Synods of Carthage During the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries the town of Carthage in Africa served as the meeting-place of a large number of church synods, of which, however, only the most important can be treated here. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers
- In May 251 a synod, assembled under the presidency of Cyprian to consider the treatment of the lapsi, excommunicated Felicissimus and five other Novatian bishops (Rigorists), and declared that the lapsi should be dealt with, not with indiscriminate severity, but according to the degree of individual guilt. A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church convened to decide an issue of doctrine administration or application This page is about Cyprian bishop of Carthage For other Cyprians see Cyprian (disambiguation. Lapsi was the name given to Apostates in the early Christian Church, when Christians were Persecuted by the Roman authorities to renounce their Novatian ( circa 200 &ndash 258 was a scholar and Antipope who held the title between 251 and 258 These decisions were confirmed by a synod of Rome in the autumn of the same year. Other Carthaginian synods concerning the lapsi were held in 252 and 254. 
- Two synods, in 255 and 256, held under Cyprian, pronounced against the validity of heretical baptism, thus taking direct issue with Stephen I, bishop of Rome, who promptly repudiated them, and separated himself from the African Church. This page is about Cyprian bishop of Carthage For other Cyprians see Cyprian (disambiguation. In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted Pope The Bishop of Rome is the bishop of the Holy See, more often referred to in the Catholic tradition as the Pope. A third synod, September 256, unanimously reaffirmed the position of the other two. Stephen's pretensions to authority as bishop of bishops were sharply resented, and for some time the relations of the Roman and African Churches were severely strained. 
- About 348 a synod of Orthodox bishops, who had met to record their gratitude for the effective official repression of the Circumcelliones (Donatists), declared against the rebaptism of any one who had been baptized in the name of the Trinity, and adopted twelve canons of clerical discipline. The Donatists (named for the Berber Christian Donatus Magnus) were followers of a belief considered a Schism by the broader churches of the 
- The Council of Carthage, called the third by Denzinger, on 28 August 397 issued a canon of the Bible restricted to: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Josue, Judges, Ruth, 4 books of Kingdoms, 2 books of Paralipomenon, Job, Psalter of David, 5 books of Solomon, 12 books of Prophets, Isaias, Jeremias, Daniel, Ezechiel, Tobias, Judith, Esther, 2 books of Esdras, 2 books of Machabees, and in the New Testament: 4 books of Gospels, 1 book of Acts of the Apostles, 13 letters of the Apostle Paul, 1 of him to the Hebrews, 2 of Peter, 3 of John, 1 of James, 1 of Judas, and the Apocalypse of John. Heinrich Joseph Dominicus Denzinger (1819 - 1883 was a leading German Catholic theologian and author of the Enchiridion Symbolorum et Definitionum (Handbook A Biblical canon or canon of scripture is a list or Set of Biblical books considered to be authoritative as Scripture by a particular religious Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin
- The Conference of Carthage, held by imperial command in 411 with a view to terminating the Donatist schism, while not strictly a synod, was nevertheless one of the most important assemblies in the history of the African church, and, indeed of the whole Christian church. 
- On the 1st of May 418 a great synod (A Council of Africa, St Augustine calls it), which assembled under the presidency of Aurelius, bishop of Carthage, to take action concerning the errors of Caelestius, a disciple of Pelagius, denounced the Pelagian doctrines of human nature, original sin; grace and perfectibility, and fully approved the contrary views of Augustine. Caelestius (or Celestius was the major follower of the Christian teacher Pelagius and the Christian Doctrine of Pelagianism, which Pelagius (ca 354 &ndash ca 420/440 was an ascetic monk who denied the doctrine of Original sin, later developed by Augustine of Hippo, and Pelagianism is a theological theory named after Pelagius (ad 354 – ad Prompted by the reinstatement by the bishop of Rome of a deposed African priest, the synod enacted that whoever appeals to a court on the other side of the sea (meaning Rome) may not again be received into communion by any one in Africa (canon 17). 
- Two synods, one in 419, the other in 424 met regarding the question of appeals to Rome. The latter addressed a letter to the, bishop of Rome, Celestine, protesting against his claim to appellate jurisdiction, and urgently requesting the immediate recall of his legate, and advising him to send no more judges to Africa. Pope 
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Synod of Hippo refers to the synod of 393 AD which was hosted in Hippo Regius in Northern Africa during the early Christian Church. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone
- ^ Hefele, 2nd ed. Karl Josef von Hefele ( March 15, 1809 - June 6, 1893) German theologian, was born at Unterkochen in Württemberg , i. pp. 111 sqq. (English translation, i. pp. 93 sqq. ); Mansi, i. pp. 863 sqq. , 905 sqq. ; Hardouin, i. pp. 133 sqq. , 147 sqq. ; Cyprian, Epp. 52, 54, 55, 68.
- ^ Hefele, 2nd ed. , i. pp. 117-119 (English translation, i. pp. 99 sqq. ); Mansi, i. pp. 921 sqq. , 951 sqq. ; Hardouin, i. pp. 153 sqq. ; Cyprian, Epp. 69-75.
- ^ Hefele, 2nd. ed. , i. pp. 632-633 (English translation, ii. pp. 184-186); Mansi, iii. pp. 143 sqq. ; Hardouin, i. pp. 683 sqq.
- ^ Denzinger 186 in the new numbering, 92 in the old
- ^ Hefele, 2nd ed. , ii. pp. 103-104 (English translation, ii. pp. 445-446) ; Mansi, iv. pp. 7-283 ; Hardouin, i. pp. 1043-f 190.
- ^ Hefele, 2nd ed. , ii. pp. 116 sqq. (English translation, ii. pp. 458 sqq. ); Mansi, iii. pp. 810 sqq. , iv. pp. 377 sqq. , 45I sqq. ; Hardouin, i. pp. 926 sqq. Link to English translation below.
- ^ Hefele, 2nd ed. , ii. pp. 120 sqq. , 137 sqq. (English translation, ii. pp. 462 sqq. , 480 sqq. ); Mansi, iii. pp. 835 sqq. , iv. pp. 401 sqq. , 477 sqq. ; Hardodin, i. pp. 943 sqq. , 1241 sqq. (L F. C. )
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Philip Schaff ( January 1, 1819 – October 20, 1893) was a Swiss -born German -educated Protestant The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone
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