Crates (Greek: Κράτης) of Thebes, was a Cynic philosopher who flourished c. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Thebes ( Classic Greek Θῆβαι, Mod Θήβα) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range which divides The Cynics (Κυνικοί Cynici were an influential group of Philosophers from the ancient school of Cynicism 325 BC. Events By place Macedonian Empire Alexander the Great leaves India and nominates his officer Peithon son of Agenor Crates gave away his money to live a life of poverty on the streets of Athens. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's He married Hipparchia who lived in the same manner that he did. Hipparchia (Ἱππαρχία of Maroneia was a Cynic philosopher and wife of Crates of Thebes, who lived c Respected by the people of Athens, he is remembered for being the teacher of Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism. Zeno of Citium (Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς Zēnōn ho Kitieŭs) (334 BC - 262 BC was a Greek Philosopher from Citium (Κίτιον Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy, was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC Various fragments of Crates' teachings survive, including his description of the ideal Cynic state. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population.
Crates was born c. 365 BC in Thebes. Events By place Greece Perdiccas III of Macedon, son of Amyntas III and Eurydice II, kills Ptolemy of Aloros Thebes may refer to one of the following places Thebes Greece, Boeotia Prefecture Ancient Thebes (Boeotia (gmy 𐀳𐀣 He was the son of Ascondus, and was the heir to a large fortune, which he is said to have renounced to live a life of Cynic poverty in Athens. Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Diogenes Laërtius preserves several different accounts of this story; one of them has Crates giving his money away to the citizens of Thebes, apparently after seeing the beggar king Telephus in a tragedy; whereas another account has him placing his money in the hands of a banker, with the agreement that he should deliver it to his sons, unless they too became philosophers, in which case he should distribute it among the poor. Diogenes Laërtius ( Greek:, Diogénes Laértios) the biographer of the Greek Philosophers, is supposed by some to have received his surname This article is about Telephus the son of Heracles. The name also refers to the father of Cyparissus.
He moved to Athens where tradition says he became a pupil of Diogenes of Sinope, but he is also described as being the student of Bryson the Achaean, and of Stilpo. Diogenes (Διογένης ὁ Σινωπεύς Diogenes ho Sinopeus) "the Cynic " Greek Philosopher, was born in Sinope Bryson of Achaea, (or Bryson the Achaean) was an ancient Greek philosopher who lived c Stilpo ( Greek: Στίλπων Greek Philosopher of the Megarian school (lived c  He lived a life of cheerful simplicity, and Plutarch, who wrote a detailed biography of Crates which unfortunately does not survive, records what sort of man Crates was:
But Crates with only his wallet and tattered cloak laughed out his life jocosely, as if he had been always at a festival. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c 
He is said to have been deformed with a lame leg and hunched shoulders.  He was nicknamed the Door-Opener (Greek: θυρεπανοίκτης) because he would enter any house and people would receive him gladly and with honour:
He used to enter the houses of his friends, without being invited or otherwise called, in order to reconcile members of a family, even if it was apparent that they were deeply at odds. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly He would not reprove them harshly, but in a soothing way, in a manner which was non-accusatory towards those whom he was correcting, because he wished to be of service to them as well as to those who were just listening. 
He attracted the attentions of Hipparchia of Maroneia, the sister of one of Crates' students - Metrocles. Hipparchia (Ἱππαρχία of Maroneia was a Cynic philosopher and wife of Crates of Thebes, who lived c Metrocles (Μητροκλῆς was a Cynic Philosopher from Maroneia who lived c Hipparchia is said to have fallen in love with Crates and with his life and teachings, and thus rejecting her wealthy upbringing in a manner similar to Crates, she married him. The marriage was remarkable (for ancient Athens) for being based on mutual respect and equality between the couple. Stories about Hipparchia appearing in public everywhere with Crates are mentioned precisely because respectable women did not behave in that way. They had at least two children, a girl, and a boy named Pasicles. We learn that Crates is supposed to have initiated his son into sex by taking him to a brothel, and he allowed his daughter a month's trial marriage to potential suitors. 
He was the teacher of Zeno of Citium in the last years of the century, and was undoubtably the biggest influence on Zeno in his development Stoic philosophy. Zeno of Citium (Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς Zēnōn ho Kitieŭs) (334 BC - 262 BC was a Greek Philosopher from Citium (Κίτιον Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy, was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC Zeno always regarded Crates with the greatest respect, and some of the accounts we have of Crates' philosophy have probably come down to us via Zeno's writings.
