Conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests. A human need can be defined either psychologically or objectively A personal and cultural value is a Relative ethic value, an assumption upon which implementation can be extrapolated A conflict can be internal (within oneself) or external (between two or more individuals). Conflict as a concept can help explain many aspects of social life such as social disagreement, conflicts of interests, and fights between individuals, groups, or organizations. A controversy or dispute is a commencement of a conflict between statements of accepted fact and a new or unaccepted proposal that disagrees with argues against The ComBat was an Aluminium Cricket bat and the subject of an incident that occurred at the WACA cricket ground in Perth in December 1979. In political terms, "conflict" can refer to wars, revolutions or other struggles, which may involve the use of force as in the term armed conflict. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units The term use of force refers to the right of an individual or authority to settle Conflicts or prevent certain actions by applying measures to either a dissuade another party War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units Without proper social arrangement or resolution, conflicts in social settings can result in stress or tensions among stakeholders.
Conflict as taught for graduate and professional work in conflict resolution (which can be win-win, where both parties get what they want, win-lose where one party gets what they want, or lose-lose where both parties don't get what they want) commonly has the definition: "when two or more parties, with perceived incompatible goals, seek to undermine each other's goal-seeking capability". The term "conflict resolution" refers to a range of processes aimed at alleviating or eliminating sources of conflict
One should not confuse the distinction between the presence and absence of conflict with the difference between competition and co-operation. Competition is a rivalry between individuals groups nations or animals for territory or resources Distinguish from Corporation. Cooperation, co-operation, or coöperation is the process of working or acting together In competitive situations, the two or more individuals or parties each have mutually inconsistent goals, either party tries to reach their goal it will undermine the attempts of the other to reach theirs. Therefore, competitive situations will, by their nature, cause conflict. However, conflict can also occur in cooperative situations, in which two or more individuals or parties have consistent goals, because the manner in which one party tries to reach their goal can still undermine the other individual or party.
A clash of interests, values, actions or directions often sparks a conflict. Conflicts refer to the existence of that clash. Psychologically, a conflict exists when the reduction of one motivating stimulus involves an increase in another, so that a new adjustment is demanded. The word is applicable from the instant that the clash occurs. Even when we say that there is a potential conflict we are implying that there is already a conflict of direction even though a clash may not yet have occurred.
Types and Modes of Conflict
A conceptual conflict can escalate into a verbal exchange and/or result in fighting. The ComBat was an Aluminium Cricket bat and the subject of an incident that occurred at the WACA cricket ground in Perth in December 1979.
Conflict can exist at a variety of levels of analysis:
- community conflict
- diplomatic conflict
- economic conflict
- emotional conflict
- environmental resources conflict
- group conflict
- ideological conflict
- international conflict
- interpersonal conflict
- intersocietal conflict
- intra-state conflict (for example: civil wars, election campaigns)
- intrapersonal conflict (though this usually just gets delegated out to psychology)
- organizational conflict
- intra-societal conflict
- military conflict
- religious-based conflict (for example: Center For Reduction of Religious-Based Conflict). Emotional conflict is the presence in the Subconscious of different and opposing Emotions relating to a situation that has recently taken place or is in the process Group conflicts, also called group intrigues is where Social behaviour causes groups of individuals to conflict with each other A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and Organizational conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of Needs, Values and interests between people working together
- workplace conflict
Conflicts in these levels may appear "nested" in conflicts residing at larger levels of analysis. Workplace conflict is a specific type of Conflict that occurs in Workplaces The conflicts that arise in workplaces may be shaped by the unique aspects of this environment For example, conflict within a work team may play out the dynamics of a broader conflict in the organization as a whole. (See Marie Dugan's article on Nested Conflict. John Paul Lederach has also written on this. John Paul Lederach is Professor of International Peacebuilding at the University of Notre Dame, South Bend Indiana, and concurrently Distinguished Scholar at ) Theorists have claimed that parties can conceptualize responses to conflict according to a two-dimensional scheme; concern for one's own outcomes and concern for the outcomes of the other party. This scheme leads to the following hypotheses:
- High concern for both one's own and the other party's outcomes leads to attempts to find mutually beneficial solutions.
- High concern for one's own outcomes only leads to attempts to "win" the conflict.
- High concern for the other party's outcomes only leads to allowing the other to "win" the conflict.
- No concern for either side's outcomes leads to attempts to avoid the conflict.
In Western society, practitioners usually suggest that attempts to find mutually beneficial solutions lead to the most satisfactory outcomes, but this may not hold true for many Asian societies. Several theorists detect successive phases in the development of conflicts.
Often a group finds itself in conflict over facts, goals, methods or values. Generally a fact is defined as something that is true something that actually exists or something that can be verified according to an established standard of evaluation A goal or objective consists of a projected state of affairs which a Person or a System plans or intends to achieve or bring about — a personal or Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena A personal and cultural value is a Relative ethic value, an assumption upon which implementation can be extrapolated It is critical that it properly identify the type of conflict it is experiencing if it hopes to manage the conflict through to resolution. For example, a group will often treat an assumption as a fact.
