The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a three part musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an Orchestra An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well The concerto, as understood in this modern way, arose in the Baroque period side by side with the concerto grosso, which contrasted a small group of instruments with the rest of the orchestra. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc The concerto grosso ( Italian for big concert(o, Plural concerti grossi) is a form of Baroque music in which the musical material While the concerto grosso is confined to the Baroque period, the solo concerto has continued as a vital musical force to this day. This article will concentrate on the development of the solo concerto.
The etymology of the word "concerto" is somewhat problematic, as the Italian ‘concertare’ can mean ‘to contend, dispute’ but it also has the contrary meaning of ‘to agree’. The idea of two opposing forces is inherent in the use of the term.
In the late 16th century there is often no clear distinction made between a concerto and a sinfonia. Sinfonia is the Italian (Spanish and also Portuguese word for Symphony (see that article for etymology Both of these terms were even used throughout the 17th century, in Italy, to describe vocal music with instrumental accompaniment; Giovanni Gabrieli published motets using either of these terms indiscriminately. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest In Music, accompaniment is the art of playing along with a soloist or ensemble, often known as the Lead, in a Supporting manner Giovanni Gabrieli (c 1554/1557 &ndash August 12 1612 was an Italian Composer and organist. In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions Viadana’s Cento concerti ecclesiastici (1602) are examples of the early concerto for limited forces: he uses one to four voices with continuo, composed in such a way that the works can still be performed if one or more of the voices is absent. Lodovico Grossi da Viadana (usually Lodovico Viadana, though his family name was Grossi c
From about 1675 composers started to write works for divided orchestra, the standard term for which is concerto grosso. The concerto grosso ( Italian for big concert(o, Plural concerti grossi) is a form of Baroque music in which the musical material The smaller division, which was effectively a group of soloists, was referred to in these works as the concertino and the accompanying instruments were called the ripieno, while tutti was used to indicate the two groups playing simultaneously. The earliest examples of these works can be found in the group of serenatas entitled "Quel prodigo e ch'io miri" by allessandro Stradella. In the concerti grossi of Arcangelo Corelli and Giuseppe Torelli, the violin in the concertino is sometimes given extended solo passages. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Arcangelo Corelli (February 17 1653 &ndash January 8 1713 was a French Violinist Giuseppe Torelli (April 22 1658–February 8 1709 was an Italian Violist and Violinist, Pedagogue and Composer, who ranks with Arcangelo The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member These are the beginnings of the solo concerto. In Torelli's Concerti Grossi, op. 8, six of the twelve concertos are true solo concertos and all exhibit, to greater or lesser extent, the characteristics that would make up the "Venetian design" : 3 movements (fast-slow-fast), virtuosic writing and ritornello form. A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning skill manliness excellence is an individual In Baroque music, ritornello was the word for a recurring passage for Orchestra in the first or final movement of a Solo concerto or Aria
The most influential composer in the history of the Baroque concerto was Vivaldi, who was the first to develop the formal and stylistic potentialities of the Torellian model. He wrote 50 ripeno concertos, 350 solo concertos and a relatively small number of concerti grossi. His 12 Concerti, Op. 3 "L'estro armonico" are also arguably the most influential pieces of the first half of the Eighteenth Century. some of his concerti are programmatic, notably The Four Seasons. Programme music is a form of Art music intended to evoke extra-musical ideas images in the mind of the listener by musically representing a scene image or mood some of the concerti use wind, as Vivaldi had access to wind players at the Ospedale della Pietà
By Johann Sebastian Bach's time the concerto as a polyphonic instrumental form was thoroughly established. The Ospedale della Pietà is a convent orphanage and music school in Venice. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise" In Music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more independent Melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice ( Monophony The term frequently appears in the autograph title-pages of his church cantatas, even when the cantata contains no instrumental prelude. A cantata (derived from the Italian word 'cantare' meaning 'to sing' is a vocal composition with an instrumental Accompaniment and often A prelude is a short piece of Music, which its form will vary from piece to piece He also wrote an Italian Concerto for solo harpsichord, which reduces the ideaa of ritornello form and concerto style onto a single instrument. His set of six "Brandenburg concertos" consist of three ripieno concertos (1,3,6) and three concerti grossi (2,4,5). The fourth has a very prominent violin part while the other two soloists (recorders) are reduced to a much smaller role. The fifth is in effect a solo harpsichord concerto. A harpsichord concerto is a piece of music for an Orchestra with the Harpsichord in a solo role (though for another sense see below The origins of the keyboard concerto are to be found in such concertos by Bach. He also wrote about six solo concertos for violin, only two of which are extant, and a concerto for two violins and orchestra. Bach’s concertos are modeled on those of Vivaldi, but they expand the form, giving a coherent motivic unity to the contrapuntal textures of each movement. In Music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and Rhythm, and interdependent in Harmony
