Split, – Hvals’ Zbornik (today in Zagreb) and Misal of Bosnian duke Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić (now in Istanbul). A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey
In 15th century, Croatia was divided between three states – northern Croatia was a part of Austrian Empire, Dalmatia was under the rule of Venetian Republic (with exception of Dubrovnik) and Slavonia was under Ottoman occupation. For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica ||-||-||-||-||-||-||} Dubrovnik (ˈdǔbro̞ːʋniːk Dalmatian: Ragusa; Latin: Ragusium, also Rhausium, Rhaugia; The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Dalmatia was on the periphery of several influences so religious and public architecture with clear influence of Italian renaissance flourished. The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th Three works out of that period are of European importance, and will contribute to further development of Renaissance: Cathedral of St.Jacob in Šibenik, in 1441 by Juraj Dalmatinac; chapel of Blessed John from Trogir in 1468 by Nikola Firentinac; and Sorkočević’s villa in Lapad near Dubrovnik in 1521. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Šibenik is a historic town in Croatia, population 51553 (2001 Giorgio Orsini or Juraj Dalmatinac usually called Giorgio da Sebenico (Latin Georgius Mathaei Dalmaticus; c Niccolò Fiorentino ( Nikola Firentinac) was an Italian Renaissance sculptor and master architect
In northwestern Croatia, the beginning of the wars with the Ottoman Empire caused many problems but in the long term it both reinforced the northern influence (by having the Austrians as the rulers). The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish With permanent danger by Ottomans from east, there was modest influence of renaissance, while fortifications thrived, like fortified city of Karlovac in 1579 and fort of Ratkay family in Veliki Tabor from 16th century. Fortifications are Military Constructions and Buildings designed for defense in Warfare Humans have constructed defensive works for Karlovac (( Slovene: Karlovec, German: Karlstadt or Carlstadt, Hungarian: Károlyváros) is a city and municipality Some of the famous Croatian renaissance artists lived and worked in other countries, like brothers Laurana (natively - Vranjanin, Franjo and Luka), miniaturist Juraj Klović (also known as Giulio Clovio) and famous mannerist painter Andrija Medulić (teacher of El Greco). Laurana Kanan (also known as Lauralanthalasa Kanan) is a Fictional character in the Dragonlance Fantasy series written Giorgio Giulio Clovio ( Croatian: Juraj Julije Klović; 1498&ndash January 5 1578) was a Renaissance illuminator miniaturist and Andrea Meldolla called Andrea Schiavone or Lo Schiavone, or Andrija Medulić (in Croatian) (c El Greco' ("The Greek " 1541 &ndash April 7 1614 was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance
In 17th and 18th century Croatia was reunited with the parts of country that were occupied by Venetian Republic and Ottoman Empire. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The unity attributed to sudden flourishing of Art in every segment. Large fortifications with radial plan, ditches and numerous towers were built because of constant Ottoman threat. A ditch is usually defined as a small to moderate depression created to channel Water. The two largest ones were Osijek and Slavonski Brod. Osijek (ˈɔsjɛk is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 114616 in 2001 Slavonski Brod is a city in Croatia, with a population of 61823 in 2001. Later they become large cities. Urban planning of Baroque is felt in numerous new towns like Karlovac, Bjelovar, Koprivnica, Virovitica etc. Karlovac (( Slovene: Karlovec, German: Karlstadt or Carlstadt, Hungarian: Károlyváros) is a city and municipality Bjelovar (Belovár is a city in central Croatia. It is the administrative centre of Bjelovar-Bilogora county. Koprivnica is a city in northern Croatia. It is the capital of the Koprivnica-Križevci county |pos = left |elevation = 122 |area = 17849 |calling_code = 033 |car = VT |mayor Cities of Dalmatia also got baroque towers and bastions incorporated in their old walls, like the ones in Pula, Šibenik or Hvar. A bastion is a structure projecting outward from the main enclosure of a Fortification, situated in both corners of a straight wall (termed curtain with the shape Pula (Pietas Iulia Pulj Istriot Pula; Pola is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia, situated at the southern tip of the Istria Šibenik is a historic town in Croatia, population 51553 (2001 Hvar ( local Croatian dialect: Hvor or For, Pharos Φαρος Pharina Lesina is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea, located off But biggest baroque undertaking happened in Dubrovnik in 17th century after catastrophic earthquake in 1667 when almost entire city was destroyed. ||-||-||-||-||-||-||} Dubrovnik (ˈdǔbro̞ːʋniːk Dalmatian: Ragusa; Latin: Ragusium, also Rhausium, Rhaugia; As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Wall painting experienced flourishing in all parts of Croatia, from illusionist frescoes in church of Holy Mary in Samobor, St Catherine in Zagreb to Jesuit church in Dubrovnik. Geography Samobor is located to the west of Zagreb, between the eastern slopes of Samoborsko gorje (Samobor hills the eastern part of the Žumberak Mountains Zagreb (ˈzɑːgrɛb is the Capital and the largest city of Croatia. An exchange of artists between Croatia and other parts of Europe happened. The most famous Croatian painter was Federiko Benković who worked almost his entire life in Italy, while an Italian – Francesco Robba, did the best Baroque sculptures in Croatia. Federiko Benković (1667-1753 was a prominent late Baroque painter
