29nickelcopperzinc
-

Cu

Ag
General
Name, symbol, numbercopper, Cu, 29
Chemical seriestransition metals
Group, period, block114, d
Appearancemetallic bronze
Standard atomic weight63.546(3)g·mol−1
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 1
Physical properties
Phasesolid
Density (near r.t.)8. Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen This is a typical display of the periodic table of the elements and contains the symbol and Atomic number of each element Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of Chemical elements, sorted by name Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of chemical elements by symbol, including the A table of Chemical elements ordered by Atomic number and color coded according to type of element In Chemistry a group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the Periodic table of the Chemical elements There are 18 groups in In Chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings It commonly refers to any element in In Chemistry a group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the Periodic table of the Chemical elements There are 18 groups in In the Periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table A block of the Periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups The respective highest-energy electrons in each element in a block belong to the same Atomic See also A period 4 element is one of the Chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. The d-block of the periodic table of the elements consists of those Periodic table groups that contain elements in which in the atomic ground state the highest-energy The atomic mass (ma is the Mass of an atom most often expressed in unified atomic mass units The atomic mass may be considered to be the total mass To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various Mass levels between 10&minus36&thinsp kg and 1053&thinspkg Molar mass, symbol M, is the Mass of one mole of a substance ( Chemical element or Chemical compound) In Atomic physics and Quantum chemistry, electron configuration is the arrangement of Electrons in an Atom, Molecule, or other This article pertains to the chemical element For other uses see Argon (disambiguation. The electron is a fundamental Subatomic particle that was identified and assigned the negative charge in 1897 by J An electron shell may be crudely thought of as an Orbit followed by Electrons around an Atom nucleus. In the Physical sciences a phase is a Set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties A solid' object is in the States of matter characterized by resistance to Deformation and changes of Volume. The density of a material is defined as its Mass per unit Volume: \rho = \frac{m}{V} Different materials usually have different Room temperature (also referred to as ambient temperature) is a common term to denote a certain Temperature within enclosed space at which humans are accustomed 96 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p.8. Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of Density and is represented as kg/m³ where kg stands for Kilogram and m³ stands for Cubic metre The density of a material is defined as its Mass per unit Volume: \rho = \frac{m}{V} Different materials usually have different The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. 02 g·cm−3
Melting point1357. The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. 77 K
(1084. The kelvin (symbol K) is a unit increment of Temperature and is one of the seven SI base units The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic 62 °C, 1984. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 32 °F)
Boiling point2835 K
(2562 °C, 4643 °F)
Heat of fusion13. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the Vapor pressure of the liquid equals the environmental pressure surrounding the liquid The kelvin (symbol K) is a unit increment of Temperature and is one of the seven SI base units The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The standard Enthalpy of fusion (symbol \Delta{}H_{fus} also known as the heat of fusion or specific melting heat, is the amount of 26 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization300. The joule per mole (symbol J·mol-1 is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol \Delta{}_{v}H also known as the heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the Energy required 4 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity(25 °C) 24. The joule per mole (symbol J·mol-1 is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the Temperature of a unit quantity 440 J·mol−1·K−1
 P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k at T/K 1509 1661 1850 2089 2404 2836
Atomic properties
Crystal structureface centered cubic
0. Vapor pressure (also known as equilibrium vapor pressure or saturation vapor pressure) is the Pressure of a Vapor in equilibrium In Mineralogy and Crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of Atoms in a Crystal. 3610 nm
Oxidation states+1, +2, +3, +4
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity1. The oxidation number of a central atom in a coordination compound is the charge that it would have if all the Ligands were removed along with the Electron pairs In Chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as an aqueous substance that can accept Protons This refers to the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and " Electronegativity " is the opposite of " Electropositivity," which describes an element's ability to donate electrons 90 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 745. The ionization potential, ionization energy or EI of an Atom or Molecule is the Energy required to remove an Electron These tables list the Ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove one mole of Electrons from one mole of neutral gaseous Atoms (first energy respectively 5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1957. The joule per mole (symbol J·mol-1 is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material 9 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3555 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius (calc. Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined Physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances A picometre ( American spelling: picometer, symbol pm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one trillionth )145 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
Electrical resistivity(20 °C) 16. The covalent radius, r cov is a measure of the size of Atom which forms part of a Covalent bond. Van der Waals Volume The van der Waals volume, V, also called the atomic volume or molecular volume, is the atomic property most directly In Physics, magnetism is one of the Phenomena by which Materials exert attractive or repulsive Forces on other Materials. Diamagnetism is the property of an object which causes it to create a magnetic field in opposition of an externally applied Magnetic field, thus causing a repulsive effect Electrical resistivity (also known as specific electrical resistance) is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of Electric current. 78 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity(300 K) 401 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion(25 °C) 16. In Physics, thermal conductivity, k is the property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct Heat. When the Temperature of a substance changes the energy that is stored in the Intermolecular bonds between atoms changes 5 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod)(r.t.) (annealed)
3810 m·s−1
Young's modulus110 - 128 GPa
Shear modulus48 GPa
Bulk modulus140 GPa
Poisson ratio0. Sound is a vibration that travels through an elastic medium as a Wave. Room temperature (also referred to as ambient temperature) is a common term to denote a certain Temperature within enclosed space at which humans are accustomed In Solid mechanics, Young's modulus (E is a measure of the Stiffness of an isotropic elastic material In Materials science, shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ, is defined as the ratio of Shear Poisson's ratio ( ν) named after Simeon Poisson, is the ratio of the relative contraction strain, or transverse strain (normal to 34
Mohs hardness3. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various Minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material 0
Vickers hardness369 MPa
Brinell hardness874 MPa
CAS registry number7440-50-8
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of copper
isoNAhalf-lifeDMDE (MeV)DP
63Cu69. The Vickers hardness test was developed in 1924 by Smith and Sandland as an alternative method to measure the Hardness of materials The Brinell scale characterizes the indentation Hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter loaded on a material test-piece CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for Chemical compounds Polymers biological sequences mixtures and Alloys They are also referred to Copper ( Cu) has two stable isotopes 63Cu and 65Cu along with numerous radioisotopes Isotopes (Greek isos = "equal" tópos = "site place" are any of the different types of atoms ( Nuclides In Chemistry, natural abundance (NA refers to the abundance Isotopes of a Chemical element as naturally found on a planet Half-Life (computer-game page here It's already listed in the disambiguation page Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. The decay energy is the Energy released by a Nuclear decay. The energy difference of the Reactants is often written as Q: where Q In Nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope or daughter nuclide, is a Nuclide 15%63Cu is stable with 34 neutrons
65Cu30. Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not Radioactive (to current knowledge This article is a discussion of neutrons in general For the specific case of a neutron found outside the nucleus see Free neutron. 85%65Cu is stable with 36 neutrons
References
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Copper (pronounced /ˈkɒpɚ/) is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not Radioactive (to current knowledge This article is a discussion of neutrons in general For the specific case of a neutron found outside the nucleus see Free neutron. Recommended values for many properties of the elements together with various references are collected on these data pages A chemical element is a type of Atom that is distinguished by its Atomic number; that is by the number of Protons in its nucleus. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. See also List of elements by atomic number In Chemistry and Physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton It is a ductile metal with excellent electrical conductivity and is rather soft in its pure state and has a pinkish luster which is (beside gold) unusual for metals which are normally silvery white. Ductility is a mechanical property used to describe the extent to which materials can be deformed plastically or "stretched" into "wires" without The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across Electrical conductivity or specific conductivity is a measure of a material's ability to conduct an Electric current. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 It finds extensive use as an electrical conductor, heat conductor, as a building material, and as a component of various alloys. An alloy is a Solid solution or Homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a Metal, which itself has

Copper is an essential trace nutrient to all high plants and animals. In animals, including humans, it is found primarily in the bloodstream, as a co-factor in various enzymes, and in copper-based pigments. This is an article about the rock music band "Circulatory System" A cofactor is a non-protein Chemical compound that is bound (either tightly or loosely to an Enzyme and is required for Catalysis. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins For the drug referred to as "pigment" see Black tar heroin. However, in sufficient amounts, copper can be poisonous and even fatal to organisms.