Crates was, apparently, in Thebes in 307 BC, when Demetrius Phalereus was exiled there, and he may have died c. Events By place Babylonia Antigonus makes peace with Seleucus, who is left free to consolidate his kingdom Demetrius Phalereus (Δημήτριος Φαληρεύς also known as Demetrius of Phaleron (c 285 BC. Events By place Egypt June 26 - Egypt's Ptolemy I Soter abdicates 
Crates wrote a book of letters on philosophical subjects, the style of which is compared by Diogenes Laërtius to that of Plato; but these no longer survive. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Crates was also the author of some philosophical tragedies, and some smaller poems apparently called Games (Greek: Παίγνια). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly
Several fragments of his thought survive. He taught a simple asceticism, which seems to have been milder than that of his teacher Diogenes:
And therefore Crates replied to the man who asked, "What will be in it for me after I become a philosopher?" "You will be able," he said, "to open your wallet easily and with your hand scoop out and dispense lavishly instead of, as you do now, squirming and hesitating and trembling like those with paralyzed hands. Diogenes (Διογένης ὁ Σινωπεύς Diogenes ho Sinopeus) "the Cynic " Greek Philosopher, was born in Sinope Rather, if the wallet is full, that is how you will view it; and if you see that it is empty, you will not be distressed. And once you have elected to use the money, you will easily be able to do so; and if you have none, you will not yearn for it, but you will live satisfied with what you have, not desiring what you do not have nor displeased with whatever comes your way. "
His philosophy was infused with a gentle, rich humour. He urged people not to prefer anything but lentils in their meals, because luxury and extravagance were the chief causes of seditions and insurrections in a city. The lentil or daal or pulse ( Lens culinaris) is a bushy Annual plant of the legume family grown for its lens-shaped Seeds  This jest would later be the cause of much satire, as in book 4 of Athenaeus' Deipnosophistae where a group of Cynics sit down for a meal and are served course after course of lentil soup. Athenaeus ( Ancient Greek - Athếnaios Naukratios Latin Athenaeus Naucratita of Naucratis in Egypt Greek rhetorician and grammarian flourished 
One of his poems parodied a famous hymn to the Muses written by Solon. In Greek mythology, the Muses ( Ancient Greek, hai moũsai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root * men- "think" are Solon ( ancient Greek:, c 638 BC&ndash558 BC was an Athenian Statesman, Lawmaker and Lyric poet. But whereas Solon wished for prosperity, reputation, and "justly acquired possessions," Crates had typically Cynic desires:
Glorious children of Memory and Olympian Zeus,
Muses of Pieria, listen to my prayer!
Give me without ceasing food for my belly
Which had always made my life frugal and free from slavery. Mnemosyne (Greek, nɪˈmɒzɪni or /nɪˈmɒsəni/ (sometimes confused with Mneme or compared with Memoria Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology In Greek mythology, the Muses ( Ancient Greek, hai moũsai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root * men- "think" are Pieria (Syria was a province of Roman Syria Pieria (Πιερία is one of the Prefectures of Greece. . . .
Make me useful to my friends, rather than agreeable.
As for money, I do not wish to amass conspicuous wealth,
But only seek the wealth of the beetle or the maintenance of the ant;
Nay, I desire to possess justice and to collect riches
That are easily carried, easily acquired, and are of great avail to virtue.
If I may but win these, I will propitiate Hermes and the holy Muses,
Not with costly dainties, but with pious virtues. Hermes ( Greek,, ˈhɝmiːz in Greek mythology, is the Olympian god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them of Shepherds and 
There are also several fragments surviving of a poem Crates wrote describing the ideal Cynic state which begins by parodying Homer's description of Crete. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the  Crates' city is called Pera, which in Greek refers to the beggar's wallet which every Cynic carried:
There is a city Pera in the midst of wine-dark Tuphos,
Fair and fruitful, filthy all about, possessing nothing,
Into which no foolish parasite ever sails,
Nor any playboy who delights in a whore's ass,
But it produces thyme, garlic, figs, and bread,
For which the citizens do not war with each other,
Nor do they possess arms, to get cash or fame. 
The word tuphos (Greek: τῦφος) in the first line, is one of the first known Cynic uses of a word which literally means mist or smoke. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly It was used by the Cynics to describe the mental confusion which most people are wrapped-up in. The Cynics sought to clear away this fog and to see the world as it really is.