The County of Tripoli (1109–1289) was the last Crusader state founded in the Levant, located in what today is known as northern Lebanon, where exists the modern city of Tripoli. Tripoli ( Lebanese Arabic: طرابلس Ṭrāblos or Ṭrēblos locally Ṭrōbles Standard Arabic: Ṭarābulus Τρίπολις Tripolis is the second-largest The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European Crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Tripoli ( Lebanese Arabic: طرابلس Ṭrāblos or Ṭrēblos locally Ṭrōbles Standard Arabic: Ṭarābulus Τρίπολις Tripolis is the second-largest The Crusader state was captured and created by Christian forces in 1109, originally held by Bertrand of Toulouse as a vassal of Baldwin I of Jerusalem. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Bertrand of Toulouse or Bertrand of Tripoli (died 1112 was count of Toulouse, and was the first count of Tripoli to rule in Tripoli itself Baldwin I of Jerusalem, formerly Baldwin I of Edessa, born Baldwin of Boulogne (French Baudouin de Boulogne 1058? - April 2, 1118, was The County of Tripoli later became a substate of the Principality of Antioch in the 13th century. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the Crusader states created during the First Crusade In the mid-1200s, its leader Bohemond VI, under the influence of his father-in-law Hetoum I of Cilician Armenia, swore vassalage to the Mongol Empire, and contributed troops to the Mongol conquests in the region. Bohemond VI of Antioch (ca 1237 &ndash 1275 called the Fair ( le Beau) was the Prince of Antioch and Count of Tripoli from 1251 until his death Hetoum I (also Transliterated Hethoum, Hethum, Het'um, or Hayton from Armenian The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as Little Armenia, Kingdom of Lesser Armenia, Cilician Kingdom; Classical Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire In retaliation, the Sultan Qalawun, of the Muslim Mamluks in Cairo, attacked and destroyed both Tripoli and Antioch, absorbing the territories back into the Islamic Empire in the late 1200s. Saif al-Din Qalawun Al-Salihi (also Qala'un or Kalavun) (قلاوون الصالحي ( epithet al-Malik al-Mansour Saif al-Din Qalawun al-Alfi The Fall of Tripoli took place in 1289. The Fall of Tripoli was the capture and destruction of the Crusader state the County of Tripoli (in what is modern-day Lebanon) by the Muslim Mamluks
The existence of the County of Tripoli was due primarily to the determination of Raymond IV of Toulouse. The Siege of Tripoli lasted from 1102 until July 12, 1109. It took place in the aftermath of the First Crusade and led to the establishment of Raymond IV of Toulouse sometimes called Raymond of St Gilles (c  Although one of the richest and most powerful of the crusading Princes, Raymond of Toulouse had failed to acquire any Eastern possessions in the aftermath of the First Crusade. The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing Western Lords had been installed in Edessa, Jerusalem and Antioch and Raymond had little success in earning land from the Byzantines. The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity This article is about the Christian kingdom For the history of the city see History of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the Crusader states created during the First Crusade Desperate for a possession in the Holy Land, he decided to take Tripoli by force. In 1103, he began preparing for an attack on the rich port, accompanied by veterans of the 1101 campaign. The Crusade of 1101 was a minor Crusade of three separate movements organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade 
The Count of Toulouse began constructing a large castle set on a ridge he named "Mount Pilgrim", a few miles from Tripoli itself. The fort is still known locally as Qal'at Sanjil, or "Saint Giles' castle" in reference to Raymond. The castle remained in Christian hands between 1103 and 1289, longer than any other in the Kingdom of Jerusalem.  Even with an intimidating fortress and seasoned troops, the siege wore on, outlasting even Raymond who died on 25 February 1105. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor However, the various components of the siege remained united, such was the lure of the port. It was a strategic link between the French in the south, and the Normans in the north. 
Raymond's cousin and companion on crusade, Count William of Cerdagne, assumed control of the operation, although matters were soon complicated. William II Jordan (died 1109 was the Count of Berga from 1094 Count of Cerdanya from 1095 and Regent of the County of Tripoli from 1105 Raymond's son Bertrand, considered illegitimate by the church, left Toulouse after acting as regent for a decade and arrived in the Holy Land with a substantial army and a large Genoese fleet. Bertrand of Toulouse or Bertrand of Tripoli (died 1112 was count of Toulouse, and was the first count of Tripoli to rule in Tripoli itself  A succession contest quickly began and Christian in-fighting threatened the success of the entire siege. King Baldwin called a council with Bertrand, his favourite, and William, who was supported by Tancred, Prince of Galilee. Tancred ( 1072 - December 5 or December 12, 1112) was a Norman leader of the First Crusade who later became Prince A partition treaty was accepted, whereby William would hold northern Tripoli and pay homage to Prince Tancred, and Bertrand would do the same in the south as a vassal of King Baldwin.  With the animosity settled, the King assembled the Christian army for a final attack. Unable to stand against the combined forces of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Tripoli surrendered on 12 July 1109. Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. 