Copper has played a significant part in the history of humankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for thousands of years. Several early civilizations have early evidence of using copper. During the Roman Empire, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, hence the origin of the name of the metal as Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus", later shortened to Cuprum. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía

A number of countries, such as Chile and the United States, still have sizable reserves of the metal which are extracted through large open pit mines, however like tin there may be insufficient reserves to sustain current rates of consumption. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 [1] High demand relative to supply has caused a price spike in the 2000s[2].

Copper also has a significant presence as a decorative metal art. It can also be used as an anti-germ surface that can add to the anti-bacterial and antimicrobial features of buildings such as hospitals. [3]

## History

Copper, as native copper, is one of the few metals to naturally occur as an uncompounded mineral. Copper, as native copper, is one of the few Metallic elements to occur in uncombined form as a natural Mineral, although most commonly occurs in Copper was known to some of the oldest civilizations on record, and has a history of use that is at least 10,000 years old. No one knows exactly when copper was first discovered, but earliest estimates place this event around 9000 BCE. [4] A copper pendant was found in what is now northern Iraq that dates to 8700 BCE. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. By 5000 BCE, there are signs of copper smelting: the refining of copper from simple copper compounds such as malachite or azurite. Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of Extractive metallurgy. Malachite is a carbonate mineral normally known as "copper carbonate" with the formula Cu 2 CO3[[hydroxide Azutite may also refer to a blue Green fluorescent protein derivative. Among archaeological sites in Anatolia, Çatal Höyük (~6000 BCE) features native copper artifacts and smelted lead beads, but no smelted copper. Çatalhöyük (ʧɑtɑl højyk in Turkish also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without Diacritics çatal is Turkish But Can Hasan (~5000 BCE) had access to smelted copper; this site has yielded the oldest known cast copper artifact, a copper mace head. A mace is a simple Weapon that uses a heavy head on the end of a handle to deliver powerful blows

Ancient Copper ingot from Zakros, Crete is shaped in the form of an animal skin typical for that era. An ingot is a material usually metal that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing Zakros (Ζάκρος is a site on the eastern coast of the Island of Crete (in modern-day Greece) containing ruins from the Minoan civilization Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the

Copper smelting appears to have been developed independently in several parts of the world. In addition to its development in Anatolia by 5000 BCE, it was developed in China before 2800 BCE, in the Andes around 2000 BCE, in Central America around 600 CE, and in West Africa around 900 CE. [5] Copper is found extensively in the Indus Valley Civilization by the 3rd millennium BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin [6] In Europe, Ötzi the Iceman, a well-preserved male dated to 3300-3200 BCE, was found with an axe tipped with copper that was 99. Ötzi the Iceman ( pronounced) Frozen Fritz, and Similaun Man are modern nicknames of a well-preserved natural Mummy of a man 7% pure. High levels of arsenic in his hair suggest he was involved in copper smelting. Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33

There exist copper and bronze artifacts from Sumerian cities that date to 3000 BCE, and Egyptian artifacts of copper and copper-tin alloys nearly as old. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Sumer ( Sumerian: sux-Latn [[Ki (earth ki]]-[[EN (cuneiform en]]-'''ĝir15''', Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 In one pyramid, a copper plumbing system was found that is 5000 years old. The Egyptians found that adding a small amount of tin made the metal easier to cast, so copper-tin (bronze) alloys were found in Egypt almost as soon as copper was found. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Very important sources of copper in the Levant were located in Timna valley (Palestine) and Faynan (biblical Punon, Jordan). The Timna Valley is located in southern Israel in the southwestern Arabah, approximately 30 km (18 Punon (פּוּנֹן is an ancient city in the Arava, Jordan. [7]

In the Americas production in the Old Copper Complex, located in present day Michigan and Wisconsin, was dated back to between 6000 to 3000 BCE. Old Copper Complex is a term used for ancient societies known to have been heavily involved in the utilization of copper for weaponry and tools [8]

By 2000 BCE, Europe was using bronze. The use of bronze became so pervasive in a certain era of civilization (approximately 2500 BCE to 600 BCE in Europe) that it has been named the Bronze Age. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for The transitional period in certain regions between the preceding Neolithic period and the Bronze Age is termed the Chalcolithic ("copper-stone"), with some high-purity copper tools being used alongside stone tools. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos ' Copper stone' period or Copper Age period known as the '''Eneolithic''' ('''Æneolithic''' is a Brass (copper-zinc) was known to the Greeks, but only became a significant supplement to bronze during the Roman empire. Brass is any Alloy of Copper and Zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties

In alchemy the symbol for copper, perhaps a stylized mirror, was also the symbol for the goddess and planet Venus. Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of The VENUS ( V ictoria E xperimental N etwork U nder the S ea project is a cabled sea floor observatory operated by the University

In Greek the metal was known by the name chalkos (χαλκός). Copper was a very important resource for the Romans, Greeks and other ancient peoples. In Roman times, it became known as aes Cyprium (aes being the generic Latin term for copper alloys such as bronze and other metals, and Cyprium because so much of it was mined in Cyprus). Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía From this, the phrase was simplified to cuprum and then eventually Anglicized into the English copper. Copper was associated with the goddess Aphrodite/Venus in mythology and alchemy, owing to its lustrous beauty, its ancient use in producing mirrors, and its association with Cyprus, which was sacred to the goddess. Venus was a major Roman Goddess principally associated with Love, Beauty and fertility, the equivalent of the Greek goddess Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía

### British Isles

West Mine at Alderley Edge

During the Bronze Age, copper was mined in the British Isles mainly in the following locations:

• South West County Cork
• Ceredigion, West Wales (e. County Cork (Contae Chorcaí is the most southerly and the largest of the modern counties of Ireland. Geography List of places in CeredigionCeredigion is a coastal county bordered by Cardigan Bay to the west Gwynedd to the north Powys to the east g. Cwmystwyth)
• North Wales (e. g. Great Orme)
• Conlig in Northern Ireland
• Anglesey (Parys Mountain)
• Cheshire (Alderley Edge)
• The Staffordshire Moorlands (e. The Great Orme ( Welsh: Y Gogarth or Pen y Gogarth) is a prominent Limestone headland on the north coast of Conlig ( is a Village situated halfway between Bangor and Newtownards in County Down, Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of History There are numerous Megalithic monuments and Menhirs present on Anglesey testifying to the presence of mankind in prehistory Parys Mountain &ndash in the Welsh language Mynydd Parys &ndash is located south of Amlwch which is in north east Anglesey. Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a county in North West England. Alderley Edge is a village and Civil parish in Cheshire, England. Education The Staffordshire Moorlands ranks highly at GCSE level compared to many other districts in Staffordshire. g. Ecton Mine)
• The Isle of Man, in the Irish Sea near the centre of the British Isles. For the village and civil parish in Northamptonshire see Ecton Ecton is a hamlet in the Staffordshire Peak District ( The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn or Mann (Mannin) is a self-governing Crown dependency, located in the Irish Sea at the geographical The Irish Sea ( Irish: Muir Éireann or Muir Meann; Scottish Gaelic: Muir Eireann Welsh: Môr Iwerddon, The British Isles (Irish variously Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha, Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa, Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór; Ellanyn Goaldagh Eileanan