The concertos of Bach’s sons are perhaps the best links between those of the Baroque period and those of Mozart. C.P.E. Bach’s keyboard concertos contain some brilliant soloistic writing. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach ( March 8, 1714 &ndash December 14, 1788) was a German musician and composer the second of five sons Some of them have movements that run into one another without a break, and there are frequent cross-movement thematic references. Mozart, as a boy, made arrangements for harpsichord and orchestra of three sonata movements by Johann Christian Bach. Johann Christian Bach ( September 5, 1735 &ndash January 1, 1782) was a Composer of the Classical era the eleventh and By the time he was twenty, he was able to write concerto ritornelli that gave the orchestra admirable opportunity for asserting its character in an exposition with some five or six sharply contrasted themes, before the soloist enters to elaborate on the material. He wrote one concerto each for flute, oboe (later rearranged for flute and known as Flute Concerto No. The Concerto for Flute Concerto No 1 in G Major ( K. 313 was written in 1778 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 's Oboe Concerto in C major, K 314 was originally composed in Spring or Summer 1777 for Oboist Giuseppe Ferlendis (1755-1802 2), clarinet, and bassoon, four for horn, a Concerto for Flute, Harp and Orchestra, and a Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra. Mozart 's Clarinet concerto in A major, K 622 was written in 1791 for the clarinetist Anton Stadler. The Bassoon Concerto in B flat major (K191 written in 1774 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, is the most standard piece in the entire Bassoon repertory The Concerto for Harp Flute and Orchestra in C major (K 299 was written in April 1778 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart during his sojourn to Paris The Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra in E-flat major, K. They all exploit the characteristics of the solo instrument brilliantly. His five violin concertos, written in quick succession, show a number of influences, notably Italian and Austrian. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Several passages have leanings towards folk music, as manifested in Austrian serenades. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous This article is about the musical form See Serenade (disambiguation for other meanings However, it was in his twenty-three original piano concertos that he excelled himself. It is conventional to state that the first movements of concertos from the Classical period onwards follow the structure of sonata form. Sonata form is a Musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. Mozart, however, treats sonata form in his concerto movements with so much freedom that any broad classification becomes impossible. For example, some of the themes heard in the exposition may not be heard again in subsequent sections. The piano, at its entry, may introduce entirely new material. There may even be new material in the so-called recapitulation section, which in effect becomes a free fantasia. The fantasia (also fantasy fancy Fantasie fantaisie is a musical composition with its roots in the art of Improvisation. Towards the end of the first movement, and sometimes in other movements too, there is a traditional place for an improvised cadenza. In Music, a cadenza (Italian for cadence) is generically an improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist or soloists usually The slow movements may be based on sonata form or abridged sonata form, but some of them are romances. The finale is sometimes a rondo, or even a theme with variations. Rondo, and its French equivalent rondeau, is a word that has been used in Music in a number of ways most often in reference to a Musical form Variation form Variation form include Ground bass, Passacaglia, Chaconne, and theme and variations
In the 19th century the concerto as a vehicle for virtuosic display flourished as never before. Piano concertos Origins Early keyboard concertos were written by among others C A violin concerto is a Concerto for solo Violin (occasionally two or more violins and instrumental ensemble customarily Orchestra. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning skill manliness excellence is an individual It was the age in which the artist was seen as hero, to be worshipped and adulated with rapture. Early Romantic traits can be found in the violin concertos of Viotti, but it is Spohr’s twelve violin concertos, written between 1802 and 1827, that truly embrace the Romantic spirit with their melodic as well as their dramatic qualities. Giovanni Battista, was a common Italian given name (see Battista for those with the surname in the 16th-18th centuries which in English means " John the Baptist Louis Spohr ( April 5, 1784 &ndash October 22, 1859) was a German Composer, Violinist and conductor. Year 1802 ( MDCCCII) was a Common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Year 1827 ( MDCCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Beethoven’s Violin Concerto is unique in its scale and melodic qualities. Recitative elements are often incorporated, showing the influence of Italian opera on purely instrumental forms. Recitative /rɛsɪtə'tiv/ (also known by its Italian name "recitativo" (/retʃita'tivo/ is a style of delivery (much used in Operas Oratorios Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Mendelssohn opens his violin concerto (1844) with the singing qualities of the violin solo. Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3 1809 &ndash November 4 1847 was a German Composer Even later passage work is dramatic and recitative-like, rather than merely virtuosic. The wind instruments state the lyrical second subject over a low pedal G on the violin – certainly an innovation. The cadenza, placed at the start of the recapitulation, is fully written out and integrated into the structure.
