View of Cooktown from Grassy Hill
|Population:||1,573 (2001 census)|
|Elevation:||6. Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern corner of the mainland continent In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Postcodes are used in Australia for the purposes of sorting and directing Mail. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. 0 m (20 ft)|
|Location:||267 km (166 mi) from Port Douglas|
Cooktown (Guugu Yimithirr: Gan. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. Guugu Yimithirr (many other spellings see below is an Australian Aboriginal language, the traditional language of the Guugu Yimithirr people of Far North gaarr [ganˈgaːr]) is the northernmost town on the east coast of Australia, located at the mouth of the Endeavour River, on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Endeavour River ( Guugu Yimithirr: Wabalumbaal) on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia, was named in 1770 This article is about the peninsula located in the Australian state of Queensland; it should not be confused with either Yorke Peninsula in South Australia Far North Queensland, or FNQ is the northernmost part of the Australian state of Queensland.
The Guugu Yimithirr name for the region, Gan. Guugu Yimithirr (many other spellings see below is an Australian Aboriginal language, the traditional language of the Guugu Yimithirr people of Far North gaarr, means "(place of the) rock crystals," as quartz crystals, which were used in various Aboriginal ceremonies, are found in the vicinity and used to be traded at least as far south as modern Mossman, to the north of Cairns. Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. For the collection of Horsedrawn Carriages see Mossman Collection Mossman is a town of 1700 people in Far North Queensland, Australia
The site of modern Cooktown was the meeting place of two vastly different cultures when, in June 1770, the local Aboriginal Guugu Yimithirr tribe cautiously watched the crippled sailing vessel – His Majesty's Bark Endeavour – limp up the coast of their territory seeking a safe harbour after sustaining serious damage to its wooden hull from running aground on Endeavour Reef south of Cooktown. Year 1770 ( MDCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Friday See also Guugu Yimithirr language Construction The Endeavour was originally a merchant collier named Earl of Pembroke, launched in June 1764 from the coal and whaling port of Whitby in A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences) or haven, is a place where ships may shelter from the Weather or are stored The Guugu Yimithirr saw Endeavour beached in the calm waters near the mouth of their river, which they called "Wahalumbaal". James Cook wrote: “. Captain James Cook FRS RN ( – 14 February 1779) was an English Explorer, Navigator and . . it was happy for us that a place of refuge was at hand; for we soon found that the ship would not work, and it is remarkable that in the whole course of our voyage we had seen no place that our present circumstances could have afforded us the same relief".
The English crew spent seven weeks on the site of the present day Cooktown, repairing their ship, replenishing food and water supplies, and caring for their sick. While the wealthy scientist, Joseph Banks, and Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander, who accompanied Cook on the expedition, were collecting, preserving and documenting many new species of plants, the young artist Sydney Parkinson was illustrating them. Sir Joseph Banks 1st Baronet, GCB, PRS (13 February 1743 &ndash 19 June 1820 was an English naturalist, botanist and patron of Daniel Carlsson Solander or Daniel Charles Solander ( 19 February 1733 – 13 May 1782) was a Swedish Botanist Sydney Parkinson ( c 1745 - 26 January 1771) was a Scottish Quaker, Botanical illustrator and Natural history He was the first English artist to portray Aboriginal people from direct observation.
After some weeks, Banks met and spoke with the local people, recording about 50 Guugu Yimithirr words, including the name of the intriguing animal the natives called gangurru (which he transcribed as “Kangaru”). Guugu Yimithirr (many other spellings see below is an Australian Aboriginal language, the traditional language of the Guugu Yimithirr people of Far North A kangaroo is a Marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods meaning 'large foot' The kangaroo was first seen by European settlers on Grassy Hill during this trip.
Cook named the river the “Endeavour”, after his ship, and, as they sailed north, he hoisted the flag known as the 'Queen Anne Jack' and claimed possession of the whole eastern coast of Australia for Britain. He named Cape York Peninsula after the then HRH the Duke of York. This article is about the peninsula located in the Australian state of Queensland; it should not be confused with either Yorke Peninsula in South Australia For the nursery rhyme see The Grand Old Duke of York. The title Duke of York is a title of Nobility in the British Peerage
The next recorded expedition to the area was nearly 50 years later, when another botanist, Allan Cunningham, accompanying Captain Phillip Parker King, visited the remarkable region in 1819-20. Allan Cunningham ( 13 July 1791 – 27 June 1839) was an English botanist and explorer, primarily known Admiral Phillip Parker King, FRS, RN ( 13 December 1791 - February 26, 1856) was an early explorer of the Year 1819 ( MDCCCXIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar in the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year Year 1820 ( MDCCCXX) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year He also collected numerous botanical specimens for the British Museum and Kew Gardens. The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London. The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, usually referred to simply as Kew Gardens, are extensive Gardens and botanical glasshouses between Richmond and
In 1872, William Hann discovered gold on the Palmer River, southwest of Cooktown. Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year William Hann ( 1837 - 1889) was a pastoralist and explorer in northern Queensland, Australia. The Palmer River is a River southwest of Cooktown in northeastern Australia. His findings were reported to James Venture Mulligan who led an expedition to the Palmer River in 1873. James Venture Mulligan ( 13 February, 1837 - 1907 was a Bushman and prospector. Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Mulligan's expedition found quantities of alluvial gold and thus began the gold rush that was to bring prospectors to the Endeavour River from all over the world. A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of Gold.