At Great Orme in North Wales, such working extended for a depth of 70 metres. The Great Orme ( Welsh: Y Gogarth or Pen y Gogarth) is a prominent Limestone headland on the north coast of [9] At Alderley Edge in Cheshire, carbon dates have established mining at around 2280 to 1890 BCE (at 95% probability). Alderley Edge is a village and Civil parish in Cheshire, England. Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a county in North West England. [10]

### United States

Miners at the Tamarack Mine in Copper Country, Michigan, USA in 1905. The Copper Country is an area in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in the United States, including all of Keweenaw County Michigan and most of Houghton

Copper mining in the United States began with marginal workings by Native Americans. Copper mining in the United States has been a major industry since the rise of the northern Michigan Copper district in the 1840s Native copper is known to have been extracted from sites on Isle Royale with primitive stone tools between 800 and 1600. Isle Royale is an island of the Great Lakes, located in the northwest of Lake Superior. Europeans mined copper in Connecticut as early as 1709. Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Perhaps the oldest large-scale copper mine in the US was the historic Elizabeth Mine in Vermont. Dating to the 1700s, "the Liz" produced copper until it was closed in 1958. Spanish began mining copper at Santa Rita, New Mexico about 1800. Santa Rita is a Ghost town in Grant County in the US state of New Mexico. Westward movement also brought an expansion of copper exploitation with development of significant deposits in Michigan during the 1850s and then in Arizona and Montana during the 1870s. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. Montana ( is a state in the Western United States. One-third of the state in the western part contains numerous mountain ranges (approximately 77 named of the northern

Native copper was mined extensively in Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula with the heart of extraction at the productive Calumet and Hecla Mining Company mines. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Keweenaw Peninsula (ˈkiːwənɔː roughly KEY-win-awe is the most northern part of Michigan 's Upper Peninsula. The Calumet and Hecla Mining Company was a major Copper -mining company based in the Michigan Copper Country. Arizona had many notable deposits including the Copper Queen Mine in Bisbee and the United Verde in Jerome. The Copper Queen Mine was the Copper mine in Cochise County Arizona, United States that gave birth to the surrounding town of Bisbee. Bisbee is a city in Cochise County, Arizona, United States, 82 miles (132 km southeast of Tucson. Jerome is a Town in Yavapai County, Arizona, United States. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates the population of the town is 343 The Anaconda in Butte, Montana became the nation's chief copper supplier in 1892, a title it held for more than a decade. The Anaconda Copper Mine was a large Copper mine in Butte Montana. Butte (IPA) is a city in and the County seat of Silver Bow County, Montana, United States.

Copper is mined in many other areas of the United States, including Utah, Nevada and (formerly) in Tennessee. The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. Nevada ( is a state located in the western region of the United States of America. Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. (See Copper mining in the United States) Copper is the state mineral for Utah. Copper mining in the United States has been a major industry since the rise of the northern Michigan Copper district in the 1840s Not every state has an official state mineral rock stone or gemstone

## Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of copper

There are two stable isotopes, 63Cu and 65Cu, along with a couple dozen radioisotopes. Copper ( Cu) has two stable isotopes 63Cu and 65Cu along with numerous radioisotopes Isotopes (Greek isos = "equal" tópos = "site place" are any of the different types of atoms ( Nuclides A radionuclide is an Atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created The vast majority of radioisotopes have half lives on the order of minutes or less; the longest lived, 67Cu, has a half life of 61. 8 hours. See also isotopes of copper. Copper ( Cu) has two stable isotopes 63Cu and 65Cu along with numerous radioisotopes

## Notable characteristics

Copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color.
Copper exists as a metallically bonded substance, allowing it to have a wide variety of metallic properties. Although the term metallic bond is often used in contrast to the term Covalent bond it is better to speak of metallic bonding, because this type of bonding is

Copper is a reddish-colored metal; it has its characteristic color because of its band structure. The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across In Solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a Solid describes ranges of Energy that an Electron In its liquefied state, a pure copper surface without ambient light appears somewhat greenish, a characteristic shared with gold. When liquid copper is in bright ambient light, it retains some of its pinkish luster.

Copper occupies the same family of the periodic table as silver and gold, since they each have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled electron shell. An electron shell may be crudely thought of as an Orbit followed by Electrons around an Atom nucleus. This similarity in electron structure makes them similar in many characteristics. All have very high thermal and electrical conductivity, and all are malleable metals.

### Conductivity

Copper has a high electrical and thermal conductivity, second only to silver among pure metals at room temperature. Electrical conductivity or specific conductivity is a measure of a material's ability to conduct an Electric current. In Physics, thermal conductivity, k is the property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct Heat. Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen Room temperature (also referred to as ambient temperature) is a common term to denote a certain Temperature within enclosed space at which humans are accustomed [11]

### Corrosion

Pure water and air
Copper is a metal that does not react with water (H2O), but the oxygen of the air will react slowly at room temperature to form a layer of brown-black copper oxide on copper metal.

The Pourbaix diagram for copper in pure water, perchloric acid or sodium It can be seen that copper in "pure" water is more noble than hydrogen. In Chemistry, a Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable ( equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system As a result it does not corrode in oxygen free water and the corrosion rate in oxygenated water is low. hydroxide[12]

It is important to note that in contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air that the layer formed by the reaction of air with copper has a protective effect against further corrosion. On old copper roofs a green layer of copper carbonate, called verdigris or patina, can often be seen. Verdigris is the common name for the Green coating or Patina formed when Copper, Brass or Bronze is weathered and exposed to Patina is a coating of various chemical compounds such as Oxides or Carbonates formed on the surface of metal during exposure to Weathering. Another notable example of this is on the Statue of Liberty. Liberty Enlightening the World (La liberté éclairant le monde commonly known as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté was presented

In contact with other metals

Main article: Galvanic corrosion

Copper should not be in only mechanical contact with metals of different electropotential (for example, a copper pipe joined to an iron pipe), especially in the presence of moisture, as the completion of an electrical circuit (as through the common earth ground) will cause the juncture to act as an electrochemical cell (as is a single cell of a battery). Galvanic corrosion is an Electrochemical process in which one Metal Corrodes preferentially when in electrical contact with a different type of metal The galvanic series (or electropotential series) determines the nobility of Metals and Semi-metals When two metals are submerged in an Electrolyte Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 An electrochemical cell is a device used for generating an Electromotive force ( Voltage) and current from chemical reactions. In electronics a battery is a combination of two or more Electrochemical cells which store chemical Energy which can be converted into electrical energy The weak electrical currents themseves are harmless but the electrochemical reaction will cause the conversion of the iron to other compounds, eventually destroying the functionality of the union. This problem is usually solved in plumbing by separating copper pipe from iron pipe with some non-conducting segment (usually plastic or rubber). Plumbing, from the Latin plumbum for Lead, is the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and Plumbing fixtures for

Sulfide media

Copper metal does react with hydrogen sulfide- and sulfide-containing solutions. Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the Chemical compound with the formula H 2 S. The term sulfide ( sulphide in British English) refers to several types of Chemical compounds containing Sulfur in its lowest Oxidation A series of different copper sulfides can form on the surface of the copper metal.