The great violin virtuoso Niccolò Paganini was a legendary figure who, as a composer, exploited the technical potential of his instrument to its very limits. Niccolò Paganini ( October 27, 1782 &ndash Each one exploits rhapsodic ideas but is unique in its own form. The Belgian violinist Henri Vieuxtemps contributed several works to this form. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Henri François Joseph Vieuxtemps ( February 17, 1820 &ndash June 6, 1881) was a Belgian Composer and violinist Édouard Lalo’s Symphonie Espagnole (1875) displays virtuoso writing with a Spanish flavor. Édouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo ( 27 January 1823 &ndash 22 April 1892) was a French Composer of Spanish descent Max Bruch wrote three violin concertos, but it is the first, in G minor, that has remained a firm favorite in the repertoire. Max Christian Friedrich Bruch (January 6 1838 &ndash October 2 1920 also known as Max Karl August Bruch was a German Romantic Composer and conductor The opening movement relates so closely to the two remaining movements that it functions like an operatic prelude. Tchaikovsky’s violin concerto (1878) is a powerful work which succeeds in being lyrical as well as superbly virtuosic. In the same year Brahms wrote his violin concerto for the virtuoso Joseph Joachim. Johannes Brahms ( pronounced ˈbʁaːms (May 7 1833 &ndash April 3 1897 was a German Composer Joseph Joachim (June 28 1831 &ndash August 15 1907 (ˈjoʊɑːxɪːm was a Hungarian Violinist, conductor, Composer and teacher This work makes new demands on the player, so much so that when it was first written it was referred to as a "concerto against the violin". The first movement brings the concerto into the realm of symphonic development. The second movement is traditionally lyrical, and the finale is based on a lively Hungarian theme. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic
Following on from the Classical examples of Joseph Haydn and Luigi Boccherini, the concertos of Robert Schumann, Carl Reinecke, David Popper, and Julius Klengel focus on the lyrical qualities of the instrument. A cello concerto (sometimes called a violoncello concerto) is a Concerto for solo Cello with Orchestra or very occasionally smaller groups Luigi Rodolfo Boccherini ( February 19, 1743 &ndash May 28, 1805) was a classical era Composer and cellist Robert Schumann, sometimes given as Robert Alexander Schumann (June 8 1810 &ndash July 29 1856 was a German Composer, Aesthete and influential Music critic WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Carl Heinrich Carsten Reinecke ( June 23, 1824 &ndash David Popper ( June 16, 1843 &ndash August 7, 1913) was a Bohemian cellist and Composer. Julius Klengel ( September 24 1859 &ndash October 27 1933) was a German cellist who is most famous for his Etudes Antonín Dvořák’s cello concerto ranks among the supreme examples from the Romantic era. Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( (often pronounced in English as; DVOR-zhahk; September 8 1841 – May 1 1904 was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed Beethoven contributed to the repertoire with a Triple Concerto for piano, violin, cello and orchestra while later in the century, Brahms wrote a Double Concerto for violin, cello and orchestra. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Johannes Brahms ( pronounced ˈbʁaːms (May 7 1833 &ndash April 3 1897 was a German Composer The instrument was also popular with composers of the Franco-Belgian tradition: Saint-Saëns and Vieuxtemps wrote two cello concertos each and Lalo one. Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (/ʃaʁl kamij sɛ̃sɑ̃s/ (9 October 1835 &ndash 16 December 1921 was a French Composer, Organist, conductor, and Henri François Joseph Vieuxtemps ( February 17, 1820 &ndash June 6, 1881) was a Belgian Composer and violinist Édouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo ( 27 January 1823 &ndash 22 April 1892) was a French Composer of Spanish descent Tchaikovsky’s contribution to the genre is a series of Variations on a Rococo Theme. The Variations on a Rococo theme for Violoncello and Orchestra was the closest Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky ever came to writing a full Concerto He also left very fragmentary sketches of a projected Cello Concerto which was only completed in 2006. The Cello Concerto of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is a conjectural work based in part on a 60-bar fragment found on the back of the rough draft for the last movement of the composer's
Beethoven’s five piano concertos increase the technical demands made on the soloist. A piano concerto is a work written for Piano and Orchestra.See also Harpsichord concerto; some of these works are occasionally played on piano The last two are particularly remarkable, integrating the concerto into a large symphonic structure with movements that frequently run into one another. His Piano Concerto no 4 starts, against tradition, with a statement by the piano, after which the orchestra magically enters in a foreign key, to present what would normally have been the opening tutti. The work has an essentially lyrical character. The slow movement is a dramatic dialogue between the soloist and the orchestra. Concerto no 5 has the basic rhythm of a Viennese military march. There is no lyrical second subject, but in its place a continuous development of the opening material. He also wrote a Triple Concerto for piano, violin, cello, and orchestra.
The piano concertos of Mendelssohn, Field, and Hummel provide a link from the Classical concerto to the Romantic concerto. Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3 1809 &ndash November 4 1847 was a German Composer John Field (26 July 1782 &ndash 23 January 1837 was an Irish Composer and Pianist. Johann Nepomuk Hummel or Jan Nepomuk Hummel (14 November 1778 &ndash 17 October 1837 was a Composer and virtuoso Pianist of Austrian Chopin wrote two piano concertos in which the orchestra is very much relegated to an accompanying role. Schumann, despite being a pianist-composer, wrote a piano concerto in which virtuosity is never allowed to eclipse the essential lyrical quality of the work. Robert Schumann, sometimes given as Robert Alexander Schumann (June 8 1810 &ndash July 29 1856 was a German Composer, Aesthete and influential Music critic The gentle, expressive melody heard at the beginning on woodwind and horns (after the piano’s heralding introductory chords) bears the material for most of the argument in the first movement. In fact, argument in the traditional developmental sense is replaced by a kind of variation technique in which soloist and orchestra interweave their ideas.
Liszt's mastery of piano technique matched that of Paganini for the violin. His two concertos left a deep impression on the style of piano concerto writing, influencing Rubinstein, and especially Tchaikovsky, whose first piano concerto's rich chordal opening is justly famous. Famous people named Rubinstein include Anton Rubinstein, a Russian Pianist, Composer and conductor, not related to Grieg’s concerto likewise begins in a striking manner after which it continues in a lyrical vein.
Brahms's First Piano Concerto in D minor (pub 1861) was the result of an immense amount of work on a mass of material originally intended for a symphony. Johannes Brahms ( pronounced ˈbʁaːms (May 7 1833 &ndash April 3 1897 was a German Composer His Second Piano Concerto in Bb major (1881) has four movements and is written on a larger scale than any earlier concerto. Like his violin concerto, it is symphonic in proportions.