The Queensland government responded quickly to Mulligan's reports, and soon a party was dispatched to advise whether the Endeavour River would be a suitable site for a port. Shortly after, a new township was established at the site of the present town, on the southern bank of the river.
The Palmer goldfields and its centre, Maytown, were growing quickly. Maytown was the main settlement on the Palmer River goldfields in Far North Queensland. The recorded output of gold from 1873 to 1890 was over half a million ounces (more than 15,500 kg). Cooktown was the port through which this gold was exported and supplies for the goldfields brought in. Word of the gold quickly spread, and Cooktown was soon thriving, as prospectors arrived from around the world. Prospecting is the physical search for Minerals Fossils precious metals or mineral specimens and is also known as Fossicking.
Population estimates vary widely, but there were probably around 7,000 people in the area and about 4,000 permanent residents in the town by 1880. Year 1880 ( MDCCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year At that time, Cooktown boasted a large number of hotels and guest houses. There were 47 licensed pubs within the town boundaries in 1874 although this number had dropped to 27 by the beginning of 1880. There were also a number of illegal grog shops and several brothels. The word grog refers to a variety of Alcoholic beverages The word originally referred to a drink made with water or " small There were bakeries, a brewery and a soft drinks factory, dressmakers and milliners, a brickworks, a cabinetmaker, and two newspapers.
The Chinese played an important role in the early days of Cooktown. They came originally as prospectors, but many established market gardens, supplying the town and the goldfields with fruit, vegetables and rice, while others opened shops.
However, largely through cultural misunderstandings, conflict broke out between the Aboriginal people and the new settlers, and the diggers. The Cooktown Herald, 8 December 1875, reported: “The natives wholly ignorant of the terrible firepower of fire-arms, and confiding in their numbers, showed a ferocity and daring wholly unexpected and unsurpassed. Year 1875 ( MDCCCLXXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Grasping the very muzzles of the rifles they attempted to wrest them from the hands of the whites, standing to be shot down, rather than yield an inch. . . . ” It was an unequal struggle. Whole tribes were wiped out as European settlement spread over Cape York Peninsula. This article is about the peninsula located in the Australian state of Queensland; it should not be confused with either Yorke Peninsula in South Australia
Transport was an ongoing problem for the new settlers. Getting supplies and people to the goldfields often took three weeks. After every wet season the tracks and bridges had to be remade. A wet season or rainy season is a Season in which the average Rainfall in a region is significantly increased A railway line from Cooktown to Maytown, was planned, but it took five years to get the 67 miles (108 km) to Laura – and that is where it stopped. Maytown is the name of several places In the United States Maytown Alabama Maytown Pennsylvania Australia Laura is a small town (population about 120 north of Lakeland in Cook Shire, Cape York Peninsula in northern Queensland, Australia By that time the gold was petering out, so the Queensland Government refused further funding for the venture.
In spite of this, the train proved to be a lifeline for the Peninsula people connecting the hinterland to Cooktown, from where one could catch a boat to Cairns and other southern ports. The line was closed in 1961 after the Peninsula Development Road was built connecting Cooktown and other Peninsula communities with Cairns and the Atherton Tableland to the south. The Atherton Tableland is a fertile plateau which is part of the Great Dividing Range in Queensland, Australia.
Cooktown's magnificent Botanic Garden of 62 hectares (154 acres) was established near the town in 1878. Much work was done in the early stages – with wells sunk, water reticulated, garden beds enclosed, stone-lined paths, stone-pitched pools and footbridges made, and lawns, trees and shrubs planted.
Although the gardens fell into disrepair, in recent years they have been expanded, and are a favoured destination for botanists and nature lovers. Most of the early stonework has been restored, and beautiful walking tracks lead the visitor through the Botanic Garden to the magnificent beaches at Finch Bay and Cherry Tree Bay.