The Pourbaix diagram for copper in a sulfide containing aqueous medium[12]

Note that the copper sulfide area of the plot is very complex due to the existence of many different sulfides, a close up is also provided to make the graph more clear. In Chemistry, a Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable ( equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system It is clear that the copper is now able to corrode even without the need for oxygen as the copper is now less noble than hydrogen. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 This can be observed in every day life when copper metal surfaces tarnish after exposure to air which contains sulfur compounds. Tarnish is a layer of Corrosion that develops over Copper, Brass, Silver, Aluminum as well as a degree of semi-reactive metals as

The Pourbaix diagram for copper in a sulfide containing aqueous medium[12]

Ammonia media

Copper does react with oxygen-containing ammonia solutions because the ammonia forms water-soluble copper complexes. In Chemistry, a Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable ( equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system The formation of these complexes causes the corrosion to become more thermodynamically favored than the corrosion of copper in an identical solution that does not contain the ammonia.

The Pourbaix diagram for copper in 10 M ammonia solution[12]

Chloride media

Copper does react with a combination of oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form a series of copper chlorides. In Chemistry, a Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable ( equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system It is interesting to note that if copper(II) chloride (green/blue) is boiled with copper metal (with little or no oxygen present) then white copper(I) chloride will be formed.

The Pourbaix diagram for copper in a chloride solution[12]

### Mechanical properties

A single crystal copper consists of a few micrometres of small crystals. In Chemistry, a Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, maps out possible stable ( equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system In this form of crystal (c), the yield stress is high and crystal undergoes a large amount of elastic deformation before going into the plastic deformation region. The plastic deformation region has an unpredictable outcome. The stress level decreases significantly as necking begins to occur.

Polycrystal copper has many crystal of different geometries combined. The plastic deformation of polycrystal is similar to mild steel. Copper has a high ductility and will continue to elongate as stress is applied. It is very useful in copper wire drawing.

Numerous copper alloys exist, many with important historical and contemporary uses. Copper alloys are Alloys with Copper as their principal component Speculum metal and bronze are alloys of copper and tin. Speculum metal is a very hard white Alloy of four parts Copper to one part Tin, or according to other sources three parts copper to one part tin some Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Brass is any Alloy of Copper and Zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 Monel metal, also called cupronickel, is an alloy of copper and nickel. Monel is a Trademark of Special Metals Corporation for a series of nickel Alloys primarily composed of Nickel (up to 67% and Copper Cupronickel or Coppernickel is an Alloy of Copper, Nickel and strengthening impurities such as Iron and Manganese. Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 While the metal "bronze" usually refers to copper-tin alloys, it also is a generic term for any alloy of copper, such as aluminium bronze, silicon bronze, and manganese bronze. Aluminium bronze is a type of Bronze in which Aluminium is the main Alloying Metal added to Copper.

### Germicidal effect

Copper is germicidal, via the oligodynamic effect. The' oligodynamic effect' (Greek oligos = few dynamis = force was discovered in 1893 by the Swiss KW Nägeli as a toxic effect of metal-ions on living cells For example, brass doorknobs disinfect themselves of many bacteria within a period of eight hours. [13] Antimicrobial properties of copper are effective against MRSA,[14] Escherichia coli[15] and other pathogens. An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of Microbes such as Bacteria, Fungi, or Viruses. A pathogen (from Greek πάθος pathos "suffering passion" and γἰγνομαι (γεν- gignomai (gen- "I give birth to" infectious [16][17][18] In colder temperature, longer time is required to kill bacteria.

## Occurrence and modern industry

Further information: Peak copper
Chuquicamata (Chile). Peak copper is the point in time at which the maximum global Copper production rate is reached after which according to theory the production rate will enter terminal decline Chuquicamata, or "Chuqui" as it is more familiarly known is a big open pit Copper mine in the north of Chile, 215 km northeast Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the One of the largest open pit copper mines in the world. Open-pit mining, also known as opencast mining and open-cut mining and strip mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or Minerals Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body
Copper output in 2005
World production trend
Evolution of the historical copper price
source : minerals.usgs.gov (XLS)
Current price is at least four times higher than the 2002 value.
Native Copper Placer Nuggets
Native copper
Copper Prices 2003 - 2008 in USD

The Bingham Canyon Mine, in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, is the worlds largest open pit mine. It is one of only two man made stuctures visable from space, after the Great Wall Of China. It is owned by Kennecott Mining Company, and is primarily used for the mining of copper. In 2005, Chile was the top mine producer of copper with at least one-third world share followed by the USA, Indonesia and Peru, reports the British Geological Survey. The British Geological Survey (BGS is a partly publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its Continental

Copper can be found as native copper in mineral form. Copper, as native copper, is one of the few Metallic elements to occur in uncombined form as a natural Mineral, although most commonly occurs in A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific Minerals such as the sulfides: chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), bornite (Cu5FeS4), covellite (CuS), chalcocite (Cu2S) are sources of copper, as are the carbonates: azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2) and malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2) and the oxide: cuprite (Cu2O). The term sulfide ( sulphide in British English) refers to several types of Chemical compounds containing Sulfur in its lowest Oxidation Chalcopyrite (ˌkælkoʊˈpaɪraɪt kal-co-pie-right —"kal" as in " cal endar" "co" as in co de is a Copper Bornite is a Sulfide mineral with chemical composition Cu 5 Fe[[sulfur S]]4 that crystallizes in the Orthorhombic system Covellite (also known as covelline is a rare Copper sulfide mineral with the formula CuS Chalcocite, copper(I sulfide (Cu2S is an important Copper Ore mineral In Chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or Ester of Carbonic acid. Azutite may also refer to a blue Green fluorescent protein derivative. Malachite is a carbonate mineral normally known as "copper carbonate" with the formula Cu 2 CO3[[hydroxide Cuprite is a Mineral composed of Copper(I oxide Cu2O and is a minor Ore of copper

Most copper ore is mined or extracted as copper sulfides from large open pit mines in porphyry copper deposits that contain 0. Currently the most common source of Copper Ore is the mineral Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 which accounts for about 50% of copper production Open-pit mining, also known as opencast mining and open-cut mining and strip mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or Minerals Porphyry copper deposits are Copper Orebodies which are associated with porphyritic Intrusive rocks 4 to 1. 0 percent copper. Examples include: Chuquicamata in Chile and El Chino Mine in New Mexico. Chuquicamata, or "Chuqui" as it is more familiarly known is a big open pit Copper mine in the north of Chile, 215 km northeast Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the The El Chino (or just Chino; the "Chinaman" Mine is an open-pit copper mine located near Silver City, New Mexico. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. The average abundance of copper found within crustal rocks is approximately 68 ppm by mass, and 22 ppm by atoms. "Parts-per" notation is used especially in Science and Engineering, to denote Ratios (relative proportions in measured quantities particularly "Parts-per" notation is used especially in Science and Engineering, to denote Ratios (relative proportions in measured quantities particularly History See also Atomic theory, Atomism The concept that matter is composed of discrete units and cannot be divided into arbitrarily tiny

The Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries (CIPEC), defunct since 1992, once tried to play a similar role for copper as OPEC does for oil, but never achieved the same influence, not least because the second-largest producer, the United States, was never a member. The Intergovernmental Council of Countries Exporters of Copper ( CIPEC) (French Conseil intergouvernemental des pays exportateurs de cuivre) was created in The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC) is a Cartel of thirteen countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Formed in 1967, its principal members were Chile, Peru, Zaire, and Zambia. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The Republic of Zaire (pronunciation; République du Zaïre was the name of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo between October 27, 1971 The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa.