Fewer piano concertos were written in the late Romantic Period. But Grieg-inspired Sergei Rachmaninoff wrote 4 piano concertos between 1891 and 1926. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Сергей Васильевич Рахманинов His 2nd and 3rd, being the most popular of the 4, went on to become among the most famous in piano repertoire and shining examples of Russian musicianship. Piano Concerto No 2, Op. 18 is a work in C minor for Piano accompanied by Orchestra, composed by Sergei Rachmaninoff between the The Piano Concerto No 3 in D minor Op 30 by Sergei Rachmaninoff (colloquially known as the "Rach 3") is famous for its technical and musical demands
Besides the usual three-movement works with the title "concerto", many 19th-century composers wrote shorter pieces for solo instrument and orchestra, often bearing descriptive titles. Schumann called such pieces Concertstück and Phantasie. Liszt wrote the Totentanz for piano and orchestra, a paraphrase of the Dies Irae. Dies Irae (Day of Wrath is a famous thirteenth century Latin Hymn thought to be written by Thomas of Celano. Max Bruch wrote a popular Scottish Fantasy for violin and orchestra, César Franck wrote Les Djinns and Variations symphoniques, and Gabriel Fauré wrote a Ballade for piano and orchestra. César Franck (December 10 1822 – November 8 1890 a Composer, Organist and music teacher of Belgian and German origin who lived in France Gabriel Urbain Fauré ( 12 May 1845 &ndash 4 November 1924) was a French Composer, Organist, Pianist The ballade (bəˈlɑːd not to be confused with the Ballad) is a verse form typically consisting of three eight-line Stanzas each with a consistent
Many of the concertos written in the early 20th century belong more to the late Romantic school than to any modernistic movement. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Masterpieces were written by Edward Elgar (a violin concerto and a cello concerto), Sergei Rachmaninoff (four piano concertos), Jean Sibelius (a violin concerto), Frederick Delius (a violin concerto, a cello concerto, a piano concerto and a double concerto for violin and cello), Karol Szymanowski (two violin concertos and a "Symphonie Concertante" for piano), and Richard Strauss (two horn concertos, a violin concerto, Don Quixote - a tone poem which features the cello as a soloist - and among later works, an oboe concerto). WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Сергей Васильевич Рахманинов Frederick Albert Theodore Delius CH (29 January 1862 &ndash 10 June 1934 was an English Composer born in Bradford in the West Riding of Yorkshire Karol Maciej Szymanowski (3 October 1882 in Tymoszówka (present-day Ukraine) – 28 March 1937 was a Polish Composer and Pianist Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 &ndash 8 September 1949 was a German Composer of the late Romantic era and early modern era particularly noted
However, in the first decades of the 20th century, several composers such as Debussy, Schoenberg, Berg, Stravinsky and Bartók started experimenting with ideas that were to have far-reaching consequences for the way music is written and, in some cases, performed. Achille-Claude Debussy (aʃil klod dəbysi (August 22 1862 &ndash March 25 1918 was a French Composer. Arnold Schoenberg ( pronounced ˈʃøːnbɛrk (13 September 1874 &ndash 13 July 1951 was an Austrian and later American Composer, associated with Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9 1885 &ndash December 24 1935 was an Austrian Composer. Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) ( &ndash 6 April 1971 was a Russian born Composer, considered by many to Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25 1881&ndashSeptember 26 1945 was a Hungarian Composer and Pianist, considered to be one of the greatest Some of these innovations include a more frequent use of modality, the exploration of non-western scales, the development of atonality, the wider acceptance of dissonances, the invention of the twelve-tone technique of composition and the use of polyrhythms and complex time signatures. In Music, a scale is a group of musical notes collected in ascending and descending order that provides material for or is used to conveniently represent part or all Atonality in its broadest sense describes Music that lacks a tonal center, or key. Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony, especially in British usage twelve-note composition) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold The time signature (also known as " meter signature" is a notational convention used in Western Musical notation to specify how many beats
These changes also affected the concerto as a musical form. Beside more or less radical effects on musical language, they led to a redefinition of the concept of virtuosity in order to include new and extended instrumental techniques as well as a focus on aspects of sound that had been neglected or even ignored before such as pitch, timbre and dynamics. In Music, timbre (ˈtæm-bər' like timber, or, from Fr timbre tɛ̃bʁ is the quality of a Musical note or sound that distinguishes different In Music, dynamics normally refers to the volume of a Sound or note, but can also refer to every aspect of the execution of a given piece either stylistic In some cases, they also brought about a new approach to the role of the soloist and its relation to the orchestra.