In Austrian countries on the beginning of 19th century Romantic movement in Croatia was sentimental, gentle and subtle. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the At the end of 19th century architect Herman Bolle undertook one of the largest projects of European historicism – half-kilometer long neo-renaissance arcade with twenty domes on Zagreb cemetery Mirogoj. The Mirogoj Cemetery is considered to be one of the most beautiful Cemetery parks in Europe and thanks to its design numbers among the more noteworthy Landmarks At the same time the cities in Croatia got important urban makeover. Pseudo building that emphasizes all three visual arts is former building of Ministry of Prayer and Education (so called "Golden Hall") in Zagreb (H. Bolle, 1895). Vlaho Bukovac brought the spirit of impressionism from Paris, and he strongly influenced the young artists (including the authors of “Golden Hall”). Vlaho Bukovac (Biagio Faggioni 1855 - 1922 was a Croatian painter. Impressionism was a 19th-century Art movement that began as a loose association of Paris -based Artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city On the Millennium Exhibition in Budapest they were able to set aside all other artistic options in Austro-Hungary. Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political,
The turbulent twentieth century re-oriented Croatia politically on many occasions and affected it in many other ways, but it couldn't significantly alter its already peculiar position at the crossroads of many different cultures.
The Flag of Croatia consists of a red-white-blue tricolor, and in the middle is the Coat of Arms of Croatia. The Croatian flag consists of three equal size horizontal stripes in the pan-Slavic colours Red, White and Blue. The Coat of arms of Croatia consists of one main shield and five smaller shields which form a crown over the main shield The Croatian flag consists of three equal size horizontal stripes in the pan-Slavic colours Red, White and Blue. The Coat of arms of Croatia consists of one main shield and five smaller shields which form a crown over the main shield The red-white-blue tricolor was chosen, as it was the colors of Pan-Slavism, popular in the 19th Century.
The coat of arms consists of the traditional red and white squares or "grb", which simply means 'coat of arms'. The Coat of arms of Croatia consists of one main shield and five smaller shields which form a crown over the main shield It has been used to symbolise Croats for centuries; some speculate that it was derived from Red and White Croatia, historic lands of the Croatian tribe. Red Croatia ( Latin: Croatia Rubea, Croatian: Crvena Hrvatska) was a name that a medieval document designated to the initial Slavonic White Croatia (also Chrobatia) is an ill-defined area said to lie somewhere in Central Europe, near Bavaria, beyond Hungary, and adjacent to The current design added the five crowning shields which represent the historical regions from which Croatia originated.
The red and white checkerboard has been a symbol of Croatian kings since at least the 10th century, ranging in size from 3×3 to 8×8, but most commonly 5×5, like the current coat. It was traditionally conjectured that the colours originally represented two ancient Croat tribes, Red Croats and White Croats, but there is no generally accepted proof for this theory. Red Croatia ( Latin: Croatia Rubea, Croatian: Crvena Hrvatska) was a name that a medieval document designated to the initial Slavonic White Croats ( Byelohravati) is the designation for one group of Slavic (Croatian tribes which migrated to Dalmatia (the coastal part of today's Croatia The oldest source confirming the coat as an official symbol is a genealogy of the Habsburgs, dated from 1512 to 1518. In 1525 it was used on a votive medal.
The oldest known example of the šahovnica in Croatia is to be found on the wings of four falcons on a baptismal font donated by king Petar Krešimir IV of Croatia (1058–1074) to the Archbishop of Split. Petar Krešimir IV, called the Great, was a notably energetic King of Croatia from 1059 to his death in 1074
Unlike in many countries, Croatian design more commonly uses symbolism from the coat-of-arms, rather than from the Croatian flag. The Croatian flag consists of three equal size horizontal stripes in the pan-Slavic colours Red, White and Blue. This is partly due to the geometric design of the shield which makes it appropriate for use in many graphic contexts (e. g. the insignia of Croatia Airlines or the design of the shirt for the Croatia national football team), and partly due to the fact that neighbouring countries like Slovenia and Serbia use the same Pan-Slavic colours on their flags as Croatia. Croatia Airlines dd is the national Airline and Flag carrier of Croatia, based in Zagreb, and a regional member of the Star Alliance The Croatian national football team ( Croatian pronunciation: Hrvatska nogometna reprezentacija) is the national side representing Croatia Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country