|Part of the common law series|
|Assault · Battery · False imprisonment|
|Intentional infliction of|
emotional distress (IIED)
|Consent · Necessity · Self defense|
|Trespass · Conversion|
|Detinue · Replevin · Trover|
|Defamation · Invasion of privacy|
|Breach of confidence · Abuse of process|
|Alienation of affections|
|Fraud · Tortious interference|
|Conspiracy · Restraint of trade|
|Public nuisance · Rylands v. Fletcher|
|Duty of care · Standard of care|
|Proximate cause · Res ipsa loquitur|
|Calculus of negligence|
|Rescue doctrine · Duty to rescue|
|Specific kinds of negligence|
|Negligent infliction of|
emotional distress (NIED)
|In employment · Entrustment|
|Duty to visitors|
|Trespassers · Licensees · Invitees|
|Strict liability torts|
|Product liability · Ultrahazardous activity|
|Liability, defences, remedies|
|Comparative and contributory negligence|
|Last clear chance · Eggshell skull|
|Vicarious liability · Volenti non fit injuria|
|Ex turpi causa non oritur actio|
|Damages · Injunction|
|Contract law · Property law|
|Wills and trusts|
|Criminal law · Evidence|
A civil conspiracy or collusion is an agreement between two or more parties to deprive a third party of legal rights or deceive a third party to obtain an illegal objective. Tort law is the name given to a body of law that creates and provides remedies for civil wrongs that do not arise out of Contractual duties Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive An intentional tort is a category of Torts that describes a civil wrong resulting from an intentional act on the part of the Tortfeasor. For other uses of the term "Assault" please see Assault (disambiguation. At Common law, battery is the Tort of intentionally (or in Australia, negligently and voluntarily bringing about an unconsented harmful or offensive False imprisonment is a Tort, and possibly a Crime, wherein a person is intentionally confined without legal authority Intentional infliction of emotional distress ( IIED) is a Tort claim of recent origin for intentional conduct that results in extreme emotional distress Consent as a term of jurisprudence is a possible defence (an Excuse or justification against civil or criminal liability In Tort common law the defense of necessity gives the state or an individual a privilege to take or use the property of another The right of self-defense (also called alter ego defense, defense of others, defense of a third person) is the right for civilians acting on their Trespass (Fr trespas a crime properly a stepping across from Lat In Law, conversion is an intentional Tort to Personal property (same as Chattel) where defendant's unjustified willful interference with the In Tort law, detinue is an action for the wrongful detention of goods Replevin is an Anglo - French Law term It is the noun form of the verb "replevy" (from Old French "replevir" derived from "plevir" Trover is a form of lawsuit in Common-law countries for recovery of damages for wrongful taking of personal property Privacy law is the area of law concerning the protection and preservation of the Privacy rights of individuals The Tort of breach of confidence, is a Common law tort that protects private information that is conveyed in confidence Abuse of process is a Common law intentional Tort. It is to be distinguished from Malicious prosecution, another type of tort that involves misuse of the Malicious prosecution is a Common law intentional Tort, while like the tort of Abuse of process, its elements include (1 intentionally (and At Common law, alienation of affections is a Tort action brought by a deserted spouse against a third party alleged to be responsible for the failure of the Marriage Economic torts are Torts that provide the Common law rules on liability for the infliction of Pure economic loss, such as interference with economic or business In the broadest sense a fraud is a Deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual Tortious interference, in the Common law of Tort, occurs when a person intentionally damages the Plaintiff 's Contractual or other business relationships Restraint of trade is a Common law doctrine relating to the enforceability of contractual restrictions on freedom to conduct business Nuisance (through Fr noisance nuisance from Lat nocere to hurt is a Common law Tort. For the law of Tort, see Nuisance In the English Criminal law, public nuisance is a class of Common law offence Rylands v Fletcher ( 1868) LR 3 HL 330 is a landmark English legal case in which the Court of the Exchequer Chamber first applied the doctrine Negligence (Lat negligentia from negligere to neglect literally "not to pick up" is a legal concept in the Common law legal systems usually used to In tort law, a duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they adhere to a reasonable Standard of care while performing any acts For the English law, see Standard of care in English law. In Tort law, the standard of care is the degree of prudence and caution For English law, see Causation in English law In the Law, a proximate cause is an event sufficiently related to a legally recognizable injury Res ipsa loquitur is a legal term from the Latin meaning "the thing itself speaks" but is more often translated "the thing speaks for itself In the United States, the calculus of negligence, or "Hand rule" is a term coined by Judge Learned Hand and describes a process for determining whether The rescue doctrine of the Law of Torts holds that if