The copper price has quintupled from the 60-year low in 1999, rising from US$0. The United States dollar ( sign:$; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 60 per pound (US$1. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass The United States dollar ( sign:$; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 32/kg) in June 1999 to US$3. 75 per pound (US$8. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 27/kg) in May 2006, where it dropped to US$2. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 40 (US$5. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 29/kg) in February 2007 then rebounded to US$3. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 50 (US$7. The United States dollar ( sign: \$; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 71/kg = £3. The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency 89 = 5. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e 00) in April 2007. [19]

The Earth has an estimated 61 years of copper reserves remaining. [20] Environmental analyst, Lester Brown, however, has suggested copper might run out within 25 years based on a reasonable extrapolation of 2% growth per year. For the Canadian football player of the same name see Lester Brown (football player. [21]

Copper has been in use at least 10,000 years, but more than 95 percent of all copper ever mined and smelted has been extracted since 1900. And as India and China race to catch up with the West, copper supplies are getting tight. [22] Copper is among the most important industrial metals. Like fossil fuels, copper is a finite resource. Peak copper is the point in time at which the maximum global copper production rate is reached, according to Hubbert peak theory, the rate of production enters its terminal decline. Peak copper is the point in time at which the maximum global Copper production rate is reached after which according to theory the production rate will enter terminal decline

Further information: Copper extraction techniques

## Compounds

Common oxidation states of copper include the less stable copper(I) state, Cu+; and the more stable copper(II) state, Cu2+, which forms blue or blue-green salts and solutions. Currently the most common source of Copper Ore is the mineral Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 which accounts for about 50% of copper production In Chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of Oxidation of an Atom in a Chemical compound. Under unusual conditions, a 3+ state and even an extremely rare 4+ state can be obtained. Using old nomenclature for the naming of salts, copper(I) is called cuprous, and copper(II) is cupric. In oxidation copper is mildly basic. Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state In Chemistry, a base is most commonly thought of as an aqueous substance that can accept Protons This refers to the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and

Copper(II) carbonate is green from which arises the unique appearance of copper-clad roofs or domes on some buildings. Copper(II carbonate (often called copper carbonate or cupric carbonate) is a blue-green compound (chemical formula CuCO3 forming part of the Copper(II) sulfate forms a blue crystalline pentahydrate which is perhaps the most familiar copper compound in the laboratory. Copper(II sulfate is the Chemical compound with the formula Cu[[Sulfur S]] O 4 Hydrate is a term used in Inorganic chemistry and Organic chemistry to indicate that a substance contains Water. It is used as a fungicide, known as Bordeaux mixture. Fungicides are Chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores

There are two stable copper oxides, copper(II) oxide (CuO) and copper(I) oxide (Cu2O). Copper(II oxide or cupric oxide (CuO is the higher Oxide of Copper. Copper(I oxide or cuprous oxide (Cu2O is an Oxide of Copper. It is Insoluble in water and organic Solvents. Copper oxides are used to make yttrium barium copper oxide (YBa2Cu3O7-δ) or YBCO which forms the basis of many unconventional superconductors. Yttrium (ˈɪtriəm is a Chemical element with symbol Y and Atomic number 39 Barium (ˈbɛəriəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol Ba, and Atomic number 56 Yttrium barium copper oxide, often abbreviated YBCO is a Chemical compound with the formula Y[[Barium Ba]]2 Cu 3 O 7 Unconventional superconductors are materials that display Superconductivity but that do not conform to BCS theory and Nikolay Bogolyubov theory or its extensions

• Copper(I) compounds: copper(I) chloride, copper(I) bromide, copper(I) iodide, copper(I) oxide. Copper(I chloride, commonly called cuprous chloride is the lower Chloride of Copper, with the formula CuCl Copper(I bromide is the Chemical compound with the formula CuBr Copper(I iodide is the Chemical compound with the formula CuI it is also known as cuprous iodide. Copper(I oxide or cuprous oxide (Cu2O is an Oxide of Copper. It is Insoluble in water and organic Solvents.
• Copper(II) compounds: copper(II) acetate, copper(II) carbonate, copper(II) chloride, copper(II) hydroxide, copper(II) nitrate, copper(II) oxide, copper(II) sulfate, copper(II) sulfide, copper(II) tetrafluoroborate, copper(II) triflate. Copper(II acetate, also referred to as cupric acetate, is the Chemical compound with the formula Cu (OAc2 where AcO- Copper(II carbonate (often called copper carbonate or cupric carbonate) is a blue-green compound (chemical formula CuCO3 forming part of the Copper(II chloride is the Chemical compound with the formula CuCl2 Copper(II hydroxide ( Chemical formula Cu(OH2 is the Hydroxide of the Metal Copper. Copper(II nitrate is the Chemical compound with the formula Cu ( NO3)2 Copper(II oxide or cupric oxide (CuO is the higher Oxide of Copper. Copper(II sulfate is the Chemical compound with the formula Cu[[Sulfur S]] O 4 Copper (II triflate, Cu(OSO2CF32 is the copper (II salt of Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (triflic acid a Superacid.
• Copper(III) compounds, rare: potassium hexafluorocuprate (K3CuF6)
• Copper(IV) compounds, extremely rare: caesium hexafluorocuprate (Cs2CuF6)

#### Tests for copper(II) ion

Add aqueous sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide ( Na[[hydroxide OH]]) also known as Lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly according to IUPAC nomenclature A blue precipitate of copper(II) hydroxide should form. Copper(II hydroxide ( Chemical formula Cu(OH2 is the Hydroxide of the Metal Copper.

Ionic equation:

Cu2+(aq) + 2OH(aq) → Cu(OH)2(s)

The full equation shows that the reaction is due to hydroxide ions deprotonating the hexaaquacopper (II) complex:

[Cu(H2O)6]2+(aq) + 2 OH(aq) → Cu(H2O)4(OH)2(s) + 2 H2O (l)

Adding ammonium hydroxide (aqueous ammonia) causes the same precipitate to form. See also Ammonia Ammonium hydroxide (NH3 also known as ammonia water, aqua ammonia, or aqueous ammonia, is a solution of It then dissolves upon adding excess ammonia, to form a deep blue ammonia complex, tetraamminecopper(II).

Ionic equation:

Cu(H2O)4(OH)2(s) + 4 NH3(aq) → [Cu(H2O)2(NH3)4]2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 2 OH(aq)

A more delicate test than ammonia is potassium ferrocyanide, which gives a brown precipitate with copper salts. Potassium ferrocyanide, also known as yellow prussiate of potash or potassium hexacyanoferrate(II is a coordination compound of formula K4·3H2O

## Applications

Native copper specimen (~ 4 cm in size)
Copper piping system with intumescent firestop being installed by an insulator in Vancouver, Canada

Copper is malleable and ductile, a good conductor of heat and, when very pure, a good conductor of electricity. An intumescent is a substance which swells as a result of Heat exposure thus increasing in Volume, and decreasing in Density. A firestop is a Passive fire protection System of various components used to seal openings and joints in fire-resistance rated wall Vancouver (vænˈkuːvɚ is a coastal Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For malleability in Cryptography, see Malleability (cryptography. Ductility is a mechanical property used to describe the extent to which materials can be deformed plastically or "stretched" into "wires" without Heat conduction or thermal conduction is the spontaneous transfer of thermal energy through matter from a region of higher Temperature to a region of lower In Science and engineering, a conductor is a material which contains movable Electric charges.