The more difficult type of conflict is when values are the root cause. A root cause is an initiating Cause of a Causal chain which leads to an outcome or effect of interest It is more likely that a conflict over facts, or assumptions, will be resolved than one over values. It is extremely difficult to "prove" that a value is "right" or "correct". In some instances, a group will benefit from the use of a facilitator or process consultant to help identify the specific type of conflict. A facilitator is someone who helps a group of people understand their common objectives and assists them to plan to achieve them without taking a particular position in the discussion In Organization development, a process consultant is a Facilitator who helps a group deal with issues involving the process in a Meeting, rather Practitioners of nonviolence have developed many practices to solve social and political conflicts without resorting to violence or coercion. Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence.
Conflict can arise between several characters and there can be more than one in a story or plot line. The little plot lines usually enhance the main conflict.
- Approach-avoidance conflict is an example of intrapersonal conflict. Approach-Avoidance conflicts are choices between something Positive, say going out to a party that has a Negative valence (avoidance say getting grounded
- Class conflict forms an important topic in much Marxist thought. Class conflict, also class war or class warfare, is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
- Conflicts between governments and guerrilla groups or groups engaged in asymmetric warfare. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc Asymmetric warfare originally referred to War between two or more belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly
- Conflicts with a supposedly suppracial or ethnic basis. This would include such conflicts as the Bosnian-Croatian conflict (see Kosovo), the conflict in Rwanda. The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda 's minority Tutsis and the moderates of its Hutu majority
- An example of ideological conflict was the struggle over slavery between the Northern and Southern USA. The dispute would eventually lead to secession.
- The Arab-Israeli conflict forms a historic and ongoing conflict between Israel and Arab interests. This is a list of ongoing conflicts that are happening around the world which continue to result in violent deaths For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding See also Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
- The Catholic-Protestant conflict in Northern Ireland furnishes an example of another notable historic conflict. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of For information on the conflict, see the Troubles, Bloody Sunday (Northern Ireland 1972), the 1974 Dublin and Monaghan Bombings and the 1998 Omagh bombing. Bloody Sunday (Domhnach na Fola is the term used to describe an incident in Derry, Northern Ireland, on 30 January 1972 in which 26 This does not cite its references or sources. You can help Wikipedia by introducing appropriate citations The Omagh bombing was a Paramilitary Car bomb attack carried out by the Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA a splinter group of former Provisional Irish
- The Vietnam Conflict is commonly regarded as a war. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units
Causes of Conflict
Structural Factors (How the conflict is set up)
- Authority Relationships (The boss and employees beneath him/her)
- Common Resources (Sharing the same secretary)
- Goal Differences (One person wants production to rise and others want communication to rise)
- Interdependence (A company as a whole can't operate w/o other departments)
- Jurisdictional Ambiguities (Who can discipline whom)
- Specialization (The experts in fields)
- Status Inconsistencies
The assertion that "conflict is emotionally defined and driven," and "does not exist in the absence of emotion" is challenged by Economics, e. Not to be confused with Interconnectivity or Interconnectedness. A conflict management style is the Pattern of behaviour an Individual develops in response to Conflict with others such as differences of opinion An emotion is a mental and physiological state associated with a wide variety of feelings thoughts and behaviours In Psychology and the Cognitive sciences perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory Information. Personality psychology studies personality based on theories of individual differences A skill is the learned capacity or talent to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of time energy or both. A personal and cultural value is a Relative ethic value, an assumption upon which implementation can be extrapolated Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. g. "the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. " In this context, scarcity means that available resources are insufficient to satisfy all wants and needs. The subject of conflict as a purely rational, strategic decision is specifically addressed by Game Theory, a branch of Economics. Game theory is a branch of Applied mathematics that is used in the Social sciences (most notably Economics) Biology, Engineering,
Where applicable, there are many components to the emotions that are intertwined with conflict. There is a behavioral, physiological, cognitive component.
- Behavioral- The way emotional experience gets expressed which can be verbal or non-verbal and intentional or un-intentional. Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or Reactions of an object or Organism, usually
- Physiological- The bodily experience of emotion. Physiology (from Greek grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the mechanical physical The way emotions make us feel in comparison to our identity.
- Cognitive- The idea that we “assess or appraise” an event to reveal its relevancy to ourselves. Cognition is a concept used in different ways by different disciplines but is generally accepted to mean the process of awareness or thought
These three components collectively advise that “the meanings of emotional experience and expression are determined by cultural values, beliefs, and practices. ”
- Cultural values- culture tells people who are a part of it, “Which emotions ought to be expressed in particular situations” and “what emotions are to be felt. ”
- Physical- This escalation results from “anger or frustration. ”
- Verbal- This escalation results from “negative perceptions of the annoyer’s character. ”
There are several principles of conflict and emotion.