Two great innovators of early 20th-century music, Schoenberg and Stravinsky, both wrote violin concertos. Arnold Schoenberg ( pronounced ˈʃøːnbɛrk (13 September 1874 &ndash 13 July 1951 was an Austrian and later American Composer, associated with Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) ( &ndash 6 April 1971 was a Russian born Composer, considered by many to The material in Schoenberg’s concerto, like that in Berg’s, is linked by the twelve-tone serial method. Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9 1885 &ndash December 24 1935 was an Austrian Composer. Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony, especially in British usage twelve-note composition) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Bartók, another major 20th century composer, wrote two important concertos for violin. Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25 1881&ndashSeptember 26 1945 was a Hungarian Composer and Pianist, considered to be one of the greatest Russian composers Prokofiev and Shostakovich both wrote two concertos while Khachaturian wrote a concerto and a Concerto-Rhapsody for the instrument. Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Серге́й Серге́евич Проко́фьев Sergéj Sergéjevič Prokófjev) ( - 5 March 1953 was a Russian composer who Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich ( Russian: ru Дмитрий Дмитриевич Шостакович ( &ndash 9 August 1975 was a Russian Composer Aram Khachaturian ( Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան Aram Xačatryan; Russian: Аpaм Ильич Xaчaтypян Aram Il'ič Hačaturjan Paul Hindemith’s concertos hark back to the forms of the 19th century, even if the harmonic language which he used was different. Paul Hindemith (16 November 1895 &ndash 28 December 1963 was a German Composer, Violist, violinist teacher music theorist and conductor.
Three violin concertos from David Diamond show the form in neoclassical style. David Leo Diamond ( July 9 1915 &ndash June 13 2005) was an American Composer of classical music.
More recently, Dutilleux's L'Arbre des Songes has proved an important addition to the repertoire and a fine example of the composer's atonal yet melodic style. Henri Dutilleux (born January 22, 1916 in Angers France) is one of the most important French composers of the second half of the 20th century producing
Other composers of major violin concertos include Sibelius, Vaughan Williams, Walton, Britten, Frank Martin, Carl Nielsen and Ligeti. Ralph (reɪf Vaughan Williams OM (12 October 1872 &ndash 26 August 1958 was an English Composer of symphonies, Chamber music Sir William Turner Walton, OM ( March 29, 1902 &ndash March 8, 1983) was a British Composer and Edward Benjamin Britten Baron Britten, OM CH (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976 was an English Composer, conductor, Frank Martin ( September 15, 1890 &ndash November 21, 1974) was a Swiss Composer, who lived Carl August Nielsen (9 June 1865 &ndash 3 October 1931 was a conductor, Violinist, and Composer from Denmark.
In the 20th century, particularly after the Second World War, the cello enjoyed an unprecedented popularity. As a result, its concertante repertoire caught up with those of the piano and the violin both in terms of quantity and quality.
An important factor in this phenomenon was the rise of virtuoso cellist Mstislav Rostropovich. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich KBE ( Russian: Мстисла́в His outstanding technique and passionate playing prompted dozens of composers to write pieces for him, first in his native Soviet Union and then abroad. His creations include such masterpieces as Sergei Prokofiev's Symphony-Concerto, Dmitri Shostakovich's two cello concertos, Benjamin Britten's Cello-Symphony (which emphasizes, as its title suggests, the equal importance of soloist and orchestra), Henri Dutilleux' Tout un monde lointain, Witold Lutosławski's cello concerto, Dmitri Kabalevsky's two cello concertos, Aram Khatchaturian's Concerto-Rhapsody, Arvo Pärt's Pro et Contra, Alfred Schnittke and Krzysztof Penderecki second cello concertos, Sofia Gubaidulina's Canticles of the Sun, James MacMillan's cello concerto and Olivier Messiaen's Concert à Quatre (a concerto for cello, piano, oboe, flute and orchestra which was almost finished at the time of his death and completed by Yvonne Loriod and George Benjamin). Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Серге́й Серге́евич Проко́фьев Sergéj Sergéjevič Prokófjev) ( - 5 March 1953 was a Russian composer who Sergei Prokofiev 's Symphony-Concerto in E minor (sometimes also called Sinfonia Concertante) is a large-scale work for Cello and Orchestra. Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich ( Russian: ru Дмитрий Дмитриевич Шостакович ( &ndash 9 August 1975 was a Russian Composer Edward Benjamin Britten Baron Britten, OM CH (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976 was an English Composer, conductor, The Symphony for Cello and Orchestra or Cello Symphony Op 68 was written in 1963 by the British composer Benjamin Britten. Henri Dutilleux (born January 22, 1916 in Angers France) is one of the most important French composers of the second half of the 20th century producing Witold Lutosławski ( January 25 1913 &ndash February 7 1994 was one of the major European Composers Dmitri Borisovich Kabalevsky (Дми́трий Бори́сович Кабале́вский (December 30 1904 &ndash February 18 1987 was a Russian Soviet Aram Khachaturian ( Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան Aram Xačatryan; Russian: Аpaм Ильич Xaчaтypян Aram Il'ič Hačaturjan WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Arvo Pärt (born 11 September 1935 in Paide, Estonia) (ˈɑr̺vɔ Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке November 24, 1934 Engels - August 3, 1998 Hamburg Krzysztof Penderecki (ˈkʂɨʂtɔf pɛndɛrˈɛ͡tski born November 23 1933 in Dębica) is a Polish Composer and conductor of classical WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Sofia Asgatovna Gubaidulina, (София Асгатовна Губайдулина София Olivier Messiaen ( December 10 1908 &ndash April 27 1992 was a French Composer, organist and ornithologist. Yvonne Loriod (born 20 January 1924, Houilles, Paris, France) is a French Pianist, and the widow of composer George Benjamin (born 31 January 1960 London, England is a British Composer of classical music.
In addition, it must be noted that several composers who were not directly influenced by Rostropovich wrote important cello concertos: Paul Hindemith, Arthur Honegger, Samuel Barber, Joaquín Rodrigo, Nikolai Myaskovsky, Erich Wolfgang Korngold, William Walton, Heitor Villa-Lobos, György Ligeti, William Perry and Einojuhani Rautavaara for instance. Paul Hindemith (16 November 1895 &ndash 28 December 1963 was a German Composer, Violist, violinist teacher music theorist and conductor. Arthur Honegger (March 10 1892 &ndash November 27 1955 was a Swiss Composer, who was born in France and lived a large part of his life in Paris. Samuel Osborne Barber II ( March 9, 1910 – January 23, 1981) was an American Composer of Orchestral, Opera, Joaquín Rodrigo Vidre ( 22 November 1901 &ndash 6 July 1999) was a composer of classical music Nikolai Yakovlevich Myaskovsky ( ru: Николай Яковлевич Мясковский also transliterated as Miaskovskii or Miaskovsky ( April 20, 1881 Erich Wolfgang Korngold ( May 29, 1897 &ndash November 29, 1957) was an Academy Award -winning 20th century Film and Sir William Turner Walton, OM ( March 29, 1902 &ndash March 8, 1983) was a British Composer and Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5 1887 &ndash November 17 1959 was a Brazilian Composer, possibly the best-known classical composer born in South America William James Perry (born October 11, 1927) is an American businessman and engineer who was the United States Secretary of Defense from Einojuhani Rautavaara ( (born October 9, 1928) is a Finnish Composer of Contemporary classical music, and is probably the best-known This shows that the cello had become a major concertante instrument like the violin and the piano.
Ravel's Piano Concerto in G and Concerto for the Left Hand are among the best examples of the form in the early 20th century.