The final Crusader state had entered existence and with it, the Kingdom of Jerusalem controlled the entire East coast of the Mediterranean. The partition treaty agreed at the earlier council soon became immaterial, as William died of an arrow wound, amid allegations of murder. Bertrand therefore became Count of all Tripoli, making reality the dream of his father nearly a decade earlier.
The Count presided over the entire coastline from Maraclea in the north and the Beirut in the south. Maraclea, also known as Khrab Marqiya or Maraqîya, was a small coastal Crusader town and a castle in the Levant, between Tortosa Beirut (بيروت Bayrūt) is the Capital and Largest city of Lebanon with a population of over 2 At the height of Tripoli's power, the Count's authority reached inland to the Krac des Chevaliers fortress. Krak des Chevaliers (kʁak de ʃəval'je transliterated Crac des Chevaliers, is a Crusader fortress in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval military The County was divided into separate Lordships, most based on coastal ports. For themselves, the Counts reserved the coastal strip around the port of Tripoli and the hostile Montferrand region to the east. Montferrand may refer to the following places in France Montferrand a former town presently part of Clermont-Ferrand Montferrand Aude A quarter of the county was given to the Genoese, as thanks for their aid in capturing it for Bertrand. He gave the port of Jubail to a Genoese admiral, Guglielmo Embriaco, whose descendants remained vassals of the Count until the late thirteenth century. Jubail ( Arabic: "الجبيل" Al Jubayl) is a city in the Eastern province on the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Guglielmo Embriaco (English William; born c 1040 was a Genoese merchant and military leader who came to the assistance of the Crusader States in the
Baldwin I had been vital in creating the last Crusader state. He had backed Bertrand since he arrived in the Levant and organised the forces that eventually broke the Muslim resistance in the area. However, like the Lordship of Galilee, Tripoli remained outside of direct Royal control. The Counts still owed fealty and homage to the monarchy in Jerusalem, but the King "held no direct tenurial, legal or patronage rights over the Count".
However, in times of crisis, the King would often act as regent or guardian of the County, reflecting the close ties between Jerusalem and Tripoli.
Tripoli's exposed but vital position made it a target for Muslim forces along the length of its boarders. In 1137, the Count's personal holdings in Montferrand were lost. Montferrand may refer to the following places in France Montferrand a former town presently part of Clermont-Ferrand Montferrand Aude The problem was exacerbated when the Hashshashin established themselves in the Nosairi mountains to the north. The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin, Hashasheen or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Ismā'īlī sect of Shia To counter their strengthening Muslim neighbours, the Count gave the Knights Hospitaller large stretches of frontier land in 1144. The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St The Hospitallers held much of the Buqai'ah plain and were key to Tripoli's defence. Their fortress at Krac des Chevaliers was the most imposing feature in the County. Krak des Chevaliers (kʁak de ʃəval'je transliterated Crac des Chevaliers, is a Crusader fortress in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval military
During the 1150s, the Knights Templar also acquired land in Tripoli. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order Their fortifications at Tortosa were important in bolstering the Count's defenses. Tortosa ( Latin: Dertusa or Dertosa, Arabic: طرطوشة Ṭurṭūšah) is the capital of the comarca
As the seat of the Kingdom, Jerusalem's religious figures were supposed to give the lead for the other states. However, the religious hierarchy in Tripoli gave its allegiance to the Patriarch of Antioch. Patriarch of Antioch is a traditional title carried by the Bishop of Antioch. Even after a Papal edict instructing Tripoli to fall under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Jerusalem, it did not. This is likely due to the close political alliance formed between Tripoli and Antioch by Count Pons. Pons of Tripoli (c 1098 &ndash 1137 was the son of Bertrand of Tripoli, and was count of Tripoli from 1112 to 1137