In 1881, a bridge over the Endeavour River was completed, which opened up the richer pastoral lands of the Endeavour and McIvor River valleys. Year 1881 ( MDCCCLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Endeavour River ( Guugu Yimithirr: Wabalumbaal) on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia, was named in 1770 Tin was found in the Annan River area, south of Cooktown, in 1884. Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 Year 1884 ( MDCCCLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
In 1886, Lutheran missionaries came to Cooktown to establish a secure place for the Aboriginal people who were living in abominable conditions on the edge of the town. Year 1886 ( MDCCCLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Missions were established at Elim on the beach (later they moved inland to Hopevale), and Wujal Wujal, near the mouth of the Bloomfield River. Hopevale, (or Hope Vale) Queensland, Australia is an Aboriginal community on Cape York Peninsula about 46 km west of Cooktown Wujal Wujal is in northern Queensland, Australia. Wujal Wujal is the name of a relatively small Aboriginal community on the north and south sides of the
With the gold rush over, the number of people living in the area started dwindling. Two major fires struck Cooktown – in 1875 and, again, in 1919 when whole blocks of buildings in the main street were burned to the ground. Year 1875 ( MDCCCLXXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common A major cyclone in 1907 added to the destruction. In Meteorology, a cyclone refers to an area of closed circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
By 1940, little evidence of Cooktown or Maytown's interesting past remained. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. During the Second World War, Cooktown became an important base for the war effort. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Some 20,000 Australian and American troops were stationed in and around the town. The busy airfield played a key role in the crucial Battle of the Coral Sea when Japanese expansion towards the Australian mainland was finally halted. The Battle of the Coral Sea, fought from May 4 – May 8, 1942, with most of the action occurring on May 7 and May 8, was
Most of the population of Cape York Peninsula, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal, were moved “down south” for the duration of the War. This article is about the peninsula located in the Australian state of Queensland; it should not be confused with either Yorke Peninsula in South Australia Many Aboriginal people died when moved from their traditional lands, and many Aboriginal and white families never returned from their exile.
In 1949, another cyclone devastated the town, and Cooktown's population declined further. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. With the closure of the rail link to Laura in 1961 and the Peninsula Development Road opened up to the south, the population declined to just a few hundred people before it gradually began to climb again. Laura is a small town (population about 120 north of Lakeland in Cook Shire, Cape York Peninsula in northern Queensland, Australia
Today, there is a generally harmonious relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal residents in the region. There is an active Aboriginal Community Centre on the main street called Gungarde (from the original Guugu Yimithirr name for the region). Guugu Yimithirr (many other spellings see below is an Australian Aboriginal language, the traditional language of the Guugu Yimithirr people of Far North
The "Milbi Wall" (or "Story Wall")  marks the place of the first encounter between the British seafarers and the local Aborigines. The Milbi Wall tells the story of Cooktown and the Endeavour River from the perspective of the Aboriginal people, and is an outstanding monument to reconciliation.
Cooktown has recently grown in importance again and has become a popular tourist destination. The paving of the Mulligan Highway now provides all-weather access by road for the first time. The Mulligan Highway is a new state Highway in Queensland, Australia. There are two flights a day connecting Cooktown with Cairns. The town now has good communications, more services, better roads, and offers residents a relaxed and healthy lifestyle.
About 2,000 people live in the town itself while about another 4,000 in the region use it as a service centre. Visitors enjoy the delightful tropical environment, the historical connections, and use it as an access point to the Great Barrier Reef, the Lakefield National Park, and for fishing. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest Coral reef system in the world composed of over 2900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for 2600 kilometres (1600 mi Lakefield is a National Park in Queensland ( Australia) 1707 km northwest of Brisbane.
Cooktown is of particular interest to botanists since the time of Cook's visit when extensive collections and illustrations were made of local plants. It is situated at the junction of several vegetation zones including tropical rainforest, sclerophyll forests, sandy dunes and lagoons. Sclerophyll is a type of vegetation that has hard leaves and short internodes (the distance between leaves along the stem Vera Scarth-Johnson, a local resident, gave a priceless collection of her botanical illustrations to the people of Cooktown, which are now housed in a dedicated gallery at Nature's PowerHouse situated in the Botanic Gardens, and features displays of local flora and fauna. Vera Scarth-Johnson, (b 1912 d May 19, 1999) was an artist and botanist who is noted for her fine botanical illustrations and her continual efforts to teach others
Cooktown is a service centre for the district including the Aboriginal communities of Hopevale, 47 km to the northwest, and Wujal Wujal, 72 km to the south. Hopevale, (or Hope Vale) Queensland, Australia is an Aboriginal community on Cape York Peninsula about 46 km west of Cooktown Wujal Wujal is in northern Queensland, Australia. Wujal Wujal is the name of a relatively small Aboriginal community on the north and south sides of the
Cooktown is the northern terminus of the Bicentennial Heritage Trail, which, at 5,330 km (3,312 miles), is the longest trail of its type in the world. The southern end of the trail is at Healesville, Victoria, a beautiful town 52 km north-east of Melbourne. Healesville is a town located to the northeast of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.