The purity of copper is expressed as 4N for 99. 99% pure or 7N for 99. 99999% pure. The numeral gives the number of nines after the decimal point when expressed as a decimal (e. g. 4N means 0. 9999, or 99. 99%).

It is used extensively, in products such as:

### Piping

• including water supply. For other uses see Pipe. Within Industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey Fluids ( Liquids and Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life.

### Electronics

• Copper wire. Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductors used to carry Electricity, and associated devices
• Electromagnets. An electromagnet is a type of Magnet in which the Magnetic field is produced by the flow of an electric current.
• Printed circuit boards. A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect Electronic components using conductive pathways or traces
• Lead free solder, alloyed with tin. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly A solder is a fusible metal Alloy with a melting point or melting range of 90 to 450 ° C (200 to 840 ° F) used in a process called Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50
• Electrical machines, especially electromagnetic motors, generators and transformers. Electrical machine is a device that convert either Mechanical energy to Electrical energy or vice versa and change AC voltage from one level to another
• Electrical relays, electrical busbars and electrical switches. A relay is an electrical Switch that opens and closes under the control of another Electrical circuit. A busbar in Electrical power distribution refers to thick strips of Copper or Aluminium that conduct Electricity within a switchboard A switch is a mechanical device used to connect and disconnect an electric Circuit at will
• Vacuum tubes, cathode ray tubes, and the magnetrons in microwave ovens. This article is about the electronic device not an evacuated pipe used for experiments in Free-fall. The cathode ray tube (CRT is a Vacuum tube containing an Electron gun (a source of electrons and a Fluorescent screen with internal or A cavity magnetron is a high-powered Vacuum tube that generates coherent Microwaves They are commonly found in Microwave ovens as well as various A microwave oven, or a microwave, is a Kitchen appliance that cooks or heats Food by Dielectric heating.
• Wave guides for microwave radiation. A waveguide is a structure which guides waves such as Electromagnetic waves Light, or Sound waves
• Integrated circuits, increasingly replacing aluminium because of its superior electrical conductivity. Microchipsjpg|right|thumb|200px|Microchips ( EPROM memory with a transparent window showing the integrated circuit inside WikipediaNaming
• As a material in the manufacture of computer heat sinks, as a result of its superior heat dissipation capacity to aluminium. A heat sink (or heatsink) is an environment or object that absorbs and dissipates heat from another object using Thermal contact (either direct or radiant WikipediaNaming
Copper roof on the Minneapolis City Hall, coated with Patina

### Architecture / Industry

• Copper has been used as water-proof roofing material since ancient times, giving many old buildings their greenish roofs and domes. Minneapolis City Hall and Hennepin County Courthouse (also known as the Municipal Building) designed by Long and Kees, is the main building used by the city government Patina is a coating of various chemical compounds such as Oxides or Carbonates formed on the surface of metal during exposure to Weathering. A metal roof is a Roofing system made from Metal pieces or Tiles It is a component of the Building envelope. Initially copper oxide forms, replaced by cuprous and cupric sulfide, and finally by copper carbonate. Copper sulfides describe a family of Chemical compounds and minerals with the formula CuxSy Copper(II carbonate (often called copper carbonate or cupric carbonate) is a blue-green compound (chemical formula CuCO3 forming part of the The final carbonate patina is highly resistant to corrosion. In Chemistry, a carbonate is a salt or Ester of Carbonic acid. Patina is a coating of various chemical compounds such as Oxides or Carbonates formed on the surface of metal during exposure to Weathering. Corrosion means the breaking down of essential properties in a material due to Chemical reactions with its surroundings [23]
• Statuary: The Statue of Liberty, for example, contains 179,220 pounds (81. A statue is a Sculpture in the round representing a person or persons an animal or an event normally full-length as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-size Liberty Enlightening the World (La liberté éclairant le monde commonly known as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté was presented 3 tonnes) of copper. This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton.
• Alloyed with nickel, e. Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 g. cupronickel and Monel, used as corrosive assistant materials in shipbuilding. Cupronickel or Coppernickel is an Alloy of Copper, Nickel and strengthening impurities such as Iron and Manganese. Monel is a Trademark of Special Metals Corporation for a series of nickel Alloys primarily composed of Nickel (up to 67% and Copper See also Shipbuilding (song. Shipbuilding is the construction of Ships It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a
• Watt's steam engine firebox due to superior heat dissipation. James Watt ( 19 January 1736 &ndash 25 August 1819 Boulton proved to be an excellent businessman and both men eventually made fortunes A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid.
• Copper nails were used in making oast cowls. oast or oast house is an example of Vernacular architecture in England, especially Kent and Sussex. A Cowl is a device used on a Kiln to keep the weather out of and induce a flow of air through the kiln
• Copper compounds in liquid form are used as a preservative, particularly in treating original portion of structures during restoration of damage due to dry rot. In the field of construction dry rot refers to the decay of timber in buildings and other wooden structures by certain Fungi.
• Copper wires may be placed over non-conductive roofing materials to discourage the growth of moss. Mosses are small soft Plants that are typically 1–10  cm (0 (Zinc may also be used for this purpose. Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 )
Old copper utensils in a Jerusalem restaurant

### Household products

• Copper plumbing fittings and compression tubes. Plumbing, from the Latin plumbum for Lead, is the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and Plumbing fixtures for
• Doorknobs and other fixtures in houses.
• Roofing, guttering, and rainspouts on buildings. Vietnam roofjpg|thumb|The roofs of Vietnam.]] A roof is the covering on the uppermost part of a Building.
• In cookware, such as frying pans. "Saucepan" redirects here In Australia "the Saucepan" is sometimes used as an unofficial name for part of the constellation of Pavo, when finding the A frying pan, frypan, or skillet is a pan used for Frying, Searing, and browning foods
• Most flatware (knives, forks, spoons) contains some copper (nickel silver). Cutlery refers to any hand Implement used in preparing serving and especially eating Food in the Western world. A knife is a handheld sharp-edged instrument consisting of handle attached to a Blade used for cutting As a piece of Cutlery or Kitchenware, a fork is a tool consisting of a handle with several narrow tines (usually two three or four on one end A spoon is a Utensil consisting of a small shallow bowl at the end of a handle used primarily for serving and eating Liquid, or semi-liquid foods and solid foods Nickel silver is a metal Alloy of Copper with Nickel and often but not always Zinc.
• Sterling silver, if it is to be used in dinnerware, must contain a few percent copper. Sterling silver is an Alloy of Silver containing 925% pure silver and 7
• Copper water heating cylinders
• Copper Range Hoods
• Copper Bath Tubs
• Copper Counters
• Copper Sinks
• Copper slug tape

### Coinage

• As a component of coins, often as cupronickel alloy. Copper tape refers to an Adhesive Copper tape. Copper tape is also marketed as slugit to keep Slugs and Snails out of certain main - title Coin keywords numismatics coin review Cupronickel or Coppernickel is an Alloy of Copper, Nickel and strengthening impurities such as Iron and Manganese.
• Coins in the following countries all contain copper: European Union (Euro),[24] United States,[25] United Kingdom (sterling),[26] Australia[27] and New Zealand. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency [28]
• U.S. Nickels are 75. The United States five- cent Coin, commonly called a nickel, is a unit of Currency equaling one-twentieth or five hundredths of a 0% copper by weight and only 25. 0% nickel. Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 [25]