As a vassal of the Kings of Jerusalem, the new Count Bertrand was drawn into the Christian war with the Seljuk Turks. This article is about the Christian kingdom For the history of the city see History of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian Bertrand of Toulouse or Bertrand of Tripoli (died 1112 was count of Toulouse, and was the first count of Tripoli to rule in Tripoli itself A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth The Great Seljuq Empire was a Medieval Sunni Muslim empire established by the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks that once controlled In 1111, Mawdud bin Altuntash lead an invasion force of Muslims against the Crusader states of Antioch and Edessa. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the Crusader states created during the First Crusade The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity Bertrand and the King marched to defend the Christians in the north. Baldwin I of Jerusalem, formerly Baldwin I of Edessa, born Baldwin of Boulogne (French Baudouin de Boulogne 1058? - April 2, 1118, was At the Battle of Shaizar, accompanied by Tancred, Prince of Galilee and the Count of Edessa, they held back the Seljuk forces and kept the Crusader states intact. In the Battle of Shaizar in 1111, a Crusader army commanded by King Baldwin I of Jerusalem and a Seljuk army led by Mawdud ibn Altuntash Tancred ( 1072 - December 5 or December 12, 1112) was a Norman leader of the First Crusade who later became Prince Baldwin II of Jerusalem, formerly Baldwin II of Edessa, also called Baldwin of Bourcq, born Baldwin of Rethel (died August 21, 1131
In 1119, the Seljuk Empire again descended on Antioch, scoring several victories, including the crushing of Christian forces at the Battle of Ager Sanguinis. In the Battle of Ager Sanguinis, also known as the Battle of the Field of Blood, the Battle of Sarmada, or the Battle of Balat, Roger of With Antioch's army obliterated, Count Pons of Tripoli and King Baldwin II of Jerusalem rushed north to defend the Christian possessions. Pons of Tripoli (c 1098 &ndash 1137 was the son of Bertrand of Tripoli, and was count of Tripoli from 1112 to 1137 Baldwin II of Jerusalem, formerly Baldwin II of Edessa, also called Baldwin of Bourcq, born Baldwin of Rethel (died August 21, 1131 The two armies met at the Battle of Hab, with the Count and his knights from Tripoli composing the right flank of the Christian forces. In the Battle of Hab on August 14, 1119, a Crusader army commanded by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem won a phyrric victory over a Muslim army led by Fighting was heavy and the result seemed to turn in the Turks' favour. Many Christians fled the field, but the Count managed to battle through the Muslim ranks and find the King. Together with their remaining troops, they continued to battle the Turks and eventually forced a full retreat. Antioch was again kept from Muslim control.
Count Pons again marched out of Tripoli against the Turks in 1125. Islamic troops had invaded the County of Edessa, besieging the town of Azaz. The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity In the Battle of Azaz forces of the Crusader States commanded by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem defeated Aq-Sunqur il-Bursuqi's army of Seljuk Turks on Count Pons, with the King and the Count of Edessa, lured the besieging forces away from the town and onto dry plains. Baldwin II of Jerusalem, formerly Baldwin II of Edessa, also called Baldwin of Bourcq, born Baldwin of Rethel (died August 21, 1131 Joscelin of Courtenay or Joscelin I (died 1131 Prince of Galilee and Lord of Turbessel (1115-1131 and Count of Edessa (1119-1131 ruled over By the time the Turks realised it was a trap, they were surrounded. After long and bloody fighting, the Islamic army was completely defeated.
When the County was created in 1109, Alfonso-Jordan, Count Raymond's son, was an infant and so the older bastard, Bertrand, became Count. Alfonso Jordan ( French: Alphonse Jourdain; 1103 &ndash 1148 was the Count of Tripoli from 1105 until 1109 and thereafter Count of Toulouse However, in the late 1140s, Alfonso arrived with the Second Crusade, determined to press his claim on the County of Tripoli. The Second Crusade (1147&ndash1149 was the second major Crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the When he mysteriously died in Palestine in 1148, his own illegitimate son, Bertrand, became head of the movement to take Tripoli. Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.
He challenged the authority of Count Raymond II, grandson of the original Count Bertrand and prepared to invade. Raymond II of Tripoli (c 1115 &ndash 1152 was count of Tripoli from 1137 to 1152 Accompanied by a force of Toulousian troops, he attacked and seized the fortress at Arimah, on the road to Tortosa. Raymond was keen to avoid confronting his relative directly and so sent messengers to Nur al-Din and Unur of Damascus. Mu'in ad-Din Unur al-Atabeki (died August 28, 1149) was the ruler of Damascus in the mid-12th century Just months before these Muslim lords had been Raymond's foes at the Siege of Damascus, but now he invited them to attack his rival. The Siege of Damascus took place over four days in July 1148 during the Second Crusade. They obliged, taking Arimah and capturing Bertrand, who spend the next decade in Muslim prisons. After its fortifications had been destroyed, Arimah was returned to the Count.