a Tortfeasor creates a circumstance that places the tort victim in danger the tortfeasor is A duty to rescue is a concept in Tort law that arises in a narrow number of cases describing a circumstance in which a party can be held liable for failing to come The Tort of negligent infliction of emotional distress (NIED is a controversial legal theory and is not accepted in many United States Jurisdictions Negligence in employment encompasses several causes of action in Tort law which arise where an Employer is held liable for Negligence of an Employee Negligent entrustment is a cause of action in Tort law that arises where one party (the entrustor is held liable for Negligence because they negligently provided In Law, malpractice is a type of negligence in which the Misfeasance, Malfeasance or Nonfeasance of a Professional, under a duty This article is about the Common law concept of a trespasser for the computer game see Jurassic Park Trespasser In the Law of This article is about the Common law concept of a licensee see here for information on Licenses A licensee is a term used In the Law of Torts an invitee is a person who is invited to land by the possessor of the land as a member of the public or one who's invited to the land Attractive nuisance redirects here For the album see Attractive Nuisance. Product liability is the area of law in which manufacturers distributors suppliers retailers and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries An ultrahazardous activity in the Common law of Torts is one that is so inherently dangerous that a person engaged in such an activity can be held Strictly liable In the United States, comparative negligence is a partial defense that reduces the amount of damages that a plaintiff can recover in a negligence-based claim based upon Contributory negligence is a Common law defense to a claim based on negligence an action in Tort. The last clear chance is a doctrine in the Law of Torts that is employed in Contributory negligence jurisdictions The eggshell skull rule (or thin-skull rule) is a Legal doctrine used in both Tort law and Criminal law that holds an individual liable This article is about vicarious liability in private litigation for vicarious liability in criminal law see Vicarious liability (criminal. Volenti non fit injuria ( Latin: "to a willing person no injury is done" or "no injury is done to a person who consents" is a Common law In civil law, especially Contract law, ex turpi causa non oritur actio is the doctrine that an action may not be founded on illegality In Law, damages refers to the money paid or awarded to a Claimant (England Pursuer (Scotland or Plaintiff (US following a successful An injunction is an Equitable remedy in the form of a Court order, whereby a party is required to do or interact with in certain ways all right or to refrain from Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law Property law is the area of Law that governs the various forms of Ownership in Real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions In Common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the Testator) regulates the rights of others over his or her Property The law of trusts and estates is generally considered the body of Law which governs the management of personal affairs and the Disposition of Property of The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different Jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential The Law of evidence governs the use of Testimony (eg oral or written statements such as an Affidavit) and exhibits (e Collusion is an agreement usually secretive which occurs between two or more persons to deceive mislead or defraud others of their legal rights or to obtain an objective forbidden  A conspiracy may also refer to a group of people who make an agreement to form a partnership in which each member becomes the agent or partner of every other member and engage in planning or agreeing to commit some act. It's not necessary that the conspirators be involved in all stages of planning or be aware of all details. Any voluntary agreement and some overt act by one conspirator in furthance of the plan are the main elements necessary to prove a conspiracy. A conspiracy may exist whether legal means are used to accomplish illegal results, or illegal means used to accomplish something legal.  "Even when no crime is involved, a civil action for conspiracy may be brought by the persons who were damaged. "
In the law of tort, the legal elements necessary to establish a civil conspiracy are substantially the same as for establishing a criminal conspiracy, i. Tort law is the name given to a body of law that creates and provides remedies for civil wrongs that do not arise out of Contractual duties In the Criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between Natural persons to break the law at some time in the future and in some cases with at least one overt act e. there is an agreement between two or more natural persons to break the law at some time in the future or to achieve a lawful aim by unlawful means. In Jurisprudence, a natural person is a human being perceptible through the senses and subject to physical laws as opposed to an artificial legal or juristic person The criminal law often requires one of the conspirators to take an overt step to accomplish the illegal act to demonstrate the reality of their intention to break the law, whereas in a civil conspiracy, an overt act towards accomplishing the wrongful goal may not be required. In the Criminal law, intention is one of the three general classes of Mens rea necessary to constitute a conventional as opposed to Etymologically, the term comes from Latin con- "with, together", and spirare "to breathe". Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