### Biomedical applications

• As a biostatic surface in hospitals, and to line parts of ships to protect against barnacles and mussels, originally used pure, but superseded by Muntz Metal. Bacteriostatic Antibiotics limit the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacterial Protein production DNA replication or other aspects of A ship /ʃɪp/ is a large vessel that floats on water Ships are generally distinguished from Boats based on size A barnacle is a type of Arthropod belonging to infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence distantly related to The common name mussel is used for members of several different families of Clams or Bivalve Molluscs, from both saltwater and freshwater habitats Muntz Metal is a form of alpha-beta Brass with about 60% Copper, 40% Zinc and a trace of iron Bacteria will not grow on a copper surface because it is biostatic. The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have Copper doorknobs are used by hospitals to reduce the transfer of disease, and Legionnaires' disease is suppressed by copper tubing in air-conditioning systems. A doorknob is a device which enables a Door as well as a cabinet to be opened A hospital is an institution for Health care providing treatment by specialised staff and equipment and often but not always providing for Legionellosis is an Infectious disease caused by Bacteria belonging to the Genus Legionella. The term air conditioning refers to the cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for Thermal comfort.
• Copper(II) sulfate is used as a fungicide and as algae control in domestic lakes and ponds. Copper(II sulfate is the Chemical compound with the formula Cu[[Sulfur S]] O 4 Fungicides are Chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores It is used in gardening powders and sprays to kill mildew. Mildew refers to certain kinds of Mold or Fungus. In Old English, it meant honeydew (a substance secreted by Aphids on leaves formerly
• Copper-62-PTSM, a complex containing radioactive copper-62, is used as a Positron emission tomography radiotracer for heart blood flow measurements. Positron emission tomography ( PET) is a Nuclear medicine imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the
• Copper-64 can be used as a Positron emission tomography radiotracer for medical imaging. Copper-64 is a radioactive Nuclide of Copper which has unique decay properties making it useful in Nuclear medicine for both imaging Positron emission tomography ( PET) is a Nuclear medicine imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the Medical imaging refers to the techniques and processes used to create Images of the human body (or parts thereof for clinical purposes ( Medical procedures seeking to When complexed with a chelate it can be used to treat cancer through radiation therapy. Chelation is the binding or complexation of a bi- or multidentate Ligand. Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of Ionizing radiation as part of Cancer treatment to control Malignant

### Chemical applications

• Compounds, such as Fehling's solution, have applications in chemistry. Fehling's solution is a Solution used to differentiate between water soluble Aldehyde and Ketone Functional groups although Ketose
• As a component in ceramic glazes, and to color glass. Glaze is a layer or coating of a Vitreous substance which has been fired to fuse to a ceramic object to color decorate strengthen or waterproof it Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many

### Other

• Musical instruments, especially brass instruments and cymbals. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. A brass instrument is a Musical instrument whose tone is produced by vibration of the lips as the player blows into a tubular Resonator. Cymbals are a modern percussion instrument Cymbals consist of thin normally round plates of various Cymbal alloys; see Cymbal making for a discussion of their
• Class D Fire Extinguisher, used in powder form to extinguish lithium fires by covering the burning metal and performing similar to a heat sink. A Class D fire extinguisher is used to extinguish metal fires
• Textile fibers to create antimicrobial protective fabrics. An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of Microbes such as Bacteria, Fungi, or Viruses. [29]
• Small arms ammunition commonly uses copper as a jacketing material around the bullet core. A cartridge (also known as a "round" packages the Bullet, Gunpowder and primer into a single metallic case precisely made to fit the Copper is also commonly used as a case material, in the form of brass.

## Biological role

Rich sources of copper include oysters, beef or lamb liver, Brazil nuts, blackstrap molasses, cocoa, and black pepper. Good sources include lobster, nuts and sunflower seeds, green olives, avocados and wheat bran.

Copper is essential in all plants and animals. Copper is carried mostly in the bloodstream on a plasma protein called ceruloplasmin. Blood proteins, also called serum proteins, are Proteins found in Blood plasma. Ceruloplasmin (or caeruloplasmin) is officially known as ferroxidase or iron(IIoxygen oxidoreductase. When copper is first absorbed in the gut it is transported to the liver bound to albumin. The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals Serum albumin, often referred to simply as albumin, is the most abundant Plasma protein in humans and other Mammals Albumin is essential for maintaining Copper is found in a variety of enzymes, including the copper centers of cytochrome c oxidase and the enzyme superoxide dismutase (containing copper and zinc). Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins The Enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV () is a large Transmembrane protein complex found in Bacteria and the Mitochondrion The enzyme superoxide dismutase ( SOD,) catalyzes the Dismutation of Superoxide into Oxygen and Hydrogen peroxide. In addition to its enzymatic roles, copper is used for biological electron transport. The blue copper proteins that participate in electron transport include azurin and plastocyanin. Plastocyanin is an important copper-containing protein involved in electron-transfer The name "blue copper" comes from their intense blue color arising from a ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) absorption band around 600 nm.

Most molluscs and some arthropods such as the horseshoe crab use the copper-containing pigment hemocyanin rather than iron-containing hemoglobin for oxygen transport, so their blood is blue when oxygenated rather than red. Molluscs are animals belonging to the phylum Mollusca. There are around 250000 extant Species within the phylum with an estimated 70000 Arthropods are Animals belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, " Joint " The horseshoe crab or Atlantic horseshoe crab ( Limulus polyphemus) is a marine Chelicerate Arthropod. Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory Proteins in the form of Metalloproteins containing two Copper atoms that reversibly Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Hemoglobin ( also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb) is the Iron -containing Oxygen -transport Metalloprotein [30]

It is believed that zinc and copper compete for absorption in the digestive tract so that a diet that is excessive in one of these minerals may result in a deficiency in the other. Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 The RDA for copper in normal healthy adults is 0. The Dietary Reference Intake (or DRI is a system of Nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM of the US National Academy of Sciences 9 mg/day. For other uses of the words gram or gramme see Gram (disambiguation. On the other hand, professional research on the subject recommends 3. 0 mg/day. For other uses of the words gram or gramme see Gram (disambiguation. [31] Because of its role in facilitating iron uptake, copper deficiency can often produce anemia-like symptoms. Copper deficiency can cause a Syndrome of Anemia or Pancytopenia and a neurodegeneration in humans or other mammals Anemia ( AmE) or anæmia/anaemia ( BrE) (from the Ancient Greek grc-Latn anaîmia, meaning “without blood” is defined as a qualitative In humans, the symptoms of Wilson's disease are caused by an accumulation of copper in body tissues. Wilson's disease or hepatolenticular degeneration is an Autosomal recessive Genetic disorder in which Copper accumulates in tissues

Chronic copper depletion leads to abnormalities in metabolism of fats, high triglycerides, non-alkoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fatty liver disease and poor melanin and dopamine sythesis causing depression and sun-burns. Food rich in copper should be eaten away from any milk or egg proteins as they block absorption.