Between 1275 and 1277, Count Bohemond VII was too young to rule and so Bishop Bartholomew of Tortosa acted as regent. Bohemond VII of Tripoli (1261 &ndash October 19, 1287) was the count of Tripoli and nominal Prince of Antioch from 1275 to his death However, he was opposed by Bishop Paul of Tripoli, a personal friend of Templar Grandmaster William of Beaujeu. Guillaume de Beaujeu, aka William of Beaujeu, was the 21st Grand Master of the Knights Templar, from 1273 until his death during the siege of Acre in 1291 When Bohemond came of age in 1277 and took control of the County, he had inherited the opposition of Beaujeu's Templars;
|“||This was the beginning of the great war between the Prince and the Temple, from which much evil arose||”|
The Templars sought to unsettle the Count by receiving Guy II Embriaco, Bohemond's former vassal in Jubail. Jubail ( Arabic: "الجبيل" Al Jubayl) is a city in the Eastern province on the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi The two had once been friends but were now enemies after personal grievances. The Grandmaster pledged his support to Guy and, fearing a coup, the Count attacked the Templar house in Tripoli and ordered their lands destroyed, including forests at Montroque. The Templars quickly retaliated, torching Botron and laying siege to Nephin. Nephin ( Irish: Néifinn) at 806 metres (2646 ft is the second highest peak in County Mayo (after Mweelrea) and one of the highest Bohemond and Guy faced each other near Botron, Guy supported by 30 Templar knights, but fighting was indecisive.
Throughout the next year, battles were waged at sea along the length of Tripoli's coastline. Templar galleys disrupted trade at Tripoli and the Count's ships attacked the Templar's castle at Sidon. Sidon,or Saïda, ( Arabic ar صيدا; Phoenician phoenician yodh The final confrontation came in 1282, when Guy and the Templars planned a final assault on Tripoli. They planned to base themselves at the Templar house, but arrived to find the Spanish preceptor, Reddecoeur, was not there. Fearing a set-up, they fled to the Hospitallers, but were forced to surrender. The Count showed no mercy with his captives, having all the Templars immediately executed. Guy's other followers were blinded. Guy himself, along with his brothers and cousins, were detained in the castle moat at Nephin and left to starve to death. Nephin ( Irish: Néifinn) at 806 metres (2646 ft is the second highest peak in County Mayo (after Mweelrea) and one of the highest
In 1152, Count Raymond II was assassinated by the Hashashin. Raymond II of Tripoli (c 1115 &ndash 1152 was count of Tripoli from 1137 to 1152 The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin, Hashasheen or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Ismā'īlī sect of Shia He was the first recorded non-Muslim victim of the sect and his death had serious repercussions;
|“||The immediate reaction to Raymond's murder exposed a latent racism in the Franks, who massacred the eastern indigenous population of Tripoli regardless of their religion||”|
The savage killings in the wake of Raymond's death did nothing to quell tensions between the Christian and Muslim populations in Tripoli.
Inevitably, constant infighting, lack of resources and Muslim military pressure took its toll on the Kingdom. The 1271 Siege of Tripoli was initiated by the Mamluk ruler Baibars against the Frankish ruler of the Principality of Antioch and the County of Tripoli The Fall of Tripoli was the capture and destruction of the Crusader state the County of Tripoli (in what is modern-day Lebanon) by the Muslim Mamluks By the 1280s, only two crusader states remained, the remnants of Jerusalem and Tripoli. The Egyptian Sultan Qalawun was determined to destroy the last Christian possessions and turned his attention on Tripoli. Saif al-Din Qalawun Al-Salihi (also Qala'un or Kalavun) (قلاوون الصالحي ( epithet al-Malik al-Mansour Saif al-Din Qalawun al-Alfi Although he had a peace treaty with the County, he attacked it in March 1289. Events in March American Red Cross Month Fire Prevention month ( The Philippines) Women's History Month ( United Despite desperate defense operations, the County fell and was merged with Qalawun's empire. The last crusader state to be created, out-lived only by Jerusalem itself, had been destroyed.
Tripoli is lost to Egyptian forces
passes to the Kings of Cyprus and Jerusalem
Tripoli's administration was controlled by officers in several important posts. Juan Tafures or Tafurer (died after 1477) was a Catalan adventurer in the mid fifteenth century As in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli had a smattering of offices Seneschal, Constable, Marshal, Chamberlain