Business litigation often involves the use of conspiracy lawsuits against two or more corporations. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In law a lawsuit is a civil action brought before a Court in which the party commencing the action the Plaintiff, seeks a legal or equitable remedy A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business Often joined in the lawsuit as defendants are the officers of the companies and outside accountants, attorneys, and similar fiduciaries. A defendant or defender ( Δ in Legal shorthand) is any party who is required to answer the Complaint of a Plaintiff Generally a company is a form of Business organization. The precise definition varies An accountant is a practitioner of Accountancy, which is the measurement disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information that helps managers investors An attorney at law (or attorney-at-law) in the United States is a practitioner in a court of law who is legally qualified to prosecute
Civil conspiracy law often takes the form of antitrust lawsuits, usually litigated in federal court, where the plaintiff seeks treble damages for overpayments caused by price-fixing above the market rate. The United States district courts are the general Trial courts of the United States federal court system. A plaintiff ( Π in Legal shorthand) also known as a claimant or complainant, is the party who initiates a Lawsuit Price fixing is an agreement between business competitors to sell the same product or service at the same price The federal Sherman Antitrust Act provides both civil and criminal penalties. The Sherman Antitrust Act ( Sherman Act, July 2, 1890, ch 647,) was the first United States Federal statute to limit Cartels and Other agreements among businesses and their agents for group boycotts, to monopolize, and to set predatory prices with intent to drive a small competitor out of business, would be actionable. In Competition law, a group boycott is a type of Secondary boycott in which two or more competitors in a Relevant market refuse to conduct business The term "monopolization" refers to an offense under Section 2 of the American Sherman Antitrust Act, passed in 1890 Predatory pricing (also known as destroyer pricing) is the practice of a firm selling a product at very low price with the intent of driving competitors out of the Market
Conspiracies in violation of the federal securities laws such as the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 form another area where intense civil and criminal lawsuits occur over the existence or non-existence of an alleged conspiracy. Congress enacted the Securities Act of 1933 (the "1933 Act" the "Truth in Securities Act" or the "Federal Securities Act", enacted 1933-05-27 The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 is a law governing the secondary trading of securities ( Stocks bonds, and Debentures. Both the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Department of Justice bring legal actions for conspiracies to violate the securities laws. The US Securities and Exchange Commission (commonly known as the SEC) is an independent agency of the United States government which holds primary responsibility For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department For example,a regional bank called PNC Financial Services Group Inc. through a subsidiary agreed, in June 2003, to pay $115 million in civil fines and restitution to settle the SEC's allegations of securities fraud. The subsidiary was accused of conspiracy to violate securities laws by transferring $762 million in troubled loans and investments to off-balance-sheet entities in 2001. In that case, the Justice Department deferred prosecution of PNC, citing its cooperation in a related investigation. Similarly, the civil litigation against the tobacco companies to recover health care costs, alleges a conspiracy under the Medical Care Recovery Act, , et seq. Title 42 of the United States Code is the title of the United States Code dealing with Public health and Social welfare Et seq or sqq (adv An abbreviation of the Latin phrase et sequens ( et sequentes, et sequentia) meaning "and the following (Count One), the Medicare Secondary Payer provisions of Subchapter 18 of the Social Security Act, (b)(2)(B)(ii) & (iii) (Count Two), and the civil provisions of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations ("RICO") , to deceive the American public about the health effects of smoking. Social Security, in the United States currently refers to the federal Old-Age Survivors and Disability Insurance ( OASDI) program Title 42 of the United States Code is the title of the United States Code dealing with Public health and Social welfare The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (commonly referred to as RICO Act or RICO) is a United States federal law that provides for extended Title 18 of the United States Code is the Criminal and Penal code of the Federal government of the United States. Tobacco Smoking is the inhalation of smoke from burned dried or cured leaves of the Tobacco plant most often in the form of a Cigarette.