### Toxicity

With an LD50 of 30 mg/kg in rats, "gram quantities" of copper sulfate are potentially lethal in humans. In Toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for “Lethal Dose 50%” or LCt50 (Lethal Concentration & Time of a Copper(II sulfate is the Chemical compound with the formula Cu[[Sulfur S]] O 4 [32] The suggested safe level of copper in drinking water for humans varies depending on the source, but tends to be pegged at 1. Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used for drinking or not 5 to 2 mg/L. The DRI Tolerable Upper Intake Level for adults of dietary copper from all sources is 10 mg/day. The Dietary Reference Intake (or DRI is a system of Nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM of the US National Academy of Sciences In toxicity, copper can inhibit the enzyme dihydrophil hydratase, an enzyme involved in haemopoiesis. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Haematopoiesis (from Ancient Greek haima blood poiesis to make (or hematopoiesis in the United States sometimes also haemopoiesis or

Symptoms of copper poisoning are very similar to those produced by arsenic. In the context of Biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, Illness, or Death to Organisms usually by Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33 Fatal cases are generally terminated by convulsions, palsy, and insensibility.

In cases of suspected copper poisoning, Ovalbumin is to be administered in either of its forms which can be most readily obtained, as milk or whites of eggs. Ovalbumin is the main Protein found in Egg white, making up 60-65% of the total protein Albumen redirects here For other uses see Albumen (disambiguation. Vinegar should not be given. The inflammatory symptoms are to be treated on general principles, and so are the nervous.

A significant portion of the toxicity of copper comes from its ability to accept and donate single electrons as it changes oxidation state. This catalyzes the production of very reactive radical ions such as hydroxyl radical in a manner similar to Fenton chemistry. Hydroxyl in Chemistry describes a molecule consisting of an Oxygen atom and a Hydrogen atom joined by a Covalent bond. Fenton's reagent is a solution of Hydrogen peroxide and an Iron Catalyst that is used to Oxidize Contaminants or Waste waters [33] This catalytic activity of copper is used by the enzymes that it is associated with and is thus only toxic when unsequestered and unmediated. This increase in unmediated reactive radicals is generally termed oxidative stress and is an active area of research in a variety of diseases where copper may play an important but more subtle role than in acute toxicity. Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily

An inherited condition called Wilson's disease causes the body to retain copper, since it is not excreted by the liver into the bile. Wilson's disease or hepatolenticular degeneration is an Autosomal recessive Genetic disorder in which Copper accumulates in tissues The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals Bile or gall is a bitter yellow or green Alkaline fluid secreted by Hepatocytes from the Liver of most Vertebrates In many species This disease, if untreated, can lead to brain and liver damage. The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals In addition, studies have found that people with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia had heightened levels of copper in their systems. Schizophrenia ( from the Greek roots schizein (σχίζειν "to split" and phrēn However it is unknown at this stage whether the copper contributes to the mental illness, whether the body attempts to store more copper in response to the illness, or whether the high levels of copper are the result of the mental illness.

Too much copper in water has also been found to damage marine life. The observed effect of these higher concentrations on fish and other creatures is damage to gills, liver, kidneys, and the nervous system. It also interferes with the sense of smell in fish, thus preventing them from choosing good mates or finding their way to mating areas.

### Miscellaneous hazards

The metal, when powdered, is a fire hazard. At concentrations higher than 1 mg/L, copper can stain clothes and items washed in water.

## References

1. ^ Earth's Limited Supply of Metals Raises Concern. Acierage is the coating of a Copper plate with Steel by voltaic Electricity. Anaconda Copper Mining Company (until 1915 known as the Amalgamated Copper Mining Company) one of the largest trusts of the early 20th century which owned all the mines Antofagasta PLC ( is a Chilean business that operates in various sectors of the economy CODELCO ( Co rporación Nacional del Co bre de Chile or in English the National Copper Corporation of Chile is the Chilean State owned copper mining Cold water pitting of copper tube occurs in only a minority of installations Currently the most common source of Copper Ore is the mineral Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 which accounts for about 50% of copper production Erosion corrosion, also known as impingement damage is the combined effect of Corrosion and Erosion caused by rapid flowing turbulent Water. Metal theft is the theft of metal items on a large scale These thefts usually increase when worldwide prices for Scrap metal rise Copper, as native copper, is one of the few Metallic elements to occur in uncombined form as a natural Mineral, although most commonly occurs in Operation Tremor is a joint operation between British Transport Police, Lancashire Constabulary and Network Rail to combat thieves who have been stealing Peak copper is the point in time at which the maximum global Copper production rate is reached after which according to theory the production rate will enter terminal decline Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of Extractive metallurgy. Retrieved on 2008-03-16. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king
2. ^ Copper Grade A Prices on The London Metal Exchange. Retrieved on 2008-05-29. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the
3. ^ Barnaby J. Feder. "Regulators Stamp Copper as a Germ Killer", New York Times, March 26, 2008. Events 1026 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
4. ^ CSA - Discovery Guides, A Brief History of Copper
5. ^ Richard Cowen, Essays on Geology, History, and People, Chapter 3: "Fire and Metals: Copper".
6. ^ harappa.com (Web archive)
7. ^ J. M. Tebes "A Land whose Stones are Iron, and out of whose Hills You can Dig Copper": The Exploitation and Circulation of Copper in the Iron Age Negev and Edom, DavarLogos 6/1 (2007)]
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9. ^ O’Brien, W. (1997). Bronze Age Copper Mining in Britain and Ireland. Shire Publications Ltd. ISBN 0747803218.
10. ^ Timberlake and Prag, 2005
11. ^ Los Alamos National Laboratory - Copper
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14. ^ Noyce JO, Michels H, Keevil CW (2006). "Potential use of copper surfaces to reduce survival of epidemic meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the healthcare environment". J. Hosp. Infect. 63 (3): 289–97. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2005.12.008. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. PMID 16650507.
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16. ^ Mehtar S, Wiid I, Todorov SD (2008). "The antimicrobial activity of copper and copper alloys against nosocomial pathogens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from healthcare facilities in the Western Cape: an in-vitro study". J. Hosp. Infect. 68 (1): 45–51. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2007.10.009. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. PMID 18069086.
17. ^ Gant VA, Wren MW, Rollins MS, Jeanes A, Hickok SS, Hall TJ (2007). "Three novel highly charged copper-based biocides: safety and efficacy against healthcare-associated organisms". J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 60 (2): 294–9. doi:10.1093/jac/dkm201. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. PMID 17567632.
18. ^ Noyce JO, Michels H, Keevil CW (2007). "Inactivation of influenza A virus on copper versus stainless steel surfaces". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73 (8): 2748–50. doi:10.1128/AEM.01139-06. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. PMID 17259354.
19. ^ Copper Trends: Live Metal Spot Prices, MetalSpotPrice. com
20. ^ New Scientist. May 26, 2007.
21. ^ Brown, Lester (2006). Plan B 2. 0: Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble. New York: W. W. Norton, 109. ISBN 0393328317.
22. ^ Andrew Leonard (2006-03-02). Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good Peak copper? (English). Salon - How the World Works. Retrieved on 2008-03-23. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow.
23. ^ Berg, Jan. Why did we paint the library's roof?. Retrieved on 2007-09-20. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France.
24. ^ Copper Development Association, UK
25. ^ a b US Mint specifications.
26. ^ Royal (i.e. United Kingdom) Mint specifications.
27. ^ Royal Australian Mint specifications.
28. ^ Change For The Better/Q & A/Technical Questions
29. ^ Cupron Antimicrobial
30. ^ Horseshoe Crab Fun Facts NOAA and Univ. of Delaware
31. ^ National Research Council. Copper. In: Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington, D. C. : Food Nutrition Board, NRC/NAS, 1980: 151-154.
32. ^ Copper Sulfate
33. ^ Held KD et al. (May 1996). "Role of Fenton chemistry in thiol-induced toxicity and apoptosis". Radiat Res. 145 (5): 542–53. doi:10.2307/3579272. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.