Schoenberg’s Piano Concerto (1942) is unified into a single movement. Schoenberg (beautiful mountain is the surname of several persons Arnold Schoenberg 's Piano Concerto, Op 42 (1942 consists of one movement with four sections Andante Molto allegro Adagio and Giocoso
Stravinsky wrote three works for solo piano and orchestra: Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments, Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra, and Movements for Piano and Orchestra. Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский) ( &ndash 6 April 1971 was a Russian born Composer, considered by many to The Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments was written by Igor Stravinsky in Paris in 1923-1924 The Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra ( Capriccio pour piano et orchestre) was written by Igor Stravinsky in Nice between 1926 and 1929 Prokofiev, another Russian composer, wrote no less than five piano concertos which he himself performed. Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Серге́й Серге́евич Проко́фьев Sergéj Sergéjevič Prokófjev) ( - 5 March 1953 was a Russian composer who Shostakovich composed two. Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich ( Russian: ru Дмитрий Дмитриевич Шостакович ( &ndash 9 August 1975 was a Russian Composer Both are superb works, amongst the finest that he wrote (the same can be said of his other four concertos - see above). Fellow soviet composer Khatchaturian contributed to the repertoire with a piano concerto and a Concerto-Rhapsody. Aram Khachaturian ( Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան Aram Xačatryan; Russian: Аpaм Ильич Xaчaтypян Aram Il'ič Hačaturjan Aram Khachaturian wrote his Piano Concerto in 1936 The piece is in three movements and is in D-flat major.
Bartók also wrote three piano concertos. Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25 1881&ndashSeptember 26 1945 was a Hungarian Composer and Pianist, considered to be one of the greatest Like their violin counterparts, they show the various stages in his musical development.
Ralph Vaughan Williams wrote concertos for piano and for two pianos while Britten's concerto for piano (1938) is a fine work from his early period. Ralph (reɪf Vaughan Williams OM (12 October 1872 &ndash 26 August 1958 was an English Composer of symphonies, Chamber music Edward Benjamin Britten Baron Britten, OM CH (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976 was an English Composer, conductor,
Ligeti's concerto is a good example of a more recent piece (1985) that uses complex rhythms.
The 20th century also witnessed a growth of the concertante repertoire of instruments which had seldom or never been used in this capacity. As a result, almost all the instruments of the classical orchestra now have a concertante repertoire. Examples include:
Amongst the works of the prolific composer Alan Hovhaness may be noted Prayer of St. Alan Hovhaness (Ալան Հովհանես ( March 8, 1911 &ndash June 21, 2000) was an American Composer of Armenian Gregory for trumpet and strings.
Today the concerto tradition has been continued by composers such as Maxwell Davies, whose series of Strathclyde Concertos exploit some of the instruments less familiar as soloists. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, CBE (b 8 September 1934 is an English Composer and conductor. The Strathclyde Concertos are a series of ten Orchestral works by the English Composer Sir Peter Maxwell Davies.
Many composers also wrote concertos for two or more soloists, for example Vivaldi (for 2, 3 or 4 violins, for 2 cellos, for 2 mandolins, for 2 trumpets, for 2 flutes, for oboe and bassoon, for cello and bassoon. . . etc. ) and Bach (for 2 violins, for 2, 3, or 4 harpsichords). WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise" Following the tradition of Mozart who wrote concerti for both two pianos and three pianos, Poulenc wrote a concerto for two pianos. See also, Rhône-Poulenc Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (fʀɑ̃sis ʒɑ̃ maʀsɛl pulɛ̃k January 7, 1899 – January 30, Mozart also wrote a concerto for flute and harp. In the Romantic era, Beethoven wrote a triple concerto for piano, violin, and cello, Brahms a double concerto for violin and cello and Bruch a double concerto for viola and clarinet. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Johannes Brahms ( pronounced ˈbʁaːms (May 7 1833 &ndash April 3 1897 was a German Composer Max Christian Friedrich Bruch (January 6 1838 &ndash October 2 1920 also known as Max Karl August Bruch was a German Romantic Composer and conductor Notable examples in the 20th century include Ligeti's Concerto for flute and oboe, Lutoslawski's Concerto for oboe and harp and Messiaen's Concert à Quatre for piano, cello, oboe and flute. Witold Lutosławski ( January 25 1913 &ndash February 7 1994 was one of the major European Composers Olivier Messiaen ( December 10 1908 &ndash April 27 1992 was a French Composer, organist and ornithologist. Benjamin Britten wrote a double concerto for violin and viola and Michael Tippett a triple concerto for violin, viola, and cello. Edward Benjamin Britten Baron Britten, OM CH (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976 was an English Composer, conductor, Sir Michael Kemp Tippett, OM (2 January 1905 &ndash 8 January 1998 was one of the foremost English Composers of the 20th century