Often the modern civil law of conspiracy is described in "plain language" jury instructions. The standard California jury instruction for conspiracy is governed by Rule 855 of the California Rules of Court, The new California jury instructions are designated as the “official instructions for use in the state of California. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Jury instructions are the set of legal rules that Jurors should follow when the Jury is deciding a civil or criminal case ” It is not mandatory for the California judges to use them; but it is strongly encouraged. Some of the "plain language" California civil instructions about conspiracy read as follows with fictional names placed in the blanks in the jury instruction form:
A conspiracy is an agreement between two or more persons to commit a wrongful act.
Such an agreement may be made orally or in writing or implied by the conduct of the parties.
Plaintiff Smith, Inc. , claims that it was harmed by Defendant Jones Corp. for refusing to sell widgets to Plaintiff Smith, Inc. with intent to unreasonably injure competition and that Defendant Brown & Associates is also liable for the harm because it was part of the conspiracy with Jones Corp. to unreasonably injure competition under the California antitrust laws.
The facts of each case can vary widely as to exact nature of the underlying scheme. In the above example, a common fact pattern could be that widgets are necessary equipment needed for Smith, Inc. to manufacture its product, and Brown & Associates is a competitor of Smith,Inc.
How the conspirators entice one another into the scheme also varies with each case. One fact pattern for the above example would be Brown & Associates promises Jones, Corp. (the supplier of widgets) to give Jones part of the additional profits that Brown hopes to make if Smith, Inc goes out of business because it lacks the necessary widgets.
The tort of conspiracy requires there to be knowledge of the relevant circumstances and of the agreement made. English law is the legal system of England and Wales, and is the basis of Common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countriesand the Thus, as a precondition to corporate liability, it must be possible to attribute the relevant employee's or agent's knowledge to the corporation. In the Criminal law, corporate liability determines the extent to which a Corporation as a fictitious person can be liable for the acts and omissions The principle of imputation or attribution reflects the general public policy underpinning the operation of the Law which is that Ignorantia juris For other uses of the word Agent see Agent (disambiguation This is correct An Agent in Commercial Law is a person who is authorised There are two possible legal approaches:
There is little difficulty when the claim is that the company either conspired with a second company or with at least two natural persons. The requisite knowledge can be attributed under either head as appropriate. But there is a problem under the first heading when fraud is involved because there is a clash of authority. In the broadest sense a fraud is a Deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual Lloyd v Grace, Smith & Co.  AC 716 held that a Principal may be liable where the Agent commits a fraud within actual or apparent authority, whereas in In re Hampshire Land Company  2 Ch 743, it was held that the knowledge and, sometimes, the conduct of an Agent acting fraudulently so as to cause loss to the Principal will not be imputed to the Principal. In theory, vicarious liability may be of more assistance in that it is attributing the wrong done by one (natural) person to another (fictitious) but, in Belmont Finance Corporation v Williams Furniture Ltd  Ch 250, the Hampshire Land agency line of authority was preferred. Belmont, a company in liquidation, sued a number of defendants, including the majority of its own directors, for conspiracy to procure Belmont to buy shares in another company at a gross overvalue. The purpose of this plan was to fund the acquisition of shares in Belmont itself by some of the defendants. Foster J. struck out the claim on the basis that Belmont was itself a party to the conspiracy. On appeal, Buckley LJ. In Law, an appeal is a process for requesting a formal change to an official decision said:
Because Belmont could only be a party to the conspiracy if knowledge was imputed, the Court of Appeal insulated it from the knowledge of its directors even though those directors, with that knowledge, made relevant decisions at board meetings and attached the company seal to the relevant documents. The Court of Appeal of England and Wales is the second most senior court in the English legal system, with only the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords above To that extent, liability in conspiracy is different from the standard vicarious liability situations in which, say, a company will be deemed to know that vehicles or machinery have not been properly maintained or that a service has been negligently delivered.