- Conflict is emotionally defined-conflict involves emotion because something “triggers” it. The conflict is with the parties involved and how they decide to resolve it — “events that trigger conflict are events that elicit emotion. ”
- Conflict is emotionally valence — emotion levels during conflict can be intense or less intense. The “intensity” levels “may be indicative of the importance and meaning of the conflict issues for each” party.
- Conflict Invokes a moral stance — when an event occurs it can be interpreted as moral or immoral. The judging of this morality “influences one’s orientation to the conflict, relationship to the parties involved, and the conflict issues”.
- Conflict is identity based — Emotions and Identity are a part of conflict. When a person knows their values, beliefs, and morals they are able to determine whether the conflict is personal, relevant, and moral. “Identity related conflicts are potentially more destructive. ”
- Conflict is relational — “conflict is relational in the sense that emotional communication conveys relational definitions that impact conflict. ” “Key relational elements are power and social status. ”
Emotions are acceptable in the workplace as long as they can be controlled and utilized for productive organizational outcomes.
Ways of addressing conflict
- Accommodation – surrender one's own needs and wishes to accommodate the other party.
Five basic ways of addressing conflict were identified by Thomas and Kilman in 1976:
- Avoidance – avoid or postpone conflict by ignoring it, changing the subject, etc. Avoidance is a controversial method of dealing with Conflict which attempts to avoid directly confronting the issue at hand Avoidance can be useful as a temporary measure to buy time or as an expedient means of dealing with very minor, non-recurring conflicts. In more severe cases, conflict avoidance can involve severing a relationship or leaving a group. 
- Collaboration – work together to find a mutually beneficial solution. Collaboration is a recursive process where two or more people or organizations work together toward an intersection of common goals — for example an intellectual While the Thomas Kilman grid views collaboration as the only win-win solution to conflict, collaboration can also be time-intensive and inappropriate when there is not enough trust, respect or communication among participants for collaboration to occur.
- Compromise – find a middle ground in which each party is partially satisfied. In Arguments compromise is a concept of finding Agreement through Communication, through a mutual Acceptance of terms—often involving variations
- Competition – assert one's viewpoint at the potential expense of another. Competition is a rivalry between individuals groups nations or animals for territory or resources It can be useful when achieving one's objectives outweighs one's concern for the relationship. 
The Thomas Kilman Instrument can be used to assess one's dominant style for addressing conflict. 
Many NGOs and independent groups attempt to monitor the situation of ongoing conflicts. This is a list of ongoing conflicts that are happening around the world which continue to result in violent deaths Unfortunately, the definitions of war, conflict, armed struggle, revolution and all these words which describe violent opposition between States or armed organised groups, are not precise enough to distinguish one from another. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turnaround" is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively For example, the word terrorism is used indifferently by many governments to delegitimate every kind of armed revolt and, at the same time, by many rebel groups to delegitimate the armed repression of sovereign governments. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion
- Amsterdam Center for Conflict Studies (ACS) - Institute for the interdisciplinary study of conflict and conflict resolution
- Complex Emergencies Database (CE-DAT) - A database on the human impact of conflicts and other complex emergencies. Competition is a rivalry between individuals groups nations or animals for territory or resources Conflict management refers to the long-term management of intractable Conflicts It is the label for the variety of ways by which people handle grievances — standing up for Conflict Middle East Political Simulator, often known as ConfMEPS or simply Conflict, is a turn-based Government simulation game. In Air traffic control, separation is the name for the concept of keeping an Aircraft in a minimum distance from another aircraft to reduce the risk of those aircraft A conflict style inventory is a written tool for gaining insight into how people respond to conflict Copenhagen Consensus is a project that seeks to establish priorities for advancing global welfare using methodologies based on the theory of Welfare economics. A controversy or dispute is a commencement of a conflict between statements of accepted fact and a new or unaccepted proposal that disagrees with argues against Game theory is a branch of Applied mathematics that is used in the Social sciences (most notably Economics) Biology, Engineering, For Wikipedia's negotiation policy see WikipediaNegotiation. For other uses see Negotiation (disambiguation.
- Conflict! Radio for Resolution - Examples of actual examples of nonadversarial approaches to addressing conflict
- Debate Conflicts - Open Democracy Conflicts Debate. "Even when guns are silent, the ideas behind them threaten. Warfare and conflict resolution urgently need to be explained, their causes clarified, and creative solutions explored".
- Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research (HIIK): Conflict Barometer from 1992 on – PDF downloads
- How to be a Good Enemy (article) How to manage conflicts in a positive way. The Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research (HIIK at the Department of Political Science at the University of Heidelberg is a private organization dedicated
- Insight on Conflict- Database of local peacebuilding projects
- Party-Directed Mediation (mediation of interpersonal conflict) - Download 'Helping Others Resolve Differences: Empowering Stakeholders. '
- What is Distinctive about Church Conflict? - an article looking at conflict within Christian churches. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth
Amsterdam Center for Conflict Studies (ACS)© 2009 citizendia.org; parts available under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License, from http://en.wikipedia.